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Intellectual disability, progressive

MedGen UID:
337397
Concept ID:
C1846149
Finding; Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonym: Mental retardation, progressive
 
HPO: HP:0006887

Definition

The term progressive intellectual disability should be used if intelligence decreases/deteriorates over time. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVIntellectual disability, progressive

Conditions with this feature

Angelman syndrome
MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and unique behavior with an apparent happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year.
Atrophia bulborum hereditaria
MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by very early childhood blindness due to degenerative and proliferative changes of the neuroretina. Approximately 50% of patients show some form of progressive mental disorder, often with psychotic features, and about one-third of patients develop sensorineural deafness in the second decade. In addition, some patients have more complex phenotypes, including growth failure and seizures (Berger et al., 1992). Warburg (1966) noted confusion of the terms 'pseudoglioma' and microphthalmia with Norrie disease in the literature. 'Pseudoglioma' is a nonspecific term for any condition resembling retinoblastoma and can have diverse causes, including inflammation, hemorrhage, trauma, neoplasia, or congenital malformation, and often shows unilateral involvement. Thus, 'pseudoglioma' is not an acceptable clinical or pathologic diagnosis (Duke-Elder, 1958).
Isolated thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency
MedGen UID:
78786
Concept ID:
C0271789
Disease or Syndrome
A type of central congenital hypothyroidism, a permanent thyroid deficiency that is present from birth, characterized by low levels of thyroid hormones due to a deficiency in TSH synthesis.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II
MedGen UID:
96022
Concept ID:
C0398739
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG2C) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate to severe psychomotor retardation, mild dysmorphism, and impaired neutrophil motility. It is a member of a group of disorders with a defect in the processing of protein-bound glycans. For a general overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs), see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). Frydman (1996) contended that the neutrophil defect in CDG2C, which has been referred to as 'leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II' (LAD2), is a manifestation of the disorder and that there are no cases of 'primary' LAD II. Etzioni and Harlan (1999) provided a comprehensive review of both leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1; 116920) and LAD2. While the functional neutrophil studies are similar in the 2 LADs, the clinical course is milder in LAD2. Furthermore, patients with LAD2 present other abnormal features, such as growth and mental retardation, which are related to the primary defect in fucose metabolism. Delayed separation of the umbilical cord occurs in LAD1. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of LAD, see 116920.
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome
MedGen UID:
208645
Concept ID:
C0795889
Disease or Syndrome
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by neurologic findings (hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, developmental delay / intellectual disability ranging from mild to profound) and later-onset pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal findings (dystonia, choreoathetosis, paroxysmal movement disorder, hypokinesia, masked facies), and seizures, often with drug resistance. Additional findings can include dysthyroidism (manifest as poor weight gain, reduced muscle mass, and variable cold intolerance, sweating, elevated heart rate, and irritability) and pathognomonic thyroid test results. Most heterozygous females are not clinically affected but may have minor thyroid test abnormalities.
Alopecia - contractures - dwarfism - intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
167081
Concept ID:
C0795895
Disease or Syndrome
A form of ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by a short stature of prenatal onset, alopecia, ichthyosis, photophobia, ectrodactyly, seizures, scoliosis, multiple contractures, fusions of various bones (particularly elbows, carpals, metacarpals, and spine), intellectual disability, and facial dysmorphism (microdolichocephaly, madarosis, large ears and long nose). ACD syndrome overlaps with ichthyosis follicularis-alopecia-photophobia syndrome.
Kapur-Toriello syndrome
MedGen UID:
208654
Concept ID:
C0796005
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare syndrome with characteristics of facial dysmorphism, severe intellectual deficiency, cardiac and intestinal anomalies, and growth retardation. Only four cases have been reported in the literature, in three unrelated families. Dysmorphic features include bilateral cleft lip and palate, bulbous nasal tip and eye anomalies. The condition seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Corpus callosum agenesis-abnormal genitalia syndrome
MedGen UID:
163217
Concept ID:
C0796124
Disease or Syndrome
