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Spinal rigidity

MedGen UID:
346721
Concept ID:
C1858025
Finding
Synonym: Rigid spine
 
HPO: HP:0003306

Definition

Reduced ability to move the vertebral column with a resulting limitation of neck and trunk flexion. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 4
MedGen UID:
140820
Concept ID:
C0410174
Disease or Syndrome
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is characterized by hypotonia, symmetric generalized muscle weakness, and CNS migration disturbances that result in changes consistent with cobblestone lissencephaly with cerebral and cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Mild, typical, and severe phenotypes are recognized. Onset typically occurs in early infancy with poor suck, weak cry, and floppiness. Affected individuals have contractures of the hips, knees, and interphalangeal joints. Later features include myopathic facial appearance, pseudohypertrophy of the calves and forearms, motor and speech delays, intellectual disability, seizures, ophthalmologic abnormalities including visual impairment and retinal dysplasia, and progressive cardiac involvement after age ten years. Swallowing disturbance occurs in individuals with severe FCMD and in individuals older than age ten years, leading to recurrent aspiration pneumonia and death.
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy 1
MedGen UID:
98046
Concept ID:
C0410179
Disease or Syndrome
Collagen VI-related dystrophies (COL6-RDs) represent a continuum of overlapping clinical phenotypes with Bethlem muscular dystrophy at the milder end, Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) at the more severe end, and a phenotype in between UCMD and Bethlem muscular dystrophy, referred to as intermediate COL6-RD. Bethlem muscular dystrophy is characterized by a combination of proximal muscle weakness and joint contractures. Hypotonia and delayed motor milestones occur in early childhood; mild hypotonia and weakness may be present congenitally. By adulthood, there is evidence of proximal weakness and contractures of the elbows, Achilles tendons, and long finger flexors. The progression of weakness is slow, and more than two thirds of affected individuals older than age 50 years remain independently ambulatory indoors, while relying on supportive means for mobility outdoors. Respiratory involvement is not a consistent feature. UCMD is characterized by congenital weakness, hypotonia, proximal joint contractures, and striking hyperlaxity of distal joints. Decreased fetal movements are frequently reported. Some affected children acquire the ability to walk independently; however, progression of the disease results in a loss of ambulation by age ten to eleven years. Early and severe respiratory insufficiency occurs in all individuals, resulting in the need for nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the form of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) by age 11 years. Intermediate COL6-RD is characterized by independent ambulation past age 11 years and respiratory insufficiency that is later in onset than in UCMD and results in the need for NIV in the form of BiPAP by the late teens to early 20s. In contrast to individuals with Bethlem muscular dystrophy, those with intermediate COL6-RD typically do not achieve the ability to run, jump, or climb stairs without use of a railing.
Eichsfeld type congenital muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
98047
Concept ID:
C0410180
Disease or Syndrome
Rigid spine muscular dystrophy (RSMD) is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. Disorders in this group cause muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life. In particular, RSMD involves weakness of the muscles of the torso and neck (axial muscles). Other characteristic features include spine stiffness and serious breathing problems.\n\nIn RSMD, muscle weakness is often apparent at birth or within the first few months of life. Affected infants can have poor head control and weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which may delay the development of motor skills such as crawling or walking. Over time, muscles surrounding the spine atrophy, and the joints of the spine develop deformities called contractures that restrict movement. The neck and back become stiff and rigid, and affected children have limited ability to move their heads up and down or side to side. Affected children eventually develop an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). In some people with RSMD, muscles in the inner thighs also atrophy, although it does not impair the ability to walk.\n\nA characteristic feature of RSMD is breathing difficulty (respiratory insufficiency) due to restricted movement of the torso and weakness of the diaphragm, which is the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity. The breathing problems, which tend to occur only at night, can be life-threatening. Many affected individuals require a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation) during sleep.\n\nThe combination of features characteristic of RSMD, particularly axial muscle weakness, spine rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency, is sometimes referred to as rigid spine syndrome. While these features occur on their own in RSMD, they can also occur along with additional signs and symptoms in other muscle disorders. The features of rigid spine syndrome typically appear at a younger age in people with RSMD than in those with other muscle disorders.
