U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Periventricular nodular heterotopia(PVNH)

MedGen UID:
358387
Concept ID:
C1868720
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: PVNH
SNOMED CT: Periventricular nodular heterotopia (816068000); PVNH - periventricular nodular heterotopia (816068000)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
X-linked dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
376232
Concept ID:
C1847879
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for dominant traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked dominant disorders tend to manifest very severely in affected males. The severity of manifestation in females may depend on the degree of skewed X inactivation.
 
Related genes: ARFGEF2, FLNA
 
HPO: HP:0032388
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0020341
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS300049
Orphanet: ORPHA98892

Definition

Nodules of heterotopia along the ventricular walls. There can be a single nodule or a large number of nodules, they can exist on either or both sides of the brain at any point along the higher ventricle margins, they can be small or large, single or multiple. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Periventricular heterotopia with microcephaly, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
334110
Concept ID:
C1842563
Disease or Syndrome
Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis
MedGen UID:
350933
Concept ID:
C1863616
Disease or Syndrome
Verloes et al. (1992) described a rare variant of frontonasal dysplasia (see FND1, 136760), designated acromelic frontonasal dysplasia (AFND), in which similar craniofacial anomalies are associated with variable central nervous system malformations and limb defects including tibial hypoplasia/aplasia, talipes equinovarus, and preaxial polydactyly of the feet.
Orofaciodigital syndrome type 6
MedGen UID:
411200
Concept ID:
C2745997
Disease or Syndrome
Orofaciodigital syndrome type VI (OFD6), or Varadi syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder distinguished from other orofaciodigital syndromes by metacarpal abnormalities with central polydactyly and by cerebellar abnormalities, including the molar tooth sign (summary by Doss et al., 1998 and Lopez et al., 2014).
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 6
MedGen UID:
816202
Concept ID:
C3809872
Disease or Syndrome
Any periventricular nodular heterotopia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ERMARD gene.
Van Maldergem syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
816205
Concept ID:
C3809875
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Van Maldergem syndrome, see 601390.
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7
MedGen UID:
934636
Concept ID:
C4310669
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-7 (PVNH7) is a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal neuronal migration during brain development resulting in delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability; some patients develop seizures. Other features include cleft palate and 2-3 toe syndactyly (summary by Broix et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular heterotopia, see 300049.
Van Maldergem syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644627
Concept ID:
C4551950
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Van Maldergem Syndrome See also VMLDS2 (615546), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28.
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 8
MedGen UID:
1648287
Concept ID:
C4748602
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-8 (PVNH8) is a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal neuronal migration during brain development, resulting in delayed psychomotor development. Three patients have been reported (Ge et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular heterotopia, see PVNH1 (300049).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar hypoplasia and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1684815
Concept ID:
C5231415
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684792
Concept ID:
C5231448
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies (NEDDFSA) is a global neurodevelopmental disorder with highly variable features. Patients often show poor feeding, poor overall growth, and hypotonia from early infancy, followed by mildly delayed motor development, poor language acquisition, and behavioral abnormalities. Intellectual development varies from severe with absent speech to mild with the ability to attend special schools. Common features include dysmorphic facial features with notable eye anomalies, joint hypermobility, and mild skeletal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Carapito et al., 2019).
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 9
MedGen UID:
1718470
Concept ID:
C5394503
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-9 (PVNH9) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized as a malformation of cortical development. Anterior predominant PVNH, thin corpus callosum, and decreased white matter volume are found on brain imaging, but the clinical effects are variable. Most patients have impaired intellectual development and cognitive defects associated with low IQ (range 50 to 80), learning disabilities, and behavior abnormalities. Some patients develop seizures that tend to have a focal origin. However, some mutation carriers may be less severely affected with borderline or even normal IQ, suggesting incomplete penetrance of the phenotype (summary by Heinzen et al., 2018, Walters et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular nodular heterotopia, see 300049.
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1744611
Concept ID:
C5436883
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome-3 (RTSC3) is characterized by craniocerebellocardiac anomalies and severe postnatal growth restriction, as well as complicated skeletal malformations, including vertebral body hypoossification, sternal aplasia, and chondrodysplasia punctata. Other features include developmental delay, ocular anomalies, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and proteinuria (Kato et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome, see RTSC1 (220210).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 64
MedGen UID:
1784554
Concept ID:
C5543067
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-64 (MRD64) is characterized by mildly to severely impaired intellectual development (ID) with speech delays. Most patients also have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additional features are highly variable but may include motor delay, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and nonspecific dysmorphic features (summary by Mirzaa et al., 2020).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 54
MedGen UID:
1812715
Concept ID:
C5676912
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-54 (COXPD54) is an autosomal recessive disorder with pleiotropic multisystem presentations resulting from a disruption in mitochondrial transcription and translation. The phenotype is highly variable. Many patients have early-onset sensorineural hearing loss, sometimes in isolation, and sometimes associated with global developmental delay or primary ovarian failure. Other features may include peripheral hypertonia, seizures, muscle weakness, behavioral abnormalities, and leukoencephalopathy on brain imaging. Serum lactate may or may not be elevated (summary by Hochberg et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders
MedGen UID:
1823997
Concept ID:
C5774224
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders (DEDBANP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild global developmental delay and normal or variably impaired intellectual development. Most individuals have behavioral or neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and executive functioning deficits. Additional features may include speech delay, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, sleep disturbances, and seizures (Vitobello et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Edey J, Soleimani-Nouri P, Dawson-Kavanagh A, Imran Azeem MS, Episkopou V
Int J Dev Neurosci 2023 Nov;83(7):581-599. Epub 2023 Aug 13 doi: 10.1002/jdn.10290. PMID: 37574439
Khoo HM, Gotman J, Hall JA, Dubeau F
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020 Oct 30;20(12):59. doi: 10.1007/s11910-020-01082-y. PMID: 33123826
Guerrini R, Carrozzo R
Seizure 2002 Apr;11 Suppl A:532-43; quiz 544-7. PMID: 12185771