Proud syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe mental retardation, seizures, and spasticity. Males are severely affected, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Proud et al., 1992). Proud syndrome is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008).
6-Pyruvoyl-tetrahydrobiopterin synthase deficiency
MedGen UID:
209234
Concept ID:
C0878676
Disease or Syndrome
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) comprises a genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurologic disorders caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis or regeneration of BH4. BH4 is a cofactor for phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; 612349), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; 191290) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1; 191060), the latter 2 of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis. The BH4-deficient HPAs are characterized phenotypically by hyperphenylalaninemia, depletion of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and progressive cognitive and motor deficits (Dudesek et al., 2001). HPABH4A, caused by mutations in the PTS gene, represents the most common cause of BH4-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (Dudesek et al., 2001). Other forms of BH4-deficient HPA include HPABH4B (233910), caused by mutation in the GCH1 gene (600225), HPABH4C (261630), caused by mutation in the QDPR gene (612676), and HPABH4D (264070), caused by mutation in the PCBD1 gene (126090). Niederwieser et al. (1982) noted that about 1 to 3% of patients with hyperphenylalaninemia have one of these BH4-deficient forms. These disorders are clinically and genetically distinct from classic phenylketonuria (PKU; 261600), caused by mutation in the PAH gene. Two additional disorders associated with BH4 deficiency and neurologic symptoms do not have overt hyperphenylalaninemia as a feature: dopa-responsive dystonia (612716), caused by mutation in the SPR gene (182125), and autosomal dominant dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5; 128230), caused by mutation in the GCH1 gene. Patients with these disorders may develop hyperphenylalaninemia when stressed.
Sponastrime dysplasia
MedGen UID:
266247
Concept ID:
C1300260
Disease or Syndrome
Sponastrime dysplasia is an autosomal recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) named for characteristic clinical and radiographic findings, including spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, and striation of the metaphyses. Additional features include disproportionate short stature with exaggerated lumbar lordosis, scoliosis, coxa vara, limited elbow extension, small dysplastic epiphyses, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Radiographically, the abnormalities of the lumbar vertebral bodies are suggested to be the most specific finding because the characteristic metaphyseal striations may not be apparent at young ages. Striking clinical variability in presentation, severity, and associated features has been observed (summary by Burrage et al., 2019).
CEDNIK syndrome
MedGen UID:
332113
Concept ID:
C1836033
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome (CEDNIK) refers to a unique constellation of clinical manifestations including global developmental delay with hypotonia, roving eye movements or nystagmus, poor motor skills, and impaired intellectual development with speech delay. More variable features include microcephaly, feeding difficulties, seizures, ocular anomalies, hearing loss, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Palmoplantar keratoderma and ichthyosis or neuropathy develop in some patients. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows varying degrees of cerebral dysgenesis, including absence of the corpus callosum and cortical dysplasia, as well as hypomyelination, white matter loss, and white matter signal anomalies suggestive of a leukodystrophy. Some patients may show developmental regression; many die in childhood (Fuchs-Telem et al., 2011; Mah-Som et al., 2021). With more patients being reported, several authors (Diggle et al., 2017; Llaci et al., 2019; Mah-Som et al., 2021) have observed that the dermatologic features and peripheral neuropathy show reduced penetrance and are more variable manifestations of this disorder, as they are not observed in all patients with biallelic SNAP29 mutations.
Intellectual disability, keratoconus, febrile seizures, and sinoatrial block
MedGen UID:
324455
Concept ID:
C1836202
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Bieganski type
MedGen UID:
335350
Concept ID:
C1846148
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (SEMDHL) is an X-linked recessive developmental disorder characterized by slowly progressive skeletal and neurologic abnormalities, including short stature, large and deformed joints, significant motor impairment, visual defects, and sometimes cognitive deficits. Affected individuals typically have normal early development in the first year or so of life, followed by development regression and the development of symptoms. Brain imaging shows white matter abnormalities consistent with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (summary by Miyake et al., 2017).
Renal and mullerian duct hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
340326
Concept ID:
C1849439
Disease or Syndrome
Acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
376636
Concept ID:
C1849678