Benign scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy with cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
98048
Concept ID:
C0410190
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is characterized by the clinical triad of: joint contractures that begin in early childhood; slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting initially in a humero-peroneal distribution that later extends to the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles; and cardiac involvement that may manifest as palpitations, presyncope and syncope, poor exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure along with variable cardiac rhythm disturbances. Age of onset, severity, and progression of muscle and cardiac involvement demonstrate both inter- and intrafamilial variability. Clinical variability ranges from early onset with severe presentation in childhood to late onset with slow progression in adulthood. In general, joint contractures appear during the first two decades, followed by muscle weakness and wasting. Cardiac involvement usually occurs after the second decade and respiratory function may be impaired in some individuals.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2K
MedGen UID:
332193
Concept ID:
C1836373
Disease or Syndrome
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239) represent the mildest end of the phenotypic spectrum of muscular dystrophies collectively known as dystroglycanopathies. The limb-girdle phenotype is characterized by onset of muscular weakness apparent after ambulation is achieved; mental retardation and mild brain anomalies are variable (Balci et al., 2005; review by Godfrey et al., 2007). The most severe end of the phenotypic spectrum of dystroglycanopathies is represented by congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A; see MDDGA1, 236670), previously designated Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) or muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), and the intermediate range of the spectrum is represented by congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with or without mental retardation (type B; see MDDGB1, 613155). Genetic Heterogeneity of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy (Type C) Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy due to defective glycosylation of DAG1 is genetically heterogeneous. See also MDDGC2 (613158), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGC3 (613157), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGC4 (611588), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGC5 (607155), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGC7 (616052), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGC8 (618135), caused by mutation in the POMGNT2 gene (614828); MDDGC9 (613818) caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGC12 (616094), caused by mutation in the POMK gene (615247); MDDGC14 (615352) caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320); and MDDGC15 (612937), caused by mutation in the DPM3 gene (605951).
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1F
MedGen UID:
333983
Concept ID:
C1842062
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-2 (LGMDD2) is a myopathy characterized by proximal muscle weakness primarily affecting the lower limbs, but also affecting the upper limbs in most patients. Affected individuals also have distal muscle weakness of the hands and lower leg muscles. There is variability in presentation and progression. Some patients present in early childhood with mildly delayed walking and difficulty running and jumping, whereas others present as adults with mainly pelvic-girdle weakness. Patients with early onset tend to have a more severe disorder, and may develop contractures, loss of independent ambulation, and respiratory insufficiency. Muscle biopsy shows dystrophic changes with abnormal nuclei, rimmed vacuoles, and filamentous inclusions (summary by Melia et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDD1 (603511).
Nemaline myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (255310), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM3 (161800), caused by mutation in the alpha-actin-1 gene (ACTA1; 102610) on chromosome 1q42; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5A (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, NEM5B (620386), and NEM5C (620389), all caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006).
Myosclerosis
MedGen UID:
338098
Concept ID:
C1850671
Disease or Syndrome
Collagen VI-related dystrophies (COL6-RDs) represent a continuum of overlapping clinical phenotypes with Bethlem muscular dystrophy at the milder end, Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) at the more severe end, and a phenotype in between UCMD and Bethlem muscular dystrophy, referred to as intermediate COL6-RD. Bethlem muscular dystrophy is characterized by a combination of proximal muscle weakness and joint contractures. Hypotonia and delayed motor milestones occur in early childhood; mild hypotonia and weakness may be present congenitally. By adulthood, there is evidence of proximal weakness and contractures of the elbows, Achilles tendons, and long finger flexors. The progression of weakness is slow, and more than two thirds of affected individuals older than age 50 years remain independently ambulatory indoors, while relying on supportive means for mobility outdoors. Respiratory involvement is not a consistent feature. UCMD is characterized by congenital weakness, hypotonia, proximal joint contractures, and striking hyperlaxity of distal joints. Decreased fetal movements are frequently reported. Some affected children acquire the ability to walk independently; however, progression of the disease results in a loss of ambulation by age ten to eleven years. Early and severe respiratory insufficiency occurs in all individuals, resulting in the need for nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the form of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) by age 11 years. Intermediate COL6-RD is characterized by independent ambulation past age 11 years and respiratory insufficiency that is later in onset than in UCMD and results in the need for NIV in the form of BiPAP by the late teens to early 20s. In contrast to individuals with Bethlem muscular dystrophy, those with intermediate COL6-RD typically do not achieve the ability to run, jump, or climb stairs without use of a railing.
