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MOMO syndrome

MedGen UID:
371897
Concept ID:
C1834759
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Macrocrania, obesity, ocular abnormalities (retinal coloboma and nystagmus); Macrosomia obesity macrocephaly ocular abnormalities; MACROSOMIA, OBESITY, MACROCEPHALY, AND OCULAR ABNORMALITIES
SNOMED CT: MOMO syndrome (724137002); Macrocephaly, obesity, mental disability, ocular abnormality syndrome (724137002); MOMO (macrocephaly, obesity, mental disability, ocular abnormality) syndrome (724137002)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008008
OMIM®: 157980
Orphanet: ORPHA2563

Definition

A very rare genetic overgrowth/obesity syndrome with characteristics of macrocephaly, obesity, mental (intellectual) disability and ocular abnormalities. Other frequent clinical signs include macrosomia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, broad nasal root, high and broad forehead and delay in bone maturation, in association with normal thyroid function and karyotype. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

Clinical features

From HPO
Large hands
MedGen UID:
98097
Concept ID:
C0426870
Finding
Long foot
MedGen UID:
154365
Concept ID:
C0576225
Finding
Increased back to front length of the foot.
Obesity
MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of substantial excess body fat.
Overgrowth
MedGen UID:
376550
Concept ID:
C1849265
Finding
Excessive postnatal growth which may comprise increased weight, increased length, and/or increased head circumference.
Underfolded helix
MedGen UID:
337899
Concept ID:
C1849735
Finding
Underdevelopment of the helix that either affects the entire helix, or is localized.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Short sternum
MedGen UID:
108394
Concept ID:
C0575497
Finding
Decreased inferosuperior length of the sternum.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Dental malocclusion
MedGen UID:
9869
Concept ID:
C0024636
Anatomical Abnormality
Dental malocclusion refers to an abnormality of the occlusion, or alignment, of the teeth and the way the upper and lower teeth fit together, resulting in overcrowding of teeth or in abnormal bite patterns.
Delayed eruption of teeth
MedGen UID:
68678
Concept ID:
C0239174
Finding
Delayed tooth eruption, which can be defined as tooth eruption more than 2 SD beyond the mean eruption age.
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Taurodontism
MedGen UID:
75596
Concept ID:
C0266039
Disease or Syndrome
Increased volume of dental pulp of permanent molar characterized by a crown body-root ratio equal or larger than 1:1 or an elongated pulp chambers and apical displacement of the bifurcation or trifurcation of the roots.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Eyelid coloboma
MedGen UID:
141737
Concept ID:
C0521573
Congenital Abnormality
A short discontinuity of the margin of the lower or upper eyelid.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Thick lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326567
Concept ID:
C1839739
Finding
Increased thickness of the lower lip, leading to a prominent appearance of the lower lip. The height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the midline is more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Cutis marmorata
MedGen UID:
78093
Concept ID:
C0263401
Disease or Syndrome
A reticular discoloration of the skin with cyanotic (reddish-blue appearing) areas surrounding pale central areas due to dilation of capillary blood vessels and stagnation of blood within the vessels. Cutis marmorata generally occurs on the legs, arms and trunk and is often more severe in cold weather.
Hyperconvex nail
MedGen UID:
488894
Concept ID:
C0423807
Finding
When viewed on end (with the digit tip pointing toward the examiner's eye) the curve of the nail forms a tighter curve of convexity.
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Blindness
MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Disease or Syndrome
Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception defined as visual perception below 3/60 and/or a visual field of no greater than 10 degrees in radius around central fixation.
Retinal coloboma
MedGen UID:
761889
Concept ID:
C3540764
Disease or Syndrome
A notch or cleft of the retina.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVMOMO syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for MOMO syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Passalacqua C, García M, Sepúlveda E, Toledo D, Valencia M, Arancibia M
Medwave 2019 May 2;19(4):e7622. doi: 10.5867/medwave.2019.04.7621. PMID: 31075093
Vu PY, Toutain J, Cappellen D, Delrue MA, Daoud H, El Moneim AA, Barat P, Montaubin O, Bonnet F, Dai ZQ, Philippe C, Tran CT, Rooryck C, Arveiler B, Saura R, Briault S, Lacombe D, Taine L
Am J Med Genet A 2012 Nov;158A(11):2849-56. Epub 2012 Oct 3 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35694. PMID: 23034868
Di Donato N, Riess A, Hackmann K, Rump A, Huebner A, von der Hagen M, Hahn G, Schrock E, Tinschert S
Am J Med Genet A 2012 Nov;158A(11):2857-62. Epub 2012 Jul 20 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35481. PMID: 22821547
Wallerstein R, Sugalski RD
Clin Dysmorphol 2010 Jan;19(1):1-4. doi: 10.1097/MCD.0b013e32831552a8. PMID: 19996736
Zannolli R, Mostardini R, Hadjistilianou T, Rosi A, Berardi R, Morgese G
Clin Dysmorphol 2000 Oct;9(4):281-4. doi: 10.1097/00019605-200009040-00010. PMID: 11045586

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