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also D-bifunctional protein deficiency (261515), caused by mutation in the HSD17B4 gene (601860) on chromosome 5q2. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995).
Genitopatellar syndrome
MedGen UID:
381208
Concept ID:
C1853566
Disease or Syndrome
KAT6B disorders include genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson variant of Ohdo syndrome (SBBYSS) which are part of a broad phenotypic spectrum with variable expressivity; individuals presenting with a phenotype intermediate between GPS and SBBYSS have been reported. Both phenotypes are characterized by some degree of global developmental delay / intellectual disability; hypotonia; genital abnormalities; and skeletal abnormalities including patellar hypoplasia/agenesis, flexion contractures of the knees and/or hips, and anomalies of the digits, spine, and/or ribs. Congenital heart defects, small bowel malrotation, feeding difficulties, slow growth, cleft palate, hearing loss, and dental anomalies have been observed in individuals with either phenotype.
Joubert syndrome with oculorenal defect
MedGen UID:
340930
Concept ID:
C1855675
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Methylcobalamin deficiency type cblE
MedGen UID:
344640
Concept ID:
C1856057
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
GOMBO syndrome
MedGen UID:
343515
Concept ID:
C1856274
Disease or Syndrome
NDE1-related microhydranencephaly
MedGen UID:
341899
Concept ID:
C1857977
Disease or Syndrome
Microhydranencephaly (MHAC) is a severe neurodevelopmental defect characterized by extreme microcephaly, profound motor and mental retardation, spasticity, and incomplete cerebral formation. Radiologic studies show gross dilation of the ventricles resulting from the absence of cerebral hemispheres or severe delay in their development, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellum, and brainstem (summary by Guven et al., 2012).
Infantile choroidocerebral calcification syndrome
MedGen UID:
395174
Concept ID:
C1859092
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of intellectual deficit, calcification of the choroid plexus and elevated levels of cerebrospinal fluid protein. It has been described in two sibships from two unrelated families. The seven children of one of the sibships were born to consanguineous parents. Some patients also had strabismus, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes and foot deformities.
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
396262
Concept ID:
C1861967
Disease or Syndrome
Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis, also known as idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), is characterized by the accumulation of calcium deposits in different brain regions and is associated with a neurodegenerative clinical phenotype. The changes seen in IBGC occur in the absence of calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450) metabolic disorders, such as hypoparathyroidism (see 146200) or pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP; see 103580). See also the adult-onset form (213600), which is sometimes erroneously referred to as 'Fahr disease.'
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 10
MedGen UID:
350481
Concept ID:
C1864669
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, see CLN1 (256730).
Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy with microcephaly
MedGen UID:
409616
Concept ID:
C1968556
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome
MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by significant developmental delays with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability and behavioral differences, characteristic facial features, and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake. Speech is significantly delayed and most individuals are nonverbal with receptive language often stronger than expressive language. Other common findings are autism spectrum disorder symptoms, sleep disturbance, stereotypic hand movements, seizures, constipation, and severe myopia.
Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 5
MedGen UID:
388687
Concept ID:
C2673630
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NKX2-5 gene.
Christianson syndrome
MedGen UID:
394455
Concept ID:
C2678194
Disease or Syndrome
Christianson syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disorder, and neurologic findings (e.g., seizures, ataxia, postnatal microcephaly, and eye movement abnormalities). Males with CS typically present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for severe intellectual disability (ID). Behaviorally, autism spectrum disorder and hyperactivity are common, and may resemble the behaviors observed in Angelman syndrome. Hypotonia and oropharyngeal dysphagia in infancy may result in failure to thrive. Seizures, typically beginning before age three years, can include infantile spasms and tonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Subsequently, regression (e.g., loss of ambulation and ability to feed independently) may occur. Manifestations in heterozygous females range from asymptomatic to mild ID and/or behavioral issues.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria
MedGen UID:
413170
Concept ID:
C2749864
Disease or Syndrome
