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MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
HPO: HP:0003086


Small hands and feet. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Acromesomelia

Conditions with this feature

Grebe syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Acromesomelic dysplasia-2A (AMD2A), or Grebe chondrodysplasia, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe abnormality of the limbs and limb joints. The severity of limb shortening progresses in a proximal-distal gradient, with the hands and feet being most affected. The fingers and toes lack articulation and appear as skin appendages. In contrast, axial skeletal structures and the craniofacial skeleton are not affected. Heterozygous individuals are of average stature and have mild skeletal abnormalities (summary by Thomas et al., 1997). Because Grebe syndrome exhibits increasing severity in a proximal-distal gradient, it is classified as a form of acromesomelic dysplasia (Costa et al., 1998). For discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875).
Acromesomelic dysplasia 1, Maroteaux type
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
The acromesomelic dysplasias are disorders in which there is disproportionate shortening of skeletal elements, predominantly affecting the middle segments (forearms and forelegs) and distal segments (hands and feet) of the appendicular skeleton. Acromesomelic dysplasia-1 (AMD1) is characterized by severe dwarfism (height below 120 cm) with shortening of the middle and distal segments of the limbs. This condition is usually diagnosed at birth and becomes more obvious in the first 2 years of life. X-rays show short broad fingers, square flat feet, and shortening of the long bones (particularly the forearms). The radius is bowed; the ulna is shorter than the radius, and its distal end is occasionally hypoplastic. The skull is dolichocephalic and a shortness of the trunk, with decreased vertebral height and narrowing of the lumbar interpedicular distances, is consistently observed. Facial appearance and intelligence are normal (summary by Faivre et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Acromesomelic Dysplasia Additional autosomal recessive forms of acromesomelic dysplasia include acromesomelic dysplasia-2A (200700), -2B (228900), and -2C (201250), all caused by mutation in the GDF5 gene (601146) on chromosome 20q11; AMD3 (200700), caused by mutation in the BMPR1B gene (603248) on chromosome 4q22; and AMD4 (619636), caused by mutation in the PRKG2 gene (601591) on chromosome 4q21. An autosomal dominant form of acromesomelic dysplasia has also been reported (see 112910).
Acromesomelic dysplasia 2C, Hunter-Thompson type
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Acromesomelic dysplasia-2C (AMD2C) is characterized by skeletal abnormalities restricted to the limbs; the craniofacial skeleton and axial skeletal structures are normal. The severity of the long bone shortening progresses in a proximal to distal direction. The hands and feet are most severely affected, but the distal phalanges are relative normal. Affected individuals have joint dislocations but the number of joints involved is not constant (summary by Thomas et al., 1996). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875).

Recent clinical studies


Mollaoğlu E, Uludağ Alkaya D, Yıldız CA, Kasap B, Tüysüz B
Clin Genet 2023 May;103(5):574-579. Epub 2022 Dec 20 doi: 10.1111/cge.14277. PMID: 36504352


Mollaoğlu E, Uludağ Alkaya D, Yıldız CA, Kasap B, Tüysüz B
Clin Genet 2023 May;103(5):574-579. Epub 2022 Dec 20 doi: 10.1111/cge.14277. PMID: 36504352
Shenoy MM, Gopa K, Girisha BS, Pinto J, Shetty V
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2008 Apr-Jun;6(2):220-2. PMID: 18769091

Clinical prediction guides

Leroy JG, Claus L, Lee B, Mortier GR
Pediatr Pathol Mol Med 2003 Jan-Feb;22(1):23-35. doi: 10.1080/pdp. PMID: 12687887

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