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Squamous cell carcinoma

MedGen UID:
2874
Concept ID:
C0007137
Neoplastic Process
Synonym: Epidermoid carcinoma
SNOMED CT: Squamous cell carcinoma (402815007); Squamous carcinoma (1162767002); SCC - squamous cell carcinoma (1162767002); Squamous cell carcinoma (1162767002); Epidermoid carcinoma (1162767002); Squamous cell epithelioma (1162767002)
 
HPO: HP:0002860
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005096

Definition

The presence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSquamous cell carcinoma

Conditions with this feature

Bloom syndrome
MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
Bloom syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, immune abnormalities, sensitivity to sunlight, insulin resistance, and a high risk for many cancers that occur at an early age. Despite their very small head circumference, most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability. Women may be fertile but often have early menopause, and men tend to be infertile, with only one confirmed case of paternity. Serious medical complications that are more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus as a result of insulin resistance, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites.
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
MedGen UID:
36311
Concept ID:
C0079474
Disease or Syndrome
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a genetic skin disorder affecting skin and nails that usually presents at birth. DEB is divided into two major types depending on inheritance pattern: recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) and dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB). Each type is further divided into multiple clinical subtypes. Absence of a known family history of DEB does not preclude the diagnosis. Clinical findings in severe generalized RDEB include skin fragility manifest by blistering with minimal trauma that heals with milia and scarring. Blistering and erosions affecting the whole body may be present in the neonatal period. Oral involvement may lead to mouth blistering, fusion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, and progressive diminution of the size of the oral cavity. Esophageal erosions can lead to webs and strictures that can cause severe dysphagia. Consequently, malnutrition and vitamin and mineral deficiency may lead to growth restriction in young children. Corneal erosions can lead to scarring and loss of vision. Blistering of the hands and feet followed by scarring fuses the digits into "mitten" hands and feet, with contractures and pseudosyndactyly. The lifetime risk of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma is higher than 90%. In contrast, the blistering in the less severe forms of RDEB may be localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without involvement of flexural areas and the trunk, and without the mutilating scarring seen in severe generalized RDEB. In DDEB, blistering is often mild and limited to hands, feet, knees, and elbows, but nonetheless heals with scarring. Dystrophic nails, especially toenails, are common and may be the only manifestation of DDEB.
Autosomal dominant keratitis-ichthyosis-hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
120536
Concept ID:
C0265336
Disease or Syndrome
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, photophobia and corneal vascularization, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, erythrokeratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. A subset of patients with KID may develop multiple cystic pilar tumors, which are prone to malignant transformation and metastasis (Nyquist et al., 2007). Vohwinkel syndrome (124500) is an allelic disorder involving congenital deafness with keratopachydermia and constrictions of fingers and toes. Another similar disorder caused by mutation in GJB2 is palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness (148350). Genetic Heterogeneity of Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of KID syndrome (KIDAR; 242150) is caused by mutation in the AP1B1 gene (600157) on chromosome 22q12.
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group F
MedGen UID:
120612
Concept ID:
C0268140
Congenital Abnormality
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Dyskeratosis congenita, X-linked
MedGen UID:
216941
Concept ID:
C1148551
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
MedGen UID:
257911
Concept ID:
C1168401
Neoplastic Process
Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that arises from particular cells called squamous cells. Squamous cells are found in the outer layer of skin and in the mucous membranes, which are the moist tissues that line body cavities such as the airways and intestines. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) develops in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and throat.\n\nHNSCC is classified by its location: it can occur in the mouth (oral cavity), the middle part of the throat near the mouth (oropharynx), the space behind the nose (nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses), the upper part of the throat near the nasal cavity (nasopharynx), the voicebox (larynx), or the lower part of the throat near the larynx (hypopharynx). Depending on the location, the cancer can cause abnormal patches or open sores (ulcers) in the mouth and throat, unusual bleeding or pain in the mouth, sinus congestion that does not clear, sore throat, earache, pain when swallowing or difficulty swallowing, a hoarse voice, difficulty breathing, or enlarged lymph nodes.\n\nHNSCC can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes or lungs. If it spreads, the cancer has a worse prognosis and can be fatal. About half of affected individuals survive more than five years after diagnosis.
Melanoma-pancreatic cancer syndrome
MedGen UID:
325450
Concept ID:
C1838547
Disease or Syndrome
Melanoma-pancreatic cancer syndrome is an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome in which mutation carriers have an increased risk of developing malignant melanoma and/or pancreatic cancer. Mutation carriers within families may develop either or both types of cancer (summary by Harinck et al., 2012). For background and phenotypic information on malignant melanoma and pancreatic cancer, see 155600 and 260350, respectively.
Xeroderma pigmentosum variant type
MedGen UID:
376352
Concept ID:
C1848410
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
SchC6pf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome
MedGen UID:
347366
Concept ID:
C1857069
Disease or Syndrome
Schopf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome (SSPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a constellation of multiple eyelid cysts, hypodontia, hypotrichosis, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and onychodystrophy (summary by Mallaiah and Dickinson, 2001).
Ichthyosis, hystrix-like, with hearing loss
MedGen UID:
355410
Concept ID:
C1865234
Disease or Syndrome
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness (HID) is a disorder characterized by dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) and hearing loss that is usually profound. Hystrix-like means resembling a porcupine; in this type of ichthyosis, the scales may be thick and spiky, giving the appearance of porcupine quills.\n\nNewborns with HID typically develop reddened skin. The skin abnormalities worsen over time, and the ichthyosis eventually covers most of the body, although the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are usually only mildly affected. Breaks in the skin may occur and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening infections. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which can also affect mucous membranes such as the inner lining of the mouth. People with HID may also have patchy hair loss caused by scarring on particular areas of skin.
Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive
MedGen UID:
355730
Concept ID:
C1866504