SUCLA2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria is characterized by onset of the following features in infancy or childhood (median age of onset 2 months; range of onset birth to 6 years): psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, dystonia, muscular atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment, postnatal growth retardation, and feeding difficulties. Other less frequent features include distinctive facial features, contractures, kyphoscoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, ptosis, choreoathetosis, ophthalmoplegia, and epilepsy (infantile spasms or generalized convulsions). The median survival is 20 years; approximately 30% of affected individuals succumb during childhood. Affected individuals may have hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on head MRI. Elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the urine and plasma is found in a vast majority of affected individuals, although at levels that are far below those typically seen in individuals with classic methylmalonic aciduria.
Cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and dysequilibrium syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
412914
Concept ID:
C2750234
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellectual development, and dysequilibrium syndrome (CAMRQ) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by congenital cerebellar ataxia and intellectual disability (summary by Gulsuner et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CAMRQ, see CAMRQ1 (224050).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 50
MedGen UID:
442869
Concept ID:
C2752008
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form
MedGen UID:
461100
Concept ID:
C3149750
Disease or Syndrome
TK2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect is a phenotypic continuum that ranges from severe to mild. To date, approximately 107 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Three main subtypes of presentation have been described: Infantile-onset myopathy with neurologic involvement and rapid progression to early death. Affected individuals experience progressive muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure. Some individuals develop dysarthria, dysphagia, and/or hearing loss. Cognitive function is typically spared. Juvenile/childhood onset with generalized proximal weakness and survival to at least 13 years. Late-/adult-onset myopathy with facial and limb weakness and mtDNA deletions. Some affected individuals develop respiratory insufficiency, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and dysarthria.
Steinert myotonic dystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
886881
Concept ID:
C3250443
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. The clinical findings, which span a continuum from mild to severe, have been categorized into three somewhat overlapping phenotypes: mild, classic, and congenital. Mild DM1 is characterized by cataract and mild myotonia (sustained muscle contraction); life span is normal. Classic DM1 is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, myotonia, cataract, and often cardiac conduction abnormalities; adults may become physically disabled and may have a shortened life span. Congenital DM1 is characterized by hypotonia and severe generalized weakness at birth, often with respiratory insufficiency and early death; intellectual disability is common.
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639277
Concept ID:
C4551773
Disease or Syndrome
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by gingival fibromatosis, dysplastic or absent nails, hypoplasia of the distal phalanges, scoliosis, hepatosplenomegaly, hirsutism, and abnormalities of the cartilage of the nose and/or ears (summary by Balasubramanian and Parker, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Zimmermann-Laband Syndrome ZLS2 (616455) is caused by mutation in the ATP6V1B2 gene (606939) on chromosome 8p21. ZLS3 (618658) is caused by mutation in the KCNN3 gene (602983) on chromosome 1q21.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Intellectual disability-hypotonic facies syndrome, X-linked, 1
MedGen UID:
1676827
Concept ID:
C4759781
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants.
Martsolf syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1778114
Concept ID:
C5542298
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency with hyperphenylalaninemia
MedGen UID:
988270
Concept ID:
CN305333
Disease or Syndrome
GTP-cyclohydrolase I deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is one of the causes of malignant hyperphenylalaninemia due to tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency. Not only does tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency cause hyperphenylalaninemia, it is also responsible for defective neurotransmission of monoamines because of malfunctioning tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases, both tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent hydroxylases.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Butler MG, Miller JL, Forster JL
Curr Pediatr Rev 2019;15(4):207-244. doi: 10.2174/1573396315666190716120925. PMID: 31333129Free PMC Article
Cranwell WC, Lai VW, Photiou L, Meah N, Wall D, Rathnayake D, Joseph S, Chitreddy V, Gunatheesan S, Sindhu K, Sharma P, Green J, Eisman S, Yip L, Jones L, Sinclair R
Australas J Dermatol 2019 May;60(2):163-170. Epub 2018 Nov 8 doi: 10.1111/ajd.12941. PMID: 30411329
Engelen M, Kemp S, Poll-The BT
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2014 Oct;14(10):486. doi: 10.1007/s11910-014-0486-0. PMID: 25115486

