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Chronic bronchitis

MedGen UID:
3084
Concept ID:
C0008677
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Bronchitis, Chronic; Chronic Bronchitis
SNOMED CT: Chronic bronchitis (63480004)
 
HPO: HP:0004469
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005607

Definition

Chronic inflammation of the bronchi. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Mucopolysaccharidosis type 7
MedGen UID:
43108
Concept ID:
C0085132
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by the inability to degrade glucuronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from severe lethal hydrops fetalis to mild forms with survival into adulthood. Most patients with the intermediate phenotype show hepatomegaly, skeletal anomalies, coarse facies, and variable degrees of mental impairment (Shipley et al., 1993). MPS VII was the first autosomal mucopolysaccharidosis for which chromosomal assignment was achieved.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
MedGen UID:
67461
Concept ID:
C0221757
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) can present with hepatic dysfunction in individuals from infancy to adulthood and with chronic obstructive lung disease (emphysema and/or bronchiectasis), characteristically in individuals older than age 30 years. Individuals with AATD are also at increased risk for panniculitis (migratory, inflammatory, tender skin nodules which may ulcerate on legs and lower abdomen) and C-ANCA-positive vasculitis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis). Phenotypic expression varies within and between families. In adults, smoking is the major factor in accelerating the development of COPD; nonsmokers may have a normal life span, but can also develop lung and/or liver disease. Although reported, emphysema in children with AATD is extremely rare. AATD-associated liver disease, which is present in only a small portion of affected children, manifests as neonatal cholestasis. The incidence of liver disease increases with age. Liver disease in adults (manifesting as cirrhosis and fibrosis) may occur in the absence of a history of neonatal or childhood liver disease. The risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increased in individuals with AATD.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 5
MedGen UID:
324840
Concept ID:
C1837615
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-5 (CILD5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset of a progressive decline in lung function due to an inability to clear mucus and particles from the airways. Affected individuals have recurrent infections of the sinuses, ears, airways, and lungs. Sperm motility is also decreased. Individuals with CILD5 do not have situs inversus (summary by Olbrich et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Emphysema, hereditary pulmonary
MedGen UID:
338765
Concept ID:
C1851718
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 11
MedGen UID:
390741
Concept ID:
C2675229
Disease or Syndrome
Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride 1
MedGen UID:
440868
Concept ID:
C2749757
Disease or Syndrome
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride-1 (BESC1) is characterized by dilation of the airways arising from chronic bronchial inflammation accompanied by chronic cough, purulent sputum, and recurrent respiratory tract infections. Severity is variable, and some patients may be identified in adulthood and have normal respiratory function (Sheridan et al., 2005, Fajac et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bronchiectasis with or without Elevated Sweat Chloride Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride-2 (BESC2; 613021) is caused by mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (SCNN1A; 600228) on chromosome 12p13, and BESC3 (613071) is caused by mutation in the gene encoding the gamma subunit (SCNN1G; 600761) on chromosome 16p12. Bronchiectasis and elevated sweat chloride associated with pancreatic exocrine dysfunction and infertility are also features of cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700), which is caused by mutation in the CFTR gene (602421).
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride 3
MedGen UID:
414351
Concept ID:
C2751324
Disease or Syndrome
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride-3 (BESC3) is characterized by dilation of the airways arising from chronic bronchial inflammation accompanied by chronic cough, purulent sputum, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Most patients show some degree of airflow obstruction (Fajac et al., 2008).
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride 2
MedGen UID:
414437
Concept ID:
C2751666
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride-2 (BESC2) have bronchiectasis and chronic bronchitis of varying severity. Pancreatic insufficiency may be present (Azad et al., 2009). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity in bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride, see BESC1 (211400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 14
MedGen UID:
462486
Concept ID:
C3151136
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-14 (CILD14) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory infections associated with defects in ciliary inner dynein arms and axonemal disorganization (Merveille et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 15
MedGen UID:
462487
Concept ID:
C3151137
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-15 (CILD15) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory infections associated with defects in ciliary inner dynein arms and axonemal disorganization (summary by Becker-Heck et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481378
Concept ID:
C3279748
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial dysmorphism (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, immunoglobulin deficiency resulting in recurrent infections, and mental retardation. Laboratory studies of patient cells show hypomethylation of satellite regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16, as well as pericentromeric chromosomal instability in response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation (summary by de Greef et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome, see ICF1 (242860).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 18
MedGen UID:
762331
Concept ID:
C3543825
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-18 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile onset of recurrent sinopulmonary infections due to ciliary dysfunction and impaired airway clearance. Males are infertile and about half of patients have situs inversus. Electron microscopy of cilia shows a defect of the outer and inner dynein arms and impaired ciliary function (summary by Horani et al., 2012).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 19
MedGen UID:
762332
Concept ID:
C3543826
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-19 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by chronic sinopulmonary infections, asthenospermia, and immotile cilia. Respiratory epithelial cells and sperm flagella of affected individuals lack both the inner and outer dynein arms. About 50% of patients have situs inversus (summary by Kott et al., 2012). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 22
