U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Send to:

Choose Destination

Epilepsy-microcephaly-skeletal dysplasia syndrome

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Mental Retardation, Microcephaly, Epilepsy, And Coarse Face
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011048
OMIM®: 601352
Orphanet: ORPHA1948


A rare multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizures, microcephaly, delayed bone maturation, and skeletal abnormalities (such as scoliosis or pectus excavatum, among others). Dysmorphic features include coarse face, hirsutism, thick eyebrows, broad nasal septum, short philtrum, large mouth, and prominent ears. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1996. [from ORDO]

Clinical features

From HPO
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVEpilepsy-microcephaly-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Epilepsy-microcephaly-skeletal dysplasia syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines


Sekeres MA, Taylor J
JAMA 2022 Sep 6;328(9):872-880. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.14578. PMID: 36066514
Patnaik MM, Tefferi A
Am J Hematol 2022 Mar 1;97(3):352-372. Epub 2022 Jan 27 doi: 10.1002/ajh.26455. PMID: 34985762
Garcia-Manero G, Chien KS, Montalban-Bravo G
Am J Hematol 2020 Nov;95(11):1399-1420. doi: 10.1002/ajh.25950. PMID: 32744763

Recent clinical studies


Hampton SN, Nakonezny PA, Richard HM, Wells JE
Bone Joint J 2019 Jul;101-B(7):800-807. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.101B7.BJJ-2018-1309.R1. PMID: 31256659
Wright JT, Fete M, Schneider H, Zinser M, Koster MI, Clarke AJ, Hadj-Rabia S, Tadini G, Pagnan N, Visinoni AF, Bergendal B, Abbott B, Fete T, Stanford C, Butcher C, D'Souza RN, Sybert VP, Morasso MI
Am J Med Genet A 2019 Mar;179(3):442-447. Epub 2019 Jan 31 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61045. PMID: 30703280Free PMC Article
Grunauer M, Jorge AAL
Growth Horm IGF Res 2018 Feb;38:29-33. Epub 2017 Dec 6 doi: 10.1016/j.ghir.2017.12.003. PMID: 29249624
Suthers G, David D, Clark B
Clin Dysmorphol 1997 Jul;6(3):245-9. doi: 10.1097/00019605-199707000-00008. PMID: 9220195
Spranger JW
Postgrad Med J 1977 Aug;53(622):480-7. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.53.622.480. PMID: 335375Free PMC Article


Sataite I, Cudlip S, Jayamohan J, Ganau M
Handb Clin Neurol 2021;181:51-64. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-820683-6.00005-1. PMID: 34238479
Dobyns WB, Mirzaa GM
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2019 Dec;181(4):582-590. Epub 2019 Aug 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31736. PMID: 31441589
Lubinsky M, Kantaputra PN
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Oct;170(10):2611-6. Epub 2016 Jun 2 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37763. PMID: 27250821
Dreizin D, Glen C, Jose J
Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2012 Jul;41(7):332-5. PMID: 22893885
Grabias SL, Campbell CJ
Orthop Clin North Am 1977 Oct;8(4):771-83. PMID: 917466


Dargaville PA, Kamlin COF, Orsini F, Wang X, De Paoli AG, Kanmaz Kutman HG, Cetinkaya M, Kornhauser-Cerar L, Derrick M, Özkan H, Hulzebos CV, Schmölzer GM, Aiyappan A, Lemyre B, Kuo S, Rajadurai VS, O'Shea J, Biniwale M, Ramanathan R, Kushnir A, Bader D, Thomas MR, Chakraborty M, Buksh MJ, Bhatia R, Sullivan CL, Shinwell ES, Dyson A, Barker DP, Kugelman A, Donovan TJ, Tauscher MK, Murthy V, Ali SKM, Yossuck P, Clark HW, Soll RF, Carlin JB, Davis PG; OPTIMIST-A Trial Investigators
JAMA 2021 Dec 28;326(24):2478-2487. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.21892. PMID: 34902013Free PMC Article
Lee P, Yim R, Yung Y, Chu HT, Yip PK, Gill H
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 23;22(19) doi: 10.3390/ijms221910232. PMID: 34638574Free PMC Article
Miao L, Zhang Z, Ren Z, Li Y
Front Immunol 2021;12:663201. Epub 2021 Apr 28 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.663201. PMID: 33995389Free PMC Article
Behnke J, Lemyre B, Czernik C, Zimmer KP, Ehrhardt H, Waitz M
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019 Mar 8;116(11):177-183. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0177. PMID: 31014448Free PMC Article
Tanaka TN, Bejar R
Blood 2019 Mar 7;133(10):1086-1095. Epub 2019 Jan 22 doi: 10.1182/blood-2018-10-844670. PMID: 30670443