Congenital muscular dystrophy 1B
MedGen UID:
346746
Concept ID:
C1858118
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neuromuscular disorder characterized by proximal and symmetrical muscle weakness (particularly of neck, sternomastoid, facial and diaphragm muscles), spinal rigidity, joint contractures (Achilles tendon, elbows, hands), generalized muscle hypertrophy and early respiratory failure (usually in the first decade of life). Patients typically present delayed motor milestones and grossly elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and with disease progression, forced expiratory abdominal squeeze and nocturnal hypoventilation.
X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy
MedGen UID:
395525
Concept ID:
C2678055
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is characterized by the clinical triad of: joint contractures that begin in early childhood; slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting initially in a humero-peroneal distribution that later extends to the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles; and cardiac involvement that may manifest as palpitations, presyncope and syncope, poor exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure along with variable cardiac rhythm disturbances. Age of onset, severity, and progression of muscle and cardiac involvement demonstrate both inter- and intrafamilial variability. Clinical variability ranges from early onset with severe presentation in childhood to late onset with slow progression in adulthood. In general, joint contractures appear during the first two decades, followed by muscle weakness and wasting. Cardiac involvement usually occurs after the second decade and respiratory function may be impaired in some individuals.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4
MedGen UID:
412871
Concept ID:
C2750069
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (CGL4) combines the phenotype of classic Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy (608594) with muscular dystrophy and cardiac conduction anomalies (Hayashi et al., 2009). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital generalized lipodystrophy, see CGL1 (608594).
Congenital muscular dystrophy due to LMNA mutation
MedGen UID:
413043
Concept ID:
C2750785
Disease or Syndrome
LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) is a condition that primarily affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). It is part of a group of genetic conditions called congenital muscular dystrophies, which cause weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life.\n\nIn people with L-CMD, muscle weakness becomes apparent in infancy or early childhood and can worsen quickly. The most severely affected infants develop few motor skills, and they are never able to hold up their heads, roll over, or sit. Less severely affected children may learn to sit, stand, and walk before muscle weakness becomes apparent. First the neck muscles weaken, causing the head to fall forward (dropped-head syndrome). As other skeletal muscles become weaker, these children may ultimately lose the ability to sit, stand, and walk unassisted.\n\nOther features of L-CMD often include spinal rigidity and abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis and lordosis); joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement, particularly in the hips and legs; and an inward-turning foot. People with L-CMD also have an increased risk of heart rhythm abnormalities (arrhythmias).\n\nOver time, muscle weakness causes most infants and children with L-CMD to have trouble eating and breathing. The breathing problems result from restrictive respiratory insufficiency, which occurs when muscles in the chest are weakened and the ribcage becomes increasingly rigid. This problem can be life-threatening, and many affected children require support with a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation).
Myofibrillar myopathy 6
MedGen UID:
414119
Concept ID:
C2751831
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-6 is an autosomal dominant severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset in the first decade of rapidly progressive generalized and proximal muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal deformities related to muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy shows fiber-type grouping, disruption of the Z lines, and filamentous inclusions, and sural nerve biopsy shows a neuropathy, often with giant axonal neurons. Most patients are severely affected by the second decade and need cardiac transplant, ventilation, and/or a wheelchair (summary by Jaffer et al., 2012). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), see MFM1 (601419).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A2
MedGen UID:
461761
Concept ID:
C3150411
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and death usually in the first years of life. It represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (van Reeuwijk et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
767376
Concept ID:
C3554462
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-11 is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset in childhood or adulthood of progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), muscle weakness and atrophy, exercise intolerance, and respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness. More variable features include spinal deformity, emaciation, and cardiac abnormalities. Skeletal muscle biopsies show deletion and depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with variable defects in respiratory chain enzyme activities (summary by Kornblum et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041).