MedGen UID:
815873
Concept ID:
C3809543
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-22 (CILD22) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective structure and function of cilia or flagella. Ciliary dysfunction causes respiratory distress in term neonates, impaired mucociliary clearance, chronic cough, sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and male infertility. Defective motility of embryonic nodal cilia leads to situs abnormalities in about 50% of patients. CILD22 is characterized by defects of the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Zariwala et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 23
MedGen UID:
815878
Concept ID:
C3809548
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-23 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defective ciliary motility. Affected individuals have respiratory distress and recurrent upper and lower airway infections, and they often develop bronchiectasis. About 50% of patients have situs inversus or laterality defects. Ultrastructural analysis of respiratory cilia shows defects in the outer dynein arm (summary by Hjeij et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 25
MedGen UID:
815971
Concept ID:
C3809641
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-25 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have recurrent upper and lower airway disease, bronchiectasis, and decreased fertility. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Tarkar et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 26
MedGen UID:
816014
Concept ID:
C3809684
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-26 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower airway disease, and bronchiectasis. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Austin-Tse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 27
MedGen UID:
816031
Concept ID:
C3809701
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-27 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower airway disease, and bronchiectasis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner dynein arms and nexin links. Situs inversus has not been reported in these patients (summary by Austin-Tse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 28
MedGen UID:
816036
Concept ID:
C3809706
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-28 (CILD28) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have recurrent upper and lower airway disease, bronchiectasis, and decreased fertility. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in both the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Knowles et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 30
MedGen UID:
863453
Concept ID:
C4015016
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ciliary dyskinesia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CCDC151 gene.
Senior-Loken syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
899086
Concept ID:
C4225263
Disease or Syndrome
Senior-Loken syndrome-9 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset nephronophthisis and pigmentary retinopathy. Additional more variable features can include liver defects, skeletal anomalies, and obesity (summary by Bizet et al., 2015). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Senior-Loken syndrome, see 266900.
Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1636193
Concept ID:
C4551557
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial dysmorphism (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by facial dysmorphism, immunoglobulin deficiency, and branching of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of lymphocytes. Hypomethylation of DNA of a small fraction of the genome is an unusual feature of ICF patients that is explained by mutations in the DNMT3B gene in some, but not all, ICF patients (Hagleitner et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Immunodeficiency-Centromeric Instability-Facial Anomalies Syndrome See also ICF2 (614069), caused by mutation in the ZBTB24 gene (614064) on chromosome 6q21; ICF3 (616910), caused by mutation in the CDCA7 gene (609937) on chromosome 2q31; and ICF4 (616911), caused by mutation in the HELLS gene (603946) on chromosome 10q23.
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to CARMIL2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648422
Concept ID:
C4748304
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-58 is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder characterized by early-onset skin lesions, including eczematous dermatitis, infectious abscesses, and warts, recurrent respiratory infections or allergies, and chronic persistent infections with candida, Molluscum contagiosum, mycobacteria, EBV, bacteria, and viruses. Some patients may have gastrointestinal involvement, including inflammatory bowel disease, EBV+ smooth muscle tumors, and esophagitis. Immunologic analysis shows defective T-cell function with decreased Treg cells and deficient CD3/CD28 costimulation responses in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. B-cell function may also be impaired (summary by Wang et al., 2016 and Alazami et al., 2018).
Immunodeficiency 73b with defective neutrophil chemotaxis and lymphopenia
MedGen UID:
1740566
Concept ID:
C5436549
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-73B with defective neutrophil chemotaxis (IMD73B) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by onset of recurrent infections in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals develop respiratory infections, cellulitis, and severe invasive infections or sepsis; organisms include bacteria such as Staphylococcus, as well as viruses, fungi, and mycobacterial species. Laboratory studies show variable abnormalities, including B- and T-cell lymphopenia, decreased immunoglobulin subsets, decreased TRECs and dysfunctional T cells, decreased NK cells, neutropenia, and impaired neutrophil chemotaxis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative (summary by Hsu et al., 2019; review by Lougaris et al., 2020). In a review of autosomal forms of chronic granulomatous disease (see 306400 for genetic heterogeneity of CGD), Roos et al. (2021) noted that patients with RAC2 mutations may manifest CGD-like symptoms due to defects in neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity.

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Arch Bronconeumol 2016 Jul;52(7):368-77. Epub 2016 Feb 9 doi: 10.1016/j.arbres.2015.12.002. PMID: 26873518

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

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Tashkin DP
Chest 2018 Sep;154(3):653-663. Epub 2018 May 17 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.05.005. PMID: 29778658
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Therapy

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Prognosis

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Clinical prediction guides

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Respiration 2017;94(3):299-311. Epub 2017 Jul 25 doi: 10.1159/000479089. PMID: 28738364
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