Siddique AW, Ahmed Z, Haider A, Khalid H, Karim T
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Apr-Jun;31(2):290-292. PMID: 31094135
Grignano E, Jachiet V, Fenaux P, Ades L, Fain O, Mekinian A
Ann Hematol 2018 Nov;97(11):2015-2023. Epub 2018 Aug 8 doi: 10.1007/s00277-018-3472-9. PMID: 30091023
Abboud JA, Bateman DK, Barlow J
J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2016 May;24(5):327-36. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-15-00032. PMID: 27055054
Parisi MA
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2009 Nov 15;151C(4):326-40. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30229. PMID: 19876931Free PMC Article
Souka AP, Von Kaisenberg CS, Hyett JA, Sonek JD, Nicolaides KH
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 Apr;192(4):1005-21. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2004.12.093. PMID: 15846173

Clinical prediction guides

Raimondi F, Migliaro F, Corsini I, Meneghin F, Dolce P, Pierri L, Perri A, Aversa S, Nobile S, Lama S, Varano S, Savoia M, Gatto S, Leonardi V, Capasso L, Carnielli VP, Mosca F, Dani C, Vento G, Lista G
Pediatrics 2021 Apr;147(4) Epub 2021 Mar 9 doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-030528. PMID: 33688032
Hampton SN, Nakonezny PA, Richard HM, Wells JE
Bone Joint J 2019 Jul;101-B(7):800-807. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.101B7.BJJ-2018-1309.R1. PMID: 31256659
Rudnicka L, Olszewska M, Waśkiel A, Rakowska A
Dermatol Clin 2018 Oct;36(4):421-430. Epub 2018 Aug 16 doi: 10.1016/j.det.2018.05.009. PMID: 30201151
Vanlerberghe C, Boutry N, Petit F
Clin Genet 2018 Jul;94(1):43-53. Epub 2018 Apr 11 doi: 10.1111/cge.13209. PMID: 29322497
Geister KA, Camper SA
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2015;16:199-227. Epub 2015 Apr 22 doi: 10.1146/annurev-genom-090314-045904. PMID: 25939055Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Cerezo-Cayuelas M, Pérez-Silva A, Serna-Muñoz C, Vicente A, Martínez-Beneyto Y, Cabello-Malagón I, Ortiz-Ruiz AJ
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Oct 17;17(1):376. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02533-0. PMID: 36253866Free PMC Article
Le Berre C, Peyrin-Biroulet L; SPIRIT-IOIBD study group
Gastroenterology 2021 Apr;160(5):1452-1460.e21. Epub 2021 Jan 6 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.10.065. PMID: 33421515
Ho JJ, Subramaniam P, Davis PG
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Oct 15;10(10):CD002271. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002271.pub3. PMID: 33058208Free PMC Article
West S, Nevitt SJ, Cotton J, Gandhi S, Weston J, Sudan A, Ramirez R, Newton R
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Jun 25;6(6):CD010541. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010541.pub3. PMID: 31237346Free PMC Article
van Sleuwen BE, Engelberts AC, Boere-Boonekamp MM, Kuis W, Schulpen TW, L'Hoir MP
Pediatrics 2007 Oct;120(4):e1097-106. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-2083. PMID: 17908730

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...