Actin accumulation myopathy
MedGen UID:
777997
Concept ID:
C3711389
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-2A (CMYP2A) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy with delayed motor milestones and nonprogressive muscle weakness. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype (CMYP2C; 620278). Some patients with de novo mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation. Less frequently, autosomal dominant transmission of the disorder within a family may occur when the ACTA1 mutation produces a phenotype compatible with adult life. Of note, intrafamilial variability has also been reported: a severely affected proband may be identified and then mildly affected or even asymptomatic relatives are found to carry the same mutation. The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). The most common histologic finding on muscle biopsy in patients with ACTA1 mutations is the presence of 'nemaline rods,' which represent abnormal thread- or rod-like structures ('nema' is Greek for 'thread'). However, skeletal muscle biopsy from patients with mutations in the ACTA1 gene can show a range of pathologic phenotypes. These include classic rods, intranuclear rods, clumped filaments, cores, or fiber-type disproportion, all of which are nonspecific pathologic findings and not pathognomonic of a specific congenital myopathy. Most patients have clinically severe disease, regardless of the histopathologic phenotype (Nowak et al., 2007; Sewry et al., 2019). ACTA1 mutations are the second most common cause of congenital myopathies classified histologically as 'nemaline myopathy' after mutations in the NEB gene (161650). ACTA1 mutations are overrepresented in the severe phenotype with early death (Laing et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Myopathy, tubular aggregate, 2
MedGen UID:
862994
Concept ID:
C4014557
Disease or Syndrome
Any tubular aggregate myopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ORAI1 gene.
Myopathy, reducing body, X-linked, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
904593
Concept ID:
C4225159
Disease or Syndrome
Reducing-body myopathy (RBM) is a rare myopathy characterized pathologically by the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies strongly stained by menadione-linked alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (MAG) in the absence of substrate, alpha-glycerophosphate. The term 'reducing body' refers to the reducing activity of the inclusions to nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) in the absence of substrate. This condition is also commonly associated with rimmed vacuoles and cytoplasmic bodies. The clinical features of RBM are variable; a severe form has onset in infancy or early childhood and results in severe disability or early death (RBMX1A; 300717), and a less severe form has onset in late childhood or adulthood (RBMX1B) (summary by Liewluck et al., 2007 and Shalaby et al., 2009).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
897962
Concept ID:
C4225235
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-19 (CMS19) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a defect in the neuromuscular junction, causing generalized muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and respiratory insufficiency. Patients present with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and respiratory problems soon after birth, but the severity of the weakness and disease course is variable (summary by Logan et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myopathy, reducing body, X-linked, early-onset, severe
MedGen UID:
906731
Concept ID:
C4225423
Disease or Syndrome
Reducing-body myopathy (RBM) is a rare myopathy characterized pathologically by the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies strongly stained by menadione-linked alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (MAG) in the absence of substrate, alpha-glycerophosphate. The term 'reducing body' refers to the reducing activity of the inclusions to nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) in the absence of substrate. This condition is also commonly associated with rimmed vacuoles and cytoplasmic bodies. The clinical features of RBM are variable; a severe form has onset in infancy or early childhood and results in severe disability or early death, and a less severe form has onset in late childhood or adulthood (RBMX1B; 300718) (summary by Liewluck et al., 2007 and Shalaby et al., 2009).
Myofibrillar myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
934612
Concept ID:
C4310645
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-8 (MFM8) is an autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the upper and lower limbs, resulting in increased falls, gait problems, difficulty running or climbing stairs, and upper limb weakness or scapular winging. Some patients develop distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The phenotype may also be consistent with a clinical diagnosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Age at symptom onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. Ambulation is generally preserved and cardiac involvement is rare, but respiratory compromise with decreased forced vital capacity often occurs. Muscle biopsy shows a mix of myopathic features, including myofibrillar inclusions and sarcomeric disorganization; some patients have been reported to have dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy (O'Grady et al., 2016; Daimaguler et al., 2021). There is significant phenotypic variation, even in patients with the same mutation, which must be taken into account when counseling affecting individuals (Woods et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Myofibrillar myopathy 7
MedGen UID:
934678
Concept ID:
C4310711
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-7 (MFM7) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by early childhood onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness that primarily affects the lower limbs and is associated with joint contractures (summary by Straussberg et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Congenital muscular dystrophy-respiratory failure-skin abnormalities-joint hyperlaxity syndrome
MedGen UID:
934703
Concept ID:
C4310736
Disease or Syndrome
A rare congenital muscular dystrophy characterised by neonatal hypotonia, life-threatening respiratory failure and feeding difficulties, furthermore by delayed motor development, severe muscle weakness predominantly affecting axial muscles (leading to poor head control, rigid cervical spine, and severe scoliosis), generalised joint laxity with no or mild contractures, as well as dry skin with follicular hyperkeratosis. Serum creatine kinase is normal or slightly elevated. Muscle biopsy shows fibre size variability, rounded fibres with mild increase of endomysial connective tissue and adipose replacement, abundant minicore lesions, increase of centrally located nuclei, angular fibres and cap lesions.