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Iskandar K, Triono A, Sunartini, Dwianingsih EK, Indraswari BW, Kirana IR, Ivana G, Sutomo R, Patria SY, Herini ES, Gunadi
PLoS One 2022;17(10):e0276640. Epub 2022 Oct 31 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0276640. PMID: 36315559Free PMC Article
Twilhaar ES, Wade RM, de Kieviet JF, van Goudoever JB, van Elburg RM, Oosterlaan J
JAMA Pediatr 2018 Apr 1;172(4):361-367. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5323. PMID: 29459939Free PMC Article
Tse MM, Kwan RY, Lau JL
Hong Kong Med J 2018 Feb;24(1):68-72. Epub 2018 Jan 12 doi: 10.12809/hkmj166302. PMID: 29326402
Beghi E, Giussani G, Sander JW
Epileptic Disord 2015 Sep;17(3):243-53. doi: 10.1684/epd.2015.0751. PMID: 26234761
Le Goff C, Michot C, Cormier-Daire V
Clin Genet 2014 Jun;85(6):503-13. Epub 2014 Apr 2 doi: 10.1111/cge.12365. PMID: 24580733

Diagnosis

Maia N, Nabais Sá MJ, Melo-Pires M, de Brouwer APM, Jorge P
BMC Genomics 2021 Dec 20;22(1):909. doi: 10.1186/s12864-021-08227-4. PMID: 34930158Free PMC Article
Mantovani G, Elli FM
Front Horm Res 2019;51:147-159. Epub 2018 Nov 19 doi: 10.1159/000491045. PMID: 30641531
Bowling KM, Thompson ML, Amaral MD, Finnila CR, Hiatt SM, Engel KL, Cochran JN, Brothers KB, East KM, Gray DE, Kelley WV, Lamb NE, Lose EJ, Rich CA, Simmons S, Whittle JS, Weaver BT, Nesmith AS, Myers RM, Barsh GS, Bebin EM, Cooper GM
Genome Med 2017 May 30;9(1):43. doi: 10.1186/s13073-017-0433-1. PMID: 28554332Free PMC Article
Ciaccio C, Fontana L, Milani D, Tabano S, Miozzo M, Esposito S
Ital J Pediatr 2017 Apr 19;43(1):39. doi: 10.1186/s13052-017-0355-y. PMID: 28420439Free PMC Article
Hithersay R, Hamburg S, Knight B, Strydom A
Curr Opin Psychiatry 2017 Mar;30(2):102-107. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000307. PMID: 28009725

Therapy

Manfredi-Lozano M, Leysen V, Adamo M, Paiva I, Rovera R, Pignat JM, Timzoura FE, Candlish M, Eddarkaoui S, Malone SA, Silva MSB, Trova S, Imbernon M, Decoster L, Cotellessa L, Tena-Sempere M, Claret M, Paoloni-Giacobino A, Plassard D, Paccou E, Vionnet N, Acierno J, Maceski AM, Lutti A, Pfrieger F, Rasika S, Santoni F, Boehm U, Ciofi P, Buée L, Haddjeri N, Boutillier AL, Kuhle J, Messina A, Draganski B, Giacobini P, Pitteloud N, Prevot V
Science 2022 Sep 2;377(6610):eabq4515. doi: 10.1126/science.abq4515. PMID: 36048943Free PMC Article
Zhu J, Eichler F, Biffi A, Duncan CN, Williams DA, Majzoub JA
Endocr Rev 2020 Aug 1;41(4):577-93. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa013. PMID: 32364223Free PMC Article
Samanta D
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Kyle SM, Vashi N, Justice MJ
Open Biol 2018 Feb;8(2) doi: 10.1098/rsob.170216. PMID: 29445033Free PMC Article
Beghi E, Giussani G, Sander JW
Epileptic Disord 2015 Sep;17(3):243-53. doi: 10.1684/epd.2015.0751. PMID: 26234761