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy is also associated with recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, which can be life-threatening. People with trichothiodystrophy may have abnormal red blood cells, including red blood cells that are smaller than normal. They may also have elevated levels of a type of hemoglobin called A2, which is a protein found in red blood cells. Other features of trichothiodystrophy can include dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis); abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails; clouding of the lens in both eyes from birth (congenital cataracts); poor coordination; and skeletal abnormalities including degeneration of both hips at an early age.\n\nAbout half of all people with trichothiodystrophy have a photosensitive form of the disorder, which causes them to be extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, for reasons that are unclear, they do not develop other sun-related problems such as excessive freckling of the skin or an increased risk of skin cancer. Many people with trichothiodystrophy report that they do not sweat.\n\nIntellectual disability and delayed development are common in people with trichothiodystrophy, although most affected individuals are highly social with an outgoing and engaging personality. Some people with trichothiodystrophy have brain abnormalities that can be seen with imaging tests. A common neurological feature of this disorder is impaired myelin production (dysmyelination). Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.\n\nMothers of children with trichothiodystrophy may experience problems during pregnancy including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and a related condition called HELLP syndrome that can damage the liver. Babies with trichothiodystrophy are at increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and slow growth. Most children with trichothiodystrophy have short stature compared to others their age. \n\nThe signs and symptoms of trichothiodystrophy vary widely. Mild cases may involve only the hair. More severe cases also cause delayed development, significant intellectual disability, and recurrent infections; severely affected individuals may survive only into infancy or early childhood.\n\nIn people with trichothiodystrophy, tests show that the hair is lacking sulfur-containing proteins that normally gives hair its strength. A cross section of a cut hair shows alternating light and dark banding that has been described as a "tiger tail."\n\nTrichothiodystrophy, commonly called TTD, is a rare inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. The hallmark of this condition is hair that is sparse and easily broken. 
Acne inversa, familial, 2
MedGen UID:
462387
Concept ID:
C3151037
Disease or Syndrome
Acne inversa is a chronic inflammatory disease of the hair follicles whose characteristic features include draining sinuses, painful skin abscesses, and disfiguring scars. Manifestations typically appear after puberty. Familial acne inversa is genetically heterogeneous (summary by Wang et al., 2010). Some patients with PSENEN-associated acne inversa also exhibit reticulate hyperpigmentation consistent with Dowling-Degos disease (DDD; see 179850) (Zhou et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acne inversa, see 142690.
Fanconi anemia complementation group P
MedGen UID:
854020
Concept ID:
C3469542
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis-palmoplantar hyperkeratosis-laryngeal dyskeratosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
815206
Concept ID:
C3808876
Neoplastic Process
Multiple self-healing palmoplantar carcinoma (MSPC) is characterized by recurrent keratoacanthomas in palmoplantar skin as well as in conjunctival and corneal epithelia. In addition, patients experience a high susceptibility to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (summary by Zhong et al., 2016).
Combined immunodeficiency due to DOCK8 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648410
Concept ID:
C4722305
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-2 with recurrent infections (HIES2) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections of the skin and respiratory tract, eczema, elevated serum immunoglobulin E, and hypereosinophilia. It is distinguished from autosomal dominant HIES1 (147060) by the lack of connective tissue and skeletal involvement (Renner et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see 147060. See also TYK2 deficiency (611521), a clinically distinct disease entity that includes characteristic features of both autosomal recessive HIES2 and mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD; 209950) (Minegishi et al., 2006).
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, susceptibility to, 3
MedGen UID:
1648390
Concept ID:
C4748876
Finding
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis-3 (EV3) is characterized by onset in childhood or early adulthood of persistent disseminated flat warts and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions of the skin that are induced by cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) of the beta genus. Some patients develop nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly on areas of the body exposed to the sun. Patients are otherwise healthy and normally resistant to other microorganisms, including other viruses and skintropic pathogens, and even all other cutaneous and mucosal HPVs (de Jong et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to epidermodysplasia verruciformis, see EV1 (226400).
Cancer, alopecia, pigment dyscrasia, onychodystrophy, and keratoderma
MedGen UID:
1678330
Concept ID:
C5193062
Disease or Syndrome
CAPOK syndrome (CAPOK) is characterized by onset of symptoms in the first year of life, with the development of progressive alopecia, hypo- and hyperpigmented macular skin lesions, palmoplantar keratoderma, and nail dystrophy. Beginning in the third decade of life, patients develop recurrent squamous cell carcinomas. Some patients may have brittle teeth resulting in tooth loss, and multinodular goiter has been observed (Courcet et al., 2015).
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
1684753
Concept ID:
C5203410
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by a rash that progresses to poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small size; skeletal and dental abnormalities; juvenile cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. A variety of benign and malignant hematologic abnormalities have been reported in affected individuals. The rash of RTS typically develops between ages three and six months (occasionally as late as age two years) as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face, subsequently spreading to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, and punctate atrophy (collectively known as poikiloderma) that persist throughout life. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities can include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Lechner M, Liu J, Masterson L, Fenton TR
Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2022 May;19(5):306-327. Epub 2022 Feb 1 doi: 10.1038/s41571-022-00603-7. PMID: 35105976Free PMC Article
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Codipilly DC, Wang KK
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2022 Sep;51(3):457-484. Epub 2022 Aug 29 doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2022.06.005. PMID: 36153105
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Chamoli A, Gosavi AS, Shirwadkar UP, Wangdale KV, Behera SK, Kurrey NK, Kalia K, Mandoli A
Oral Oncol 2021 Oct;121:105451. Epub 2021 Jul 28 doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2021.105451. PMID: 34329869
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Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2021 Oct;35(5):895-911. Epub 2021 Jul 14 doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2021.05.003. PMID: 34274176
Waldman A, Schmults C
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2019 Feb;33(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2018.08.001. PMID: 30497667