Congenital muscular dystrophy with cataracts and intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
1382291
Concept ID:
C4479410
Disease or Syndrome
MDCCAID is an autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy with onset of progressive muscle weakness in early childhood. Almost all patients also have early-onset cataracts, most have intellectual disability of varying severity, and some have seizures (summary by Wiessner et al., 2017 and Osborn et al., 2017).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2Y
MedGen UID:
1385152
Concept ID:
C4511482
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive myopathy with rigid spine and distal joint contractures (MRRSDC) is characterized by onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness in the first or second decades of life. There is initial involvement of the proximal lower limbs, followed by distal upper and lower limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Other features include joint contractures, rigid spine, and restricted pulmonary function; some patients may have mild cardiac involvement (summary by Kayman-Kurekci et al., 2014).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 25, presynaptic
MedGen UID:
1683288
Concept ID:
C5193027
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-25 (CMS25) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by hypotonia and generalized muscle weakness apparent from birth. Affected individuals have feeding difficulties and delayed motor development, usually never achieving independent ambulation. Additional variable features include eye movement abnormalities, joint contractures, and rigid spine. Pyridostigmine treatment may be partially effective (summary by Shen et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myopathy, congenital, with tremor
MedGen UID:
1684886
Concept ID:
C5231401
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-16 (CMYP16) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia and tremor in infancy. Patients have mildly delayed walking, unsteady gait, proximal muscle weakness, and a high-frequency tremor of the limbs. Some may develop secondary mild contractures or spinal deformities. Cognition is normal and the disease course tends to stabilize after adolescence (summary by Stavusis et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
1794212
Concept ID:
C5562002
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-27 (LGMDR27) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness primarily affecting the lower limbs and resulting in walking difficulty or loss of ambulation. The age at onset is highly variable, from infancy to young adulthood. Patients with infantile onset may have a more severe disease course with rapid progression. Upper limb involvement and distal muscle weakness may also occur. Additional more variable features include neck muscle weakness, scoliosis, and joint contractures. Less common features include impaired intellectual development or speech delay, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac arrhythmia. Muscle biopsy shows nonspecific dystrophic changes (Coppens et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDR1 (253600).
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1804638
Concept ID:
C5676876
Disease or Syndrome
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-1 (CFZS1) is a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by hypotonia, Moebius sequence (bilateral congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction), Pierre Robin complex (micrognathia, glossoptosis, and high-arched or cleft palate), delayed motor milestones, and failure to thrive. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, brain abnormalities, and intellectual disability. It has been postulated that many clinical features in CFZS1 may be secondary effects of muscle weakness during development or brainstem anomalies (summary by Pasetti et al., 2016). Di Gioia et al. (2017) determined that CFZS1 represents a slowly progressive congenital myopathy resulting from a defect in myoblast fusion. Genetic Heterogeneity of Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-2 (CFZS2) is caused by mutation in the MYMX gene (619912) on chromosome 6p21.
