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Female athlete triad

MedGen UID:
319049
Concept ID:
C1721053
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Female Athlete Triad; Female Athlete Triad Syndrome
SNOMED CT: Female athlete triad (710072005); Female athlete syndrome (710072005)

Definition

The presence of the following interrelated signs observed in active women and girls: low energy availability with or without disordered eating; menstrual dysfunction; low bone mineral density. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVFemale athlete triad

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Mountjoy M, Sundgot-Borgen JK, Burke LM, Ackerman KE, Blauwet C, Constantini N, Lebrun C, Lundy B, Melin AK, Meyer NL, Sherman RT, Tenforde AS, Klungland Torstveit M, Budgett R
Br J Sports Med 2018 Jun;52(11):687-697. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099193. PMID: 29773536
Warden SJ, Davis IS, Fredericson M
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014 Oct;44(10):749-65. Epub 2014 Aug 7 doi: 10.2519/jospt.2014.5334. PMID: 25103133
Mountjoy M, Sundgot-Borgen J, Burke L, Carter S, Constantini N, Lebrun C, Meyer N, Sherman R, Steffen K, Budgett R, Ljungqvist A
Br J Sports Med 2014 Apr;48(7):491-7. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-093502. PMID: 24620037

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Grabia M, Perkowski J, Socha K, Markiewicz-Żukowska R
Nutrients 2024 Jan 25;16(3) doi: 10.3390/nu16030359. PMID: 38337644Free PMC Article
Maya J, Misra M
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2022 Feb 1;29(1):44-51. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000690. PMID: 34812202Free PMC Article
Daily JP, Stumbo JR
Prim Care 2018 Dec;45(4):615-624. Epub 2018 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2018.07.004. PMID: 30401345
Mountjoy M, Sundgot-Borgen J, Burke L, Carter S, Constantini N, Lebrun C, Meyer N, Sherman R, Steffen K, Budgett R, Ljungqvist A
Br J Sports Med 2014 Apr;48(7):491-7. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-093502. PMID: 24620037
Melin A, Tornberg AB, Skouby S, Faber J, Ritz C, Sjödin A, Sundgot-Borgen J
Br J Sports Med 2014 Apr;48(7):540-5. Epub 2014 Feb 21 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093240. PMID: 24563388

Diagnosis

Dave SC, Fisher M
Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2022 Aug;52(8):101242. Epub 2022 Jul 30 doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2022.101242. PMID: 35915044
Ranalli DN, Studen-Pavlovich D
Dent Clin North Am 2021 Oct;65(4):689-703. Epub 2021 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2021.06.009. PMID: 34503661
Coelho AR, Cardoso G, Brito ME, Gomes IN, Cascais MJ
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2021 May;43(5):395-402. Epub 2021 Jun 2 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1730289. PMID: 34077990Free PMC Article
Daily JP, Stumbo JR
Prim Care 2018 Dec;45(4):615-624. Epub 2018 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2018.07.004. PMID: 30401345
Melin A, Tornberg AB, Skouby S, Faber J, Ritz C, Sjödin A, Sundgot-Borgen J
Br J Sports Med 2014 Apr;48(7):540-5. Epub 2014 Feb 21 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093240. PMID: 24563388

Therapy

De Souza MJ, Mallinson RJ, Strock NCA, Koltun KJ, Olmsted MP, Ricker EA, Scheid JL, Allaway HC, Mallinson DJ, Kuruppumullage Don P, Williams NI
Hum Reprod 2021 Jul 19;36(8):2285-2297. doi: 10.1093/humrep/deab149. PMID: 34164675Free PMC Article
Loveless MB
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct;29(5):301-305. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000396. PMID: 28737524
Goolsby MA, Boniquit N
Sports Health 2017 Mar/Apr;9(2):108-117. Epub 2016 Nov 30 doi: 10.1177/1941738116677732. PMID: 27821574Free PMC Article
Mountjoy M, Sundgot-Borgen J, Burke L, Carter S, Constantini N, Lebrun C, Meyer N, Sherman R, Steffen K, Budgett R, Ljungqvist A
Br J Sports Med 2014 Apr;48(7):491-7. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-093502. PMID: 24620037
Lanser EM, Zach KN, Hoch AZ
PM R 2011 May;3(5):458-65. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.12.024. PMID: 21570034

Prognosis

Statuta SM, Wood CL, Rollins LK
Prim Care 2020 Mar;47(1):65-85. Epub 2019 Nov 9 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2019.11.002. PMID: 32014137
Chamberlain R
Am Fam Physician 2018 Apr 15;97(8):499-502. PMID: 29671493
Horn E, Gergen N, McGarry KA
R I Med J (2013) 2014 Nov 3;97(11):18-21. PMID: 25365814
Ackerman KE, Misra M
Phys Sportsmed 2011 Feb;39(1):131-41. doi: 10.3810/psm.2011.02.1871. PMID: 21378496Free PMC Article
Sabatini S
Am J Med Sci 2001 Oct;322(4):193-5. doi: 10.1097/00000441-200110000-00007. PMID: 11678514

Clinical prediction guides

Grabia M, Perkowski J, Socha K, Markiewicz-Żukowska R
Nutrients 2024 Jan 25;16(3) doi: 10.3390/nu16030359. PMID: 38337644Free PMC Article
Indirli R, Lanzi V, Mantovani G, Arosio M, Ferrante E
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:946695. Epub 2022 Oct 11 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.946695. PMID: 36303862Free PMC Article
Areta JL, Taylor HL, Koehler K
Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jan;121(1):1-21. Epub 2020 Oct 23 doi: 10.1007/s00421-020-04516-0. PMID: 33095376Free PMC Article
Elliott-Sale KJ, Tenforde AS, Parziale AL, Holtzman B, Ackerman KE
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 1;28(4):335-349. Epub 2018 Jul 14 doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0127. PMID: 30008240
Melin A, Tornberg AB, Skouby S, Faber J, Ritz C, Sjödin A, Sundgot-Borgen J
Br J Sports Med 2014 Apr;48(7):540-5. Epub 2014 Feb 21 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093240. PMID: 24563388

Recent systematic reviews

Skarakis NS, Mastorakos G, Georgopoulos N, Goulis DG
Hormones (Athens) 2021 Sep;20(3):439-448. Epub 2021 Apr 22 doi: 10.1007/s42000-021-00288-0. PMID: 33884586
Amorim T, Wyon M, Maia J, Machado JC, Marques F, Metsios GS, Flouris AD, Koutedakis Y
Sports Med 2015 Feb;45(2):257-68. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0268-5. PMID: 25281333
Hincapié CA, Cassidy JD
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010 Nov;91(11):1777-1789.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.07.230. PMID: 21044726
Coelho GM, Soares Ede A, Ribeiro BG
Appetite 2010 Dec;55(3):379-87. Epub 2010 Aug 13 doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2010.08.003. PMID: 20709126

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