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Edey J, Soleimani-Nouri P, Dawson-Kavanagh A, Imran Azeem MS, Episkopou V
Int J Dev Neurosci 2023 Nov;83(7):581-599. Epub 2023 Aug 13 doi: 10.1002/jdn.10290. PMID: 37574439
Paliotti K, Dassi C, Berrahmoune S, Bejaran ML, Davila CEV, Martinez AB, Estupiñà MCF, Mancardi MM, Riva A, Giacomini T, Severino M, Romaniello R, Dubeau F, Srour M, Myers KA
J Neurol 2023 Aug;270(8):3934-3945. Epub 2023 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00415-023-11724-z. PMID: 37119372
Liu W, Zhang H, Hu X, Zhou D, Wu X
CNS Neurosci Ther 2023 May;29(5):1325-1331. Epub 2023 Feb 5 doi: 10.1111/cns.14104. PMID: 36740260Free PMC Article
Lu YT, Hsu CY, Liu YT, Chan CK, Chuang YC, Lin CH, Chang KP, Ho CJ, Ng CC, Lim KS, Tsai MH
Biomed J 2022 Jun;45(3):542-548. Epub 2021 May 20 doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2021.05.003. PMID: 35660364Free PMC Article
Liu W, Yan B, An D, Xiao J, Hu F, Zhou D
Epilepsy Res 2017 Jul;133:33-40. Epub 2017 Apr 4 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2017.03.005. PMID: 28411558

Diagnosis

Liu W, Zhang H, Hu X, Zhou D, Wu X
CNS Neurosci Ther 2023 May;29(5):1325-1331. Epub 2023 Feb 5 doi: 10.1111/cns.14104. PMID: 36740260Free PMC Article
Halliday BJ, Baynam G, Ewans L, Greenhalgh L, Leventer RJ, Pilz DT, Sachdev R, Scheffer IE, Markie DM, McGillivray G, Robertson SP, Mandelstam S
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 Nov;43(11):1660-1666. Epub 2022 Oct 13 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7663. PMID: 36229163Free PMC Article
Khoo HM, Gotman J, Hall JA, Dubeau F
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020 Oct 30;20(12):59. doi: 10.1007/s11910-020-01082-y. PMID: 33123826
Deloison B, Sonigo P, Millischer-Bellaiche AE, Quibel T, Cavallin M, Benoist G, Quelin C, Jouk PS, Lev D, Alison M, Baumann C, Beldjord C, Razavi F, Bessières B, Boddaert N, Ville Y, Salomon LJ, Bahi-Buisson N
Eur J Med Genet 2018 Dec;61(12):773-782. Epub 2018 Nov 1 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.10.015. PMID: 30391507
Verrotti A, Monacelli D, Castagnino M, Villa MP, Parisi P
Seizure 2014 Nov;23(10):819-24. Epub 2014 Jul 30 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2014.07.014. PMID: 25131162