Congenital myopathy 21 with early respiratory failure
MedGen UID:
1841060
Concept ID:
C5830424
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-21 with early respiratory failure (CMYP21) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder associated with diaphragmatic weakness and spinal rigidity. The age at symptom onset is highly variable, ranging from infancy to adulthood; the severity of the respiratory impairment, which can lead to death in the most severe cases, is also variable. Additional features, including developmental delay and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, have been observed in one patient each (Weihl et al., 2023; Al-Kasbi et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital myopathy 22A, classic
MedGen UID:
1841089
Concept ID:
C5830453
Disease or Syndrome
Classic congenital myopathy-22A (CMYP22A) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero or soon after birth. Early features may include fetal hypokinesia, breech presentation, and polyhydramnios. Affected individuals are born with severe hypotonia and require respiratory and feeding assistance. Those who survive the neonatal period show a 'classic' phenotype of congenital myopathy with delayed motor development, difficulty walking, proximal muscle weakness of the upper and lower limbs, facial and neck muscle weakness, easy fatigability, and mild limb contractures or foot deformities. Some have persistent respiratory insufficiency; dysmorphic facial features may be present (Zaharieva et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital myopathy 22B, severe fetal
MedGen UID:
1841137
Concept ID:
C5830501
Disease or Syndrome
Severe fetal congenital myopathy-22B (CMYP22B) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by in utero onset of severe muscle weakness manifest as fetal akinesia. The pregnancies are often complicated by polyhydramnios, and affected individuals develop fetal hydrops with pulmonary hypoplasia, severe joint contractures, and generalized muscle hypoplasia. Those who are born have respiratory failure resulting in death. Dysmorphic facial features may be present. The features in these patients overlap with fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS; see 208150) and lethal congenital contractures syndrome (LCCS; see 253310) (Zaharieva et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Nemaline myopathy 5B, autosomal recessive, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
1841181
Concept ID:
C5830545
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive childhood-onset nemaline myopathy-5B (NEM5B) is a skeletal muscle disorder in which patients usually present with proximal muscle weakness of the lower and upper limbs in a limb-girdle distribution, resulting in gait abnormalities; however, most remain ambulatory even into late adulthood. Some affected individuals show delayed motor development. There is axial weakness and atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, along with kyphosis, scoliosis, and rigid spine, as well as variable limitations of the large joints. Most patients develop restrictive respiratory insufficiency with decreased forced vital capacity; some need noninvasive ventilation. Serum creatine kinase may be elevated. Muscle biopsy can show variable features, including nemaline rods, multiminicore lesions, endomysial fibrosis, and myofibrillar changes (Pellerin et al., 2020; Lee et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Maschmann C, Jeppesen E, Rubin MA, Barfod C
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2019 Aug 19;27(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s13049-019-0655-x. PMID: 31426850Free PMC Article
Sardar ZM, Ames RJ, Lenke L
J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2019 May 15;27(10):e462-e472. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-17-00748. PMID: 30407981
Wood KB, Li W, Lebl DR, Ploumis A
Spine J 2014 Jan;14(1):145-64. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2012.10.041. PMID: 24332321

