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X-linked intellectual disability-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome

MedGen UID:
336862
Concept ID:
C1845136
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Chromosome Xp11.3 deletion syndrome; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED, WITH RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; Xp11.3 Deletion Syndrome
Modes of inheritance:
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010364
OMIM®: 300578
Orphanet: ORPHA85332

Definition

X-linked intellectual disability-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is characterized by moderate intellectual deficit and severe, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa. It has been described in five males spanning three generations of one family. Some patients also had microcephaly. It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. [from ORDO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Atypical behavior
MedGen UID:
535345
Concept ID:
C0233514
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Atypical behavior is an abnormality in a person's actions, which can be controlled or modulated by the will of the individual. While abnormal behaviors can be difficult to control, they are distinct from other abnormal actions that cannot be affected by the individual's will.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Asthma
MedGen UID:
2109
Concept ID:
C0004096
Disease or Syndrome
Asthma is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to multiple stimuli, leading to narrowing of the air passages with resultant dyspnea, cough, and wheezing.
Progeroid facial appearance
MedGen UID:
341830
Concept ID:
C1857710
Finding
A degree of wrinkling of the facial skin that is more than expected for the age of the individual, leading to a prematurely aged appearance.
Night blindness
MedGen UID:
10349
Concept ID:
C0028077
Disease or Syndrome
Inability to see well at night or in poor light.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Constriction of peripheral visual field
MedGen UID:
68613
Concept ID:
C0235095
Finding
An absolute or relative decrease in retinal sensitivity extending from edge (periphery) of the visual field in a concentric pattern. The visual field is the area that is perceived simultaneously by a fixating eye.
Rotary nystagmus
MedGen UID:
116106
Concept ID:
C0240595
Disease or Syndrome
A form of nystagmus in which the eyeball makes rotary motions around the axis.
Horizontal nystagmus
MedGen UID:
124399
Concept ID:
C0271385
Disease or Syndrome
Nystagmus consisting of horizontal to-and-fro eye movements.
Blindness
MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Disease or Syndrome
Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception defined as visual perception below 3/60 and/or a visual field of no greater than 10 degrees in radius around central fixation.
Posterior subcapsular cataract
MedGen UID:
163646
Concept ID:
C0858617
Acquired Abnormality
A type of cataract affecting the posterior pole of lens immediately adjacent to ('beneath') the Lens capsule.
Undetectable electroretinogram
MedGen UID:
383742
Concept ID:
C1855685
Finding
Lack of any response to stimulation upon electroretinography.
Attenuation of retinal blood vessels
MedGen UID:
480605
Concept ID:
C3278975
Finding
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.
Moderate myopia
MedGen UID:
939834
Concept ID:
C4315867
Disease or Syndrome
A moderate form of myopia with refractive error of between -3.00 and -6.00 diopters.
Rod-cone dystrophy
MedGen UID:
1632921
Concept ID:
C4551714
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited retinal disease subtype in which the rod photoreceptors appear to be more severely affected than the cone photoreceptors. Typical presentation is with nyctalopia (due to rod dysfunction) followed by loss of mid-peripheral field of vision, which gradually extends and leaves many patients with a small central island of vision due to the preservation of macular cones.
Pigmentary retinopathy
MedGen UID:
1643295
Concept ID:
C4551715
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the retina characterized by pigment deposition. It is typically associated with migration and proliferation of macrophages or retinal pigment epithelial cells into the retina; melanin from these cells causes the pigmentary changes. Pigmentary retinopathy is a common final pathway of many retinal conditions and is often associated with visual loss.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVX-linked intellectual disability-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for X-linked intellectual disability-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Francke U, Ochs HD, de Martinville B, Giacalone J, Lindgren V, Distèche C, Pagon RA, Hofker MH, van Ommen GJ, Pearson PL
Am J Hum Genet 1985 Mar;37(2):250-67. PMID: 4039107Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Li D, Strong A, Shen KM, Cassiman D, Van Dyck M, Linhares ND, Valadares ER, Wang T, Pena SDJ, Jaeken J, Vergano S, Zackai E, Hing A, Chow P, Ganguly A, Scholz T, Bierhals T, Philipp D, Hakonarson H, Bhoj E
Genet Med 2021 Apr;23(4):637-644. Epub 2020 Nov 27 doi: 10.1038/s41436-020-01031-7. PMID: 33244166

Prognosis

Cappuccio G, De Bernardi ML, Morlando A, Peduto C, Scala I, Pinelli M, Bellacchio E, Gallo FG, Magli A, Plaitano C, Serrano M, Pías L, Català J, Bolasell M, Torella A, Nigro V, Zanni G, Brunetti-Pierri N
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Oct;188(10):3032-3040. Epub 2022 Jul 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62911. PMID: 35876338Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Cappuccio G, De Bernardi ML, Morlando A, Peduto C, Scala I, Pinelli M, Bellacchio E, Gallo FG, Magli A, Plaitano C, Serrano M, Pías L, Català J, Bolasell M, Torella A, Nigro V, Zanni G, Brunetti-Pierri N
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Oct;188(10):3032-3040. Epub 2022 Jul 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62911. PMID: 35876338Free PMC Article

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