Therapy

Pecimonova M, Radvanszky J, Smolak D, Budis J, Lichvar M, Kristinova D, Rozova I, Turna J, Szemes T
Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun 4;100(22):e26136. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000026136. PMID: 34087865Free PMC Article
Nune G, Arcot Desai S, Razavi B, Agostini MA, Bergey GK, Herekar AA, Hirsch LJ, Lee RW, Rutecki PA, Srinivasan S, Van Ness PC, Tcheng TK, Morrell MJ
Clin Neurophysiol 2019 Aug;130(8):1196-1207. Epub 2019 May 9 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.04.706. PMID: 31163364
Clapham KR, Yu TW, Ganesh VS, Barry B, Chan Y, Mei D, Parrini E, Funalot B, Dupuis L, Nezarati MM, du Souich C, van Karnebeek C, Guerrini R, Walsh CA
Neurology 2012 Jan 24;78(4):269-78. Epub 2012 Jan 11 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31824365e4. PMID: 22238415Free PMC Article
de Wit MC, Schippers HM, de Coo IF, Arts WF, Lequin MH, Brooks A, Visser GH, Mancini GM
Seizure 2010 Sep;19(7):450-2. Epub 2010 Jul 15 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2010.06.013. PMID: 20637656
Sisodiya SM, Free SL, Thom M, Everitt AE, Fish DR, Shorvon SD
Neurology 1999 Jan 15;52(2):336-41. doi: 10.1212/wnl.52.2.336. PMID: 9932953

Prognosis

Yang L, Wu G, Yin H, Pan M, Zhu Y
BMC Pediatr 2023 Jul 8;23(1):346. doi: 10.1186/s12887-023-04161-4. PMID: 37422633Free PMC Article
Paliotti K, Dassi C, Berrahmoune S, Bejaran ML, Davila CEV, Martinez AB, Estupiñà MCF, Mancardi MM, Riva A, Giacomini T, Severino M, Romaniello R, Dubeau F, Srour M, Myers KA
J Neurol 2023 Aug;270(8):3934-3945. Epub 2023 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00415-023-11724-z. PMID: 37119372
Vriend I, Oegema R
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Nov;35:82-92. Epub 2021 Oct 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.09.015. PMID: 34666232
Bourdillon P, Rheims S, Catenoix H, Montavont A, Ostrowsky-Coste K, Isnard J, Guénot M
Seizure 2020 Apr;77:64-68. Epub 2019 Jan 25 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2019.01.021. PMID: 30711397
Mirandola L, Mai RF, Francione S, Pelliccia V, Gozzo F, Sartori I, Nobili L, Cardinale F, Cossu M, Meletti S, Tassi L
Epilepsia 2017 Nov;58(11):1962-1971. Epub 2017 Sep 7 doi: 10.1111/epi.13895. PMID: 28880999

Clinical prediction guides

Paliotti K, Dassi C, Berrahmoune S, Bejaran ML, Davila CEV, Martinez AB, Estupiñà MCF, Mancardi MM, Riva A, Giacomini T, Severino M, Romaniello R, Dubeau F, Srour M, Myers KA
J Neurol 2023 Aug;270(8):3934-3945. Epub 2023 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00415-023-11724-z. PMID: 37119372
Lu YT, Hsu CY, Liu YT, Chan CK, Chuang YC, Lin CH, Chang KP, Ho CJ, Ng CC, Lim KS, Tsai MH
Biomed J 2022 Jun;45(3):542-548. Epub 2021 May 20 doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2021.05.003. PMID: 35660364Free PMC Article
Di Nora A, Costanza G, Pizzo F, Oliva CF, Di Mari A, Greco F, Pavone P
Acta Neurol Belg 2022 Feb;122(1):153-162. Epub 2021 Sep 1 doi: 10.1007/s13760-021-01774-3. PMID: 34471972Free PMC Article
Bourdillon P, Rheims S, Catenoix H, Montavont A, Ostrowsky-Coste K, Isnard J, Guénot M
Seizure 2020 Apr;77:64-68. Epub 2019 Jan 25 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2019.01.021. PMID: 30711397
Deloison B, Sonigo P, Millischer-Bellaiche AE, Quibel T, Cavallin M, Benoist G, Quelin C, Jouk PS, Lev D, Alison M, Baumann C, Beldjord C, Razavi F, Bessières B, Boddaert N, Ville Y, Salomon LJ, Bahi-Buisson N
Eur J Med Genet 2018 Dec;61(12):773-782. Epub 2018 Nov 1 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.10.015. PMID: 30391507

Recent systematic reviews

Mutti C, Riccò M, Bartolini Y, Bernabè G, Trippi I, Melpignano A, Ciliento R, Zinno L, Florindo I, Sasso E, Odone A, Parrino L, Vaudano AE
Epilepsia 2021 Feb;62(2):383-396. Epub 2020 Dec 16 doi: 10.1111/epi.16787. PMID: 33325054
Youngerman BE, Save AV, McKhann GM
Neurosurgery 2020 Apr 1;86(4):E366-E382. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyz556. PMID: 31980831
Bourdillon P, Cucherat M, Isnard J, Ostrowsky-Coste K, Catenoix H, Guénot M, Rheims S
Epilepsia 2018 Dec;59(12):2296-2304. Epub 2018 Oct 21 doi: 10.1111/epi.14584. PMID: 30345535

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...