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Sarkozy A, Sa M, Ridout D, Fernandez-Garcia MA, Distefano MG, Main M, Sheehan J, Manzur AY, Munot P, Robb S, Wraige E, Quinlivan R, Scoto M, Baranello G, Gowda V, Mein R, Phadke R, Jungbluth H, Muntoni F
Neurology 2023 Oct 10;101(15):e1495-e1508. Epub 2023 Aug 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207723. PMID: 37643885Free PMC Article
Verhofste BP, Emans JB, Miller PE, Birch CM, Thompson GH, Samdani AF, Sanchez Perez-Grueso FJ, McClung AM, Glotzbecker MP; on behalf of the Pediatric Spine Study Group
J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr 21;103(8):715-726. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00600. PMID: 33475309
Villar-Quiles RN, von der Hagen M, Métay C, Gonzalez V, Donkervoort S, Bertini E, Castiglioni C, Chaigne D, Colomer J, Cuadrado ML, de Visser M, Desguerre I, Eymard B, Goemans N, Kaindl A, Lagrue E, Lütschg J, Malfatti E, Mayer M, Merlini L, Orlikowski D, Reuner U, Salih MA, Schlotter-Weigel B, Stoetter M, Straub V, Topaloglu H, Urtizberea JA, van der Kooi A, Wilichowski E, Romero NB, Fardeau M, Bönnemann CG, Estournet B, Richard P, Quijano-Roy S, Schara U, Ferreiro A
Neurology 2020 Sep 15;95(11):e1512-e1527. Epub 2020 Aug 13 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010327. PMID: 32796131Free PMC Article
Fu XN, Xiong H
Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 Nov 5;130(21):2624-2631. doi: 10.4103/0366-6999.217091. PMID: 29067961Free PMC Article
Jungbluth H
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Jul 13;2:31. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-31. PMID: 17631035Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Villar-Quiles RN, von der Hagen M, Métay C, Gonzalez V, Donkervoort S, Bertini E, Castiglioni C, Chaigne D, Colomer J, Cuadrado ML, de Visser M, Desguerre I, Eymard B, Goemans N, Kaindl A, Lagrue E, Lütschg J, Malfatti E, Mayer M, Merlini L, Orlikowski D, Reuner U, Salih MA, Schlotter-Weigel B, Stoetter M, Straub V, Topaloglu H, Urtizberea JA, van der Kooi A, Wilichowski E, Romero NB, Fardeau M, Bönnemann CG, Estournet B, Richard P, Quijano-Roy S, Schara U, Ferreiro A
Neurology 2020 Sep 15;95(11):e1512-e1527. Epub 2020 Aug 13 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010327. PMID: 32796131Free PMC Article
Tordjman M, Dabaj I, Laforet P, Felter A, Ferreiro A, Biyoukar M, Law-Ye B, Zanoteli E, Castiglioni C, Rendu J, Beroud C, Chamouni A, Richard P, Mompoint D, Quijano-Roy S, Carlier RY
Eur Radiol 2018 Dec;28(12):5293-5303. Epub 2018 May 25 doi: 10.1007/s00330-018-5472-5. PMID: 29802573
Fu XN, Xiong H
Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 Nov 5;130(21):2624-2631. doi: 10.4103/0366-6999.217091. PMID: 29067961Free PMC Article
Trigui M, Ayadi K, Zribi M, Triki Z, Keskes H
Acta Orthop Belg 2011 Apr;77(2):139-44. PMID: 21667723
Jungbluth H
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Jul 13;2:31. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-31. PMID: 17631035Free PMC Article

Therapy

Eaton RG, Wang JL, Munjal V, Dhaliwal J, Maggio D, Keister A, Gibbs D, Mallory N, Sparks A, Moranville R, Xu DS, Grossbach AJ, Viljoen S
J Neurosurg Spine 2024 Jan 1;40(1):99-106. Epub 2023 Oct 27 doi: 10.3171/2023.8.SPINE23314. PMID: 37890185
Bouman K, Groothuis JT, Doorduin J, van Alfen N, Udink Ten Cate FEA, van den Heuvel FMA, Nijveldt R, Kamsteeg EJ, Dittrich ATM, Draaisma JMT, Janssen MCH, van Engelen BGM, Erasmus CE, Voermans NC
J Neuromuscul Dis 2023;10(6):1055-1074. doi: 10.3233/JND-221673. PMID: 37807786Free PMC Article
Villar-Quiles RN, von der Hagen M, Métay C, Gonzalez V, Donkervoort S, Bertini E, Castiglioni C, Chaigne D, Colomer J, Cuadrado ML, de Visser M, Desguerre I, Eymard B, Goemans N, Kaindl A, Lagrue E, Lütschg J, Malfatti E, Mayer M, Merlini L, Orlikowski D, Reuner U, Salih MA, Schlotter-Weigel B, Stoetter M, Straub V, Topaloglu H, Urtizberea JA, van der Kooi A, Wilichowski E, Romero NB, Fardeau M, Bönnemann CG, Estournet B, Richard P, Quijano-Roy S, Schara U, Ferreiro A