Prognosis

Cranwell WC, Lai VW, Photiou L, Meah N, Wall D, Rathnayake D, Joseph S, Chitreddy V, Gunatheesan S, Sindhu K, Sharma P, Green J, Eisman S, Yip L, Jones L, Sinclair R
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Ciaccio C, Fontana L, Milani D, Tabano S, Miozzo M, Esposito S
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Kaditis AG, Alonso Alvarez ML, Boudewyns A, Alexopoulos EI, Ersu R, Joosten K, Larramona H, Miano S, Narang I, Trang H, Tsaoussoglou M, Vandenbussche N, Villa MP, Van Waardenburg D, Weber S, Verhulst S
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Beghi E, Giussani G, Sander JW
Epileptic Disord 2015 Sep;17(3):243-53. doi: 10.1684/epd.2015.0751. PMID: 26234761
Le Goff C, Michot C, Cormier-Daire V
Clin Genet 2014 Jun;85(6):503-13. Epub 2014 Apr 2 doi: 10.1111/cge.12365. PMID: 24580733

Clinical prediction guides

Danopoulos S, Deutsch GH, Dumortier C, Mariani TJ, Al Alam D
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Kalantari S, Carlston C, Alsaleh N, Abdel-Salam GMH, Alkuraya F, Kato M, Matsumoto N, Miyatake S, Yamamoto T, Fares-Taie L, Rozet JM, Chassaing N, Vincent-Delorme C, Kang-Bellin A, McWalter K, Bupp C, Palen E, Wagner MD, Niceta M, Cesario C, Milone R, Kaplan J, Wadman E, Dobyns WB, Filges I
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Twilhaar ES, Wade RM, de Kieviet JF, van Goudoever JB, van Elburg RM, Oosterlaan J
JAMA Pediatr 2018 Apr 1;172(4):361-367. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5323. PMID: 29459939Free PMC Article
Kaditis AG, Alonso Alvarez ML, Boudewyns A, Alexopoulos EI, Ersu R, Joosten K, Larramona H, Miano S, Narang I, Trang H, Tsaoussoglou M, Vandenbussche N, Villa MP, Van Waardenburg D, Weber S, Verhulst S
Eur Respir J 2016 Jan;47(1):69-94. Epub 2015 Nov 5 doi: 10.1183/13993003.00385-2015. PMID: 26541535
Beghi E, Giussani G, Sander JW
Epileptic Disord 2015 Sep;17(3):243-53. doi: 10.1684/epd.2015.0751. PMID: 26234761

Recent systematic reviews

Bin Sawad A, Jackimiec J, Bechter M, Trucillo A, Lindsley K, Bhagat A, Uyei J, Diaz GA
Mol Genet Metab 2022 Sep-Oct;137(1-2):153-163. Epub 2022 Aug 25 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2022.08.005. PMID: 36049366
Khoo S, Ansari P, John J, Brooke M
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Autism Res 2022 May;15(5):778-790. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1002/aur.2696. PMID: 35238171Free PMC Article
Valentín-Gudiol M, Mattern-Baxter K, Girabent-Farrés M, Bagur-Calafat C, Hadders-Algra M, Angulo-Barroso RM
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jul 29;7(7):CD009242. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009242.pub3. PMID: 28755534Free PMC Article
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