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Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Gastrointestinal infections, recurrent; Gastrointestinal tract infections, recurrent; Recurrent gastrointestinal infections
HPO: HP:0004798


Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVRecurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract

Conditions with this feature

Microcephaly, normal intelligence and immunodeficiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, early growth deficiency that improves with age, recurrent respiratory infections, an increased risk for malignancy (primarily lymphoma), and premature ovarian failure in females. Developmental milestones are attained at the usual time during the first year; however, borderline delays in development and hyperactivity may be observed in early childhood. Intellectual abilities tend to decline over time. Recurrent pneumonia and bronchitis may result in respiratory failure and early death. Other reported malignancies include solid tumors (e.g., medulloblastoma, glioma, rhabdomyosarcoma).
Hyper-IgM syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 (HIGM2) is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels with absence of IgG, IgA, and IgE, resulting in a profound susceptibility to bacterial infections. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM, see HIGM1 (308230).
Immunoglobulin A deficiency 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Any selective IgA deficiency disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TNFRSF13B gene.
Hyper-IgM syndrome type 4
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgM syndrome is a condition characterized by normal or increased serum IgM concentrations associated with low or absent serum IgG, IgA, and IgE concentrations, indicating a defect in the class-switch recombination (CSR) process (summary by Imai et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM, see HIGM1 (308230).
Ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
EDAID2 is characterized by variable features of ectodermal dysplasia (e.g., hypo/anhidrosis, sparse hair, tooth anomalies) and various immunologic and infectious phenotypes of differing severity (summary by Boisson et al., 2017). Some patients may also have neutrophilia and autoinflammatory disease, such as liver disease (Tan et al., 2020). Mutations in the NFKBIA gene result in functional impairment of NFKB (see 164011), a master transcription factor required for normal activation of immune responses. Interruption of NFKB signaling results in decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines and certain interferons, rendering patients susceptible to infection (McDonald et al., 2007). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ectodermal dysplasia and immune deficiency, see 300291.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Immunoglobulin (Ig) A deficiency (IGAD) is characterized by decreased or absent levels of serum IgA in the presence of normal serum levels of IgG and IgM in a patient older than 4 years of age in whom other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia have been excluded. IgA in the dimeric form is the dominant immunoglobulin in luminal secretions, such as saliva, tears, bronchial secretions, nasal mucosal secretions, and mucous secretions of the small intestine. Individuals with selective IgA deficiency may be asymptomatic or have recurrent sinopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections, allergic disorders, and autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of IgA deficiency depends on the measurement of monomeric IgA concentrations in serum; thus individuals with IgA deficiency may have IgA in mucosal systems, which may offer some protection (review by Yel, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of IgA Deficiency The IGAD1 locus maps to chromosome 6p21. See also IGAD2 (609529), which is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF13B gene (604907) on chromosome 17p11.
Cryptosporidiosis-chronic cholangitis-liver disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-56 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by B- and T-cell defects and variable dysfunction of NK cells. Patients tend to have normal numbers of lymphocytes, but show defective class-switched B cells, low IgG, defective antibody response, and defective T-cell responses to certain antigens (summary by Kotlarz et al., 2013).
COG4-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the single reported case to date, seizures, some dysmorphic features, axial hypotonia, slight peripheral hypertonia and hyperreflexia.
Netherton syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Netherton syndrome (NETH) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by congenital erythroderma, a specific hair-shaft abnormality, and atopic manifestations with high IgE levels. Generalized scaly erythroderma is apparent at or soon after birth and usually persists. Scalp hair is sparse and brittle with a characteristic 'bamboo' shape under light microscopic examination due to invagination of the distal part of the hair shaft to its proximal part. Atopic manifestations include eczema-like rashes, atopic dermatitis, pruritus, hay fever, angioedema, urticaria, high levels of IgE in the serum, and hypereosinophilia. Life-threatening complications are frequent during the neonatal period, including hypernatremic dehydration, hypothermia, extreme weight loss, bronchopneumonia, and sepsis. During childhood, failure to thrive is common as a result of malnutrition, metabolic disorders, chronic erythroderma, persistent cutaneous infections, or enteropathy (summary by Bitoun et al., 2002).

Professional guidelines


Spanos K, Kouvelos G, Karathanos C, Matsagkas M, Giannoukas AD
Semin Vasc Surg 2017 Jun-Sep;30(2-3):80-84. Epub 2017 Oct 26 doi: 10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2017.10.004. PMID: 29248124
Rao K, Safdar N
J Hosp Med 2016 Jan;11(1):56-61. Epub 2015 Sep 7 doi: 10.1002/jhm.2449. PMID: 26344412Free PMC Article
Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ
J Physiol Pharmacol 2011 Dec;62(6):591-9. PMID: 22314561

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