Neurology 2020 Sep 15;95(11):e1512-e1527. Epub 2020 Aug 13 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010327. PMID: 32796131Free PMC Article
Baeten D, Baraliakos X, Braun J, Sieper J, Emery P, van der Heijde D, McInnes I, van Laar JM, Landewé R, Wordsworth P, Wollenhaupt J, Kellner H, Paramarta J, Wei J, Brachat A, Bek S, Laurent D, Li Y, Wang YA, Bertolino AP, Gsteiger S, Wright AM, Hueber W
Lancet 2013 Nov 23;382(9906):1705-13. Epub 2013 Sep 13 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61134-4. PMID: 24035250

Prognosis

Sarkozy A, Sa M, Ridout D, Fernandez-Garcia MA, Distefano MG, Main M, Sheehan J, Manzur AY, Munot P, Robb S, Wraige E, Quinlivan R, Scoto M, Baranello G, Gowda V, Mein R, Phadke R, Jungbluth H, Muntoni F
Neurology 2023 Oct 10;101(15):e1495-e1508. Epub 2023 Aug 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207723. PMID: 37643885Free PMC Article
Verhofste BP, Emans JB, Miller PE, Birch CM, Thompson GH, Samdani AF, Sanchez Perez-Grueso FJ, McClung AM, Glotzbecker MP; on behalf of the Pediatric Spine Study Group
J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr 21;103(8):715-726. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00600. PMID: 33475309
Villar-Quiles RN, von der Hagen M, Métay C, Gonzalez V, Donkervoort S, Bertini E, Castiglioni C, Chaigne D, Colomer J, Cuadrado ML, de Visser M, Desguerre I, Eymard B, Goemans N, Kaindl A, Lagrue E, Lütschg J, Malfatti E, Mayer M, Merlini L, Orlikowski D, Reuner U, Salih MA, Schlotter-Weigel B, Stoetter M, Straub V, Topaloglu H, Urtizberea JA, van der Kooi A, Wilichowski E, Romero NB, Fardeau M, Bönnemann CG, Estournet B, Richard P, Quijano-Roy S, Schara U, Ferreiro A
Neurology 2020 Sep 15;95(11):e1512-e1527. Epub 2020 Aug 13 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010327. PMID: 32796131Free PMC Article
Chen T, Lu X, Shi Q, Guo J, Wang H, Wang Q, Yin X, Zhang Y, Pu C, Zhou D
Neuromuscul Disord 2020 Feb;30(2):165-172. Epub 2019 Nov 28 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2019.11.011. PMID: 32001145
Jungbluth H
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Jul 13;2:31. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-31. PMID: 17631035Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Bouman K, Groothuis JT, Doorduin J, van Alfen N, Udink Ten Cate FEA, van den Heuvel FMA, Nijveldt R, Kamsteeg EJ, Dittrich ATM, Draaisma JMT, Janssen MCH, van Engelen BGM, Erasmus CE, Voermans NC
J Neuromuscul Dis 2023;10(6):1055-1074. doi: 10.3233/JND-221673. PMID: 37807786Free PMC Article
Sarkozy A, Sa M, Ridout D, Fernandez-Garcia MA, Distefano MG, Main M, Sheehan J, Manzur AY, Munot P, Robb S, Wraige E, Quinlivan R, Scoto M, Baranello G, Gowda V, Mein R, Phadke R, Jungbluth H, Muntoni F
Neurology 2023 Oct 10;101(15):e1495-e1508. Epub 2023 Aug 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207723. PMID: 37643885Free PMC Article
Verhofste BP, Emans JB, Miller PE, Birch CM, Thompson GH, Samdani AF, Sanchez Perez-Grueso FJ, McClung AM, Glotzbecker MP; on behalf of the Pediatric Spine Study Group
J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr 21;103(8):715-726. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00600. PMID: 33475309
Chen T, Lu X, Shi Q, Guo J, Wang H, Wang Q, Yin X, Zhang Y, Pu C, Zhou D
Neuromuscul Disord 2020 Feb;30(2):165-172. Epub 2019 Nov 28 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2019.11.011. PMID: 32001145
Beecroft SJ, van de Locht M, de Winter JM, Ottenheijm CA, Sewry CA, Mohammed S, Ryan MM, Woodcock IR, Sanders L, Gooding R, Davis MR, Oates EC, Laing NG, Ravenscroft G, McLean CA, Jungbluth H
Neuromuscul Disord 2019 Jun;29(6):456-467. Epub 2019 Apr 12 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2019.04.002. PMID: 31130376

Recent systematic reviews

Fu XN, Xiong H
Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 Nov 5;130(21):2624-2631. doi: 10.4103/0366-6999.217091. PMID: 29067961Free PMC Article

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