Diagnosis

Heath CR, Usatine RP
Cutis 2023 Aug;112(2):97-98. doi: 10.12788/cutis.0820. PMID: 37820338
Chamoli A, Gosavi AS, Shirwadkar UP, Wangdale KV, Behera SK, Kurrey NK, Kalia K, Mandoli A
Oral Oncol 2021 Oct;121:105451. Epub 2021 Jul 28 doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2021.105451. PMID: 34329869
Howard A, Agrawal N, Gooi Z
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2021 Oct;35(5):895-911. Epub 2021 Jul 14 doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2021.05.003. PMID: 34274176
Bugshan A, Farooq I
F1000Res 2020;9:229. Epub 2020 Apr 2 doi: 10.12688/f1000research.22941.1. PMID: 32399208Free PMC Article
Waldman A, Schmults C
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2019 Feb;33(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2018.08.001. PMID: 30497667

Therapy

Damico N, Meyer J, Das P, Murphy J, Miller E, Koontz B, Hall W, McBride M, Pereira G, Catalano P, Chakravarthy AB, O'Dwyer PJ, Dorth J
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Prognosis

Mann H, Seligman K, Colwell N, Burr A, Glazer TA
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Clinical prediction guides

Lollie TK, Krane JF
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Recent systematic reviews

Litaiem N, Baklouti M, Zeglaoui F
Clin Dermatol 2022 Nov-Dec;40(6):706-715. Epub 2022 Jul 28 doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2022.07.008. PMID: 35907576
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