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Hypermagnesemia

MedGen UID:
312005
Concept ID:
C1522135
Finding
Synonyms: High blood magnesium levels; High blood Mg levels
 
HPO: HP:0002918

Definition

An abnormally increased magnesium concentration in the blood. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHypermagnesemia

Conditions with this feature

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 1
MedGen UID:
137973
Concept ID:
C0342637
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (HHC) is a heritable disorder of mineral homeostasis that is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with a high degree of penetrance. HHC is characterized biochemically by lifelong elevation of serum calcium concentrations and is associated with inappropriately low urinary calcium excretion and a normal or mildly elevated circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450) level. Hypermagnesemia is typically present. Individuals with HHC are usually asymptomatic and the disorder is considered benign. However, chondrocalcinosis and pancreatitis occur in some adults (summary by Hannan et al., 2010). Characteristic features of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia include mild to moderate hypercalcemia, nonsuppressed parathyroid hormone, relative hypocalciuria while hypercalcemic (calcium/creatinine clearance ratio less than 0.01, or 24-hr urine calcium less than 6.25 mmol), almost 100% penetrance of hypercalcemia from birth, absence of complications, persistence of hypercalcemia following subtotal parathyroidectomy, and normal parathyroid size, weight, and histology at surgery. However, atypical presentations with severe hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria with or without nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis, kindreds with affected members displaying either hypercalciuria or hypocalciuria, postoperative normocalcemia, and pancreatitis have all been described in FHH (Warner et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2; 145981) is caused by mutation in the GNA11 gene (139313) on chromosome 19p13, and HHC3 (600740) is caused by mutation in the AP2S1 gene (602242) on chromosome 19q13.
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 3
MedGen UID:
322173
Concept ID:
C1833372
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the AP2S1 gene.
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 2
MedGen UID:
374447
Concept ID:
C1840347
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by lifelong elevations of serum calcium concentrations with low urinary calcium excretion and normal circulating parathyroid hormone concentrations in most patients. Patients are generally asymptomatic (summary by Nesbit et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, see HHC1 (145980).
HELIX syndrome
MedGen UID:
1621482
Concept ID:
C4522164
Disease or Syndrome
HELIX syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by Hypohidrosis, Electrolyte imbalance, Lacrimal gland dysfunction, Ichthyosis, and Xerostomia (summary by Hadj-Rabia et al., 2018).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Kessoku T, Misawa N, Ohkubo H, Nakajima A
Digestion 2024;105(1):40-48. Epub 2023 Sep 11 doi: 10.1159/000533548. PMID: 37696258Free PMC Article
Kraft MD, Btaiche IF, Sacks GS, Kudsk KA
Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005 Aug 15;62(16):1663-82. doi: 10.2146/ajhp040300. PMID: 16085929
Ghazali A, Ben Hamida F, Bouzernidj M, el Esper N, Westeel PF, Fournier A
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 1993 Jul;2(4):566-79. doi: 10.1097/00041552-199307000-00007. PMID: 7859019

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Aal-Hamad AH, Al-Alawi AM, Kashoub MS, Falhammar H
Medicina (Kaunas) 2023 Jun 24;59(7) doi: 10.3390/medicina59071190. PMID: 37512002Free PMC Article
Sakaguchi Y
Clin Exp Nephrol 2022 May;26(5):379-384. Epub 2022 Jan 25 doi: 10.1007/s10157-022-02182-4. PMID: 35076791Free PMC Article
Sharma R, Heidari A, Johnson RH, Advani S, Petersen G
J Investig Med 2022 Feb;70(2):409-414. Epub 2021 Sep 27 doi: 10.1136/jim-2021-001948. PMID: 34580159
Gröber U, Schmidt J, Kisters K
Nutrients 2015 Sep 23;7(9):8199-226. doi: 10.3390/nu7095388. PMID: 26404370Free PMC Article
Felsenfeld AJ, Levine BS, Rodriguez M
Semin Dial 2015 Nov-Dec;28(6):564-77. Epub 2015 Aug 25 doi: 10.1111/sdi.12411. PMID: 26303319

Diagnosis

Ray E, Mohan K, Ahmad S, Wolf MTF
Adv Kidney Dis Health 2023 Mar;30(2):148-163. doi: 10.1053/j.akdh.2022.12.001. PMID: 36868730Free PMC Article
Van Laecke S
Acta Clin Belg 2019 Feb;74(1):41-47. Epub 2018 Sep 17 doi: 10.1080/17843286.2018.1516173. PMID: 30220246
Gröber U, Schmidt J, Kisters K
Nutrients 2015 Sep 23;7(9):8199-226. doi: 10.3390/nu7095388. PMID: 26404370Free PMC Article
Al-Azem H, Khan AA
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012 Aug;26(4):517-22. Epub 2012 May 31 doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2012.01.004. PMID: 22863393
DiPalma JR
Am Fam Physician 1990 Jul;42(1):173-6. PMID: 2195859

