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Abnormal delayed hypersensitivity skin test

MedGen UID:
322137
Concept ID:
C1833172
Finding
HPO: HP:0002963

Definition

Delay in cutaneous immune reaction to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells. The delayed hypersensitivity test is an immune function test measuring the presence of activated T cells that recognize a specific antigen and is performed by injecting a small amount of the antigen into the skin. The area of the injection is examined 48-72 hours thereafter. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAbnormal delayed hypersensitivity skin test

Conditions with this feature

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
MedGen UID:
21921
Concept ID:
C0043194
Disease or Syndrome
The WAS-related disorders, which include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN), are a spectrum of disorders of hematopoietic cells, with predominant defects of platelets and lymphocytes caused by pathogenic variants in WAS. WAS-related disorders usually present in infancy. Affected males have thrombocytopenia with intermittent mucosal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, and intermittent or chronic petechiae and purpura; eczema; and recurrent bacterial and viral infections, particularly of the ear. At least 40% of those who survive the early complications develop one or more autoimmune conditions including hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, immune-mediated neutropenia, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and immune-mediated damage to the kidneys and liver. Individuals with a WAS-related disorder, particularly those who have been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are at increased risk of developing lymphomas, which often occur in unusual, extranodal locations including the brain, lung, or gastrointestinal tract. Males with XLT have thrombocytopenia with small platelets; other complications of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, including eczema and immune dysfunction, are usually mild or absent. Males with XLN have congenital neutropenia, myeloid dysplasia, and lymphoid cell abnormalities.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Leonard A, Guttman-Yassky E
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2019 Feb;56(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s12016-018-8685-0. PMID: 29754191
Sène D
Joint Bone Spine 2018 Oct;85(5):553-559. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.11.002. PMID: 29154979
King WP
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1992 Feb;25(1):163-79. PMID: 1549380

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Del Pozzo-Magaña BR, Rieder MJ, Garcia-Bournissen F, Lazo-Langner A
Br J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Sep;88(9):4134-4141. Epub 2022 Apr 26 doi: 10.1111/bcp.15354. PMID: 35421262
Devarbhavi H, Raj S
Liver Int 2019 May;39(5):802-811. Epub 2018 Dec 4 doi: 10.1111/liv.14004. PMID: 30515930
Leonard A, Guttman-Yassky E
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2019 Feb;56(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s12016-018-8685-0. PMID: 29754191
Sène D
Joint Bone Spine 2018 Oct;85(5):553-559. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.11.002. PMID: 29154979
Twomey P, Ziegler D, Rombeau J
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1982 Jan-Feb;6(1):50-8. doi: 10.1177/014860718200600150. PMID: 6804655

Diagnosis

Devarbhavi H, Raj S
Liver Int 2019 May;39(5):802-811. Epub 2018 Dec 4 doi: 10.1111/liv.14004. PMID: 30515930
Leonard A, Guttman-Yassky E
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2019 Feb;56(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s12016-018-8685-0. PMID: 29754191
Sène D
Joint Bone Spine 2018 Oct;85(5):553-559. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.11.002. PMID: 29154979
Nishizawa A
Curr Probl Dermatol 2016;51:80-5. Epub 2016 Aug 30 doi: 10.1159/000446785. PMID: 27584966
Santoro FA, Lim HW
Semin Cutan Med Surg 2011 Dec;30(4):229-38. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2011.07.007. PMID: 22123421

Therapy

Sène D
Joint Bone Spine 2018 Oct;85(5):553-559. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.11.002. PMID: 29154979
Nishizawa A
Curr Probl Dermatol 2016;51:80-5. Epub 2016 Aug 30 doi: 10.1159/000446785. PMID: 27584966
Santoro FA, Lim HW
Semin Cutan Med Surg 2011 Dec;30(4):229-38. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2011.07.007. PMID: 22123421
Dubakiene R, Kupriene M
Medicina (Kaunas) 2006;42(8):619-24. PMID: 16963827
Hanifin JM
Allergy Proc 1989 Nov-Dec;10(6):397-402. doi: 10.2500/108854189778935827. PMID: 2483393

Prognosis

Zhou Y, Chen X, Zhao M, Lower EE, Baughman RP
Respir Res 2023 Sep 7;24(1):219. doi: 10.1186/s12931-023-02524-0. PMID: 37679741Free PMC Article
Devarbhavi H, Raj S
Liver Int 2019 May;39(5):802-811. Epub 2018 Dec 4 doi: 10.1111/liv.14004. PMID: 30515930
Sène D
Joint Bone Spine 2018 Oct;85(5):553-559. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.11.002. PMID: 29154979
Santoro FA, Lim HW
Semin Cutan Med Surg 2011 Dec;30(4):229-38. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2011.07.007. PMID: 22123421
Twomey P, Ziegler D, Rombeau J
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1982 Jan-Feb;6(1):50-8. doi: 10.1177/014860718200600150. PMID: 6804655

Clinical prediction guides

Zhang Y, Wang X, Cheng Y, Wang X, Zhang Y
BMC Pulm Med 2022 Jul 19;22(1):279. doi: 10.1186/s12890-022-02064-1. PMID: 35854287Free PMC Article
Kansal NK, Yumnam D, Batra A, Melanda H
Skinmed 2022;20(3):215-217. Epub 2022 Jun 30 PMID: 35779029
Maeno M, Tamagawa-Mineoka R, Arakawa Y, Masuda K, Adachi T, Katoh N
J Dermatol 2021 Jan;48(1):85-87. Epub 2020 Sep 12 doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.15606. PMID: 32920872
Monteagudo B, Cabanillas M, Iriarte P, Ramírez-Santos A, León-Muinos E, González-Vilas D, Suárez-Amor Ó
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2018 Apr;26(1):61-63. PMID: 29782303
Twomey P, Ziegler D, Rombeau J
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1982 Jan-Feb;6(1):50-8. doi: 10.1177/014860718200600150. PMID: 6804655

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