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Large foramen magnum

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Synonym: Wide foramen magnum
HPO: HP:0002700


An abnormal increase in the size of the foramen magnum. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Cleidocranial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) spectrum disorder is a skeletal dysplasia that represents a clinical continuum ranging from classic CCD (triad of delayed closure of the cranial sutures, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles, and dental abnormalities) to mild CCD to isolated dental anomalies without the skeletal features. Most individuals come to diagnosis because they have classic features. At birth, affected individuals typically have abnormally large, wide-open fontanelles that may remain open throughout life. Clavicular hypoplasia can result in narrow, sloping shoulders that can be opposed at the midline. Moderate short stature may be observed, with most affected individuals being shorter than their unaffected sibs. Dental anomalies may include supernumerary teeth, eruption failure of the permanent teeth, and presence of the second permanent molar with the primary dentition. Individuals with CCD spectrum disorder are at increased risk of developing recurrent sinus infections, recurrent ear infections leading to conductive hearing loss, and upper-airway obstruction. Intelligence is typically normal.
Chudley-McCullough syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Chudley-McCullough syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural deafness and specific brain anomalies on MRI, including hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlarged cysterna magna with mild focal cerebellar dysplasia, and nodular heterotopia. Some patients have hydrocephalus. Psychomotor development is normal (summary by Alrashdi et al., 2011).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
RAB23-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of acrocephaly with variable synostosis of the sagittal, lambdoid, and coronal sutures; peculiar facies; brachydactyly of the hands with syndactyly; preaxial polydactyly and syndactyly of the feet; congenital heart defects; growth retardation; mental retardation; hypogenitalism; and obesity. In addition, cerebral malformations, oral and dental abnormalities, coxa valga, genu valgum, hydronephrosis, precocious puberty, and hearing loss may be observed (summary by Altunhan et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Carpenter Syndrome Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2; 614976), in which the features of Carpenter syndrome are sometimes associated with defective lateralization, is caused by mutation in the MEGF8 gene (604267).
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.

Professional guidelines


Javed K, Kirnaz S, Zampolin R, Khatri D, Fluss R, Fortunel A, Holland R, Hamad MK, Inocencio JFK, Stock A, Scoco A, De La Garza Ramos R, Ahmad S, Haranhalli N, Altschul D
J Clin Neurosci 2023 Apr;110:27-38. Epub 2023 Feb 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2023.02.004. PMID: 36787670
Fiaschi P, Morana G, Anania P, Rossi A, Consales A, Piatelli G, Cama A, Pavanello M
Neurosurg Rev 2020 Dec;43(6):1473-1492. Epub 2019 Nov 10 doi: 10.1007/s10143-019-01198-x. PMID: 31709466
Witsch J, Neugebauer H, Zweckberger K, Jüttler E
Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2013 Jul;115(7):863-9. Epub 2013 May 6 doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2013.04.009. PMID: 23659765

Recent clinical studies

Clinical prediction guides

Kikkawa Y, Shono T, Mizoguchi M, Nagata S, Sasaki T
Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2007 Oct;50(5):296-9. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-984385. PMID: 18058647

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