Therapy

Adomako EA, Yu ASL
Am J Kidney Dis 2024 Jun;83(6):803-815. Epub 2024 Feb 17 doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2023.10.017. PMID: 38372687
Aal-Hamad AH, Al-Alawi AM, Kashoub MS, Falhammar H
Medicina (Kaunas) 2023 Jun 24;59(7) doi: 10.3390/medicina59071190. PMID: 37512002Free PMC Article
Mori H, Tack J, Suzuki H
Nutrients 2021 Jan 28;13(2) doi: 10.3390/nu13020421. PMID: 33525523Free PMC Article
Gröber U, Schmidt J, Kisters K
Nutrients 2015 Sep 23;7(9):8199-226. doi: 10.3390/nu7095388. PMID: 26404370Free PMC Article
Kraft MD, Btaiche IF, Sacks GS, Kudsk KA
Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005 Aug 15;62(16):1663-82. doi: 10.2146/ajhp040300. PMID: 16085929

Prognosis

Sakaguchi Y
Clin Exp Nephrol 2022 May;26(5):379-384. Epub 2022 Jan 25 doi: 10.1007/s10157-022-02182-4. PMID: 35076791Free PMC Article
Voultsos P, Bazmpani MA, Papanastasiou CA, Papadopoulos CE, Efthimiadis G, Karvounis H, Kalogeropoulos AP, Karamitsos TD
Cardiol Rev 2022 Nov-Dec 01;30(6):281-285. Epub 2021 May 12 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000397. PMID: 34001688
Stevens JS, Moses AA, Nickolas TL, Husain SA, Mohan S
Kidney360 2021 Jul 29;2(7):1087-1094. Epub 2021 May 17 doi: 10.34067/KID.0002592021. PMID: 35368359Free PMC Article
Bokhari SR, Siriki R, Teran FJ, Batuman V
Am J Med Sci 2018 Apr;355(4):390-395. Epub 2017 Sep 12 doi: 10.1016/j.amjms.2017.08.013. PMID: 29661354
Schelling JR
Clin Nephrol 2000 Jan;53(1):61-5. PMID: 10661484

Clinical prediction guides

Tonai K, Katayama S, Koyama K, Sata N, Tomioka Y, Imahase H, Nunomiya S
BMC Anesthesiol 2022 Nov 24;22(1):359. doi: 10.1186/s12871-022-01903-2. PMID: 36424547Free PMC Article
Junqueira EO, Marba STM, Caldas JPS
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2022 Jul;46(5):1054-1060. Epub 2022 Mar 6 doi: 10.1002/jpen.2336. PMID: 35084777
Stevens JS, Moses AA, Nickolas TL, Husain SA, Mohan S
Kidney360 2021 Jul 29;2(7):1087-1094. Epub 2021 May 17 doi: 10.34067/KID.0002592021. PMID: 35368359Free PMC Article
Van Laecke S
Acta Clin Belg 2019 Feb;74(1):41-47. Epub 2018 Sep 17 doi: 10.1080/17843286.2018.1516173. PMID: 30220246
Sen AP, Gulati A
Neurotherapeutics 2010 Jan;7(1):91-9. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2009.10.014. PMID: 20129501Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Voultsos P, Bazmpani MA, Papanastasiou CA, Papadopoulos CE, Efthimiadis G, Karvounis H, Kalogeropoulos AP, Karamitsos TD
Cardiol Rev 2022 Nov-Dec 01;30(6):281-285. Epub 2021 May 12 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000397. PMID: 34001688
Xiong J, He T, Wang M, Nie L, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Huang Y, Feng B, Zhang J, Zhao J
J Nephrol 2019 Oct;32(5):791-802. Epub 2019 Mar 19 doi: 10.1007/s40620-019-00601-6. PMID: 30888644
Angkananard T, Anothaisintawee T, Eursiriwan S, Gorelik O, McEvoy M, Attia J, Thakkinstian A
Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Dec;95(50):e5406. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000005406. PMID: 27977579Free PMC Article
Upala S, Jaruvongvanich V, Wijarnpreecha K, Sanguankeo A
QJM 2016 Jul;109(7):453-459. Epub 2016 Mar 24 doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcw048. PMID: 27016536
Kette F, Ghuman J, Parr M
Eur J Emerg Med 2013 Apr;20(2):72-8. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0b013e328358e336. PMID: 22990036

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