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Gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Synonyms: Nystagmus, horizontal gaze-evoked; Nystagmus, horizontal, gaze-evoked
HPO: HP:0007979


Horizontal nystagmus made apparent by looking to the right or to the left. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVGaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus

Conditions with this feature

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 19/22
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Disease with characteristics of mild cerebellar ataxia, cognitive impairment, low scores on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measuring executive function, myoclonus, and postural tremor. Prevalence is unknown. Only 12 cases in a 5-generation Dutch family have been reported to date. SCA19 presents in the third decade of life with symptomatic disease onset ranging from 10 to 46 years. Onset symptoms of SCA22 overlap significantly with those of SCA19 but with a more narrow age range of 35 to 46 years. Linkage to locus 1p21-q21 has been proposed but the gene mutation has not been identified.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 15/16
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 15 (SCA15) is characterized by slowly progressive gait and limb ataxia, often in combination with ataxic dysarthria, titubation, upper limb postural tremor, mild hyperreflexia, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and impaired vestibuloocular reflex gain. Onset is between ages seven and 72 years, usually with gait ataxia but sometimes with tremor. Affected individuals remain ambulatory for ten to 54 years after symptom onset. Mild dysphagia usually after two or more decades of symptoms has been observed in members of multiple affected families and movement-induced oscillopsia has been described in one member of an affected family.
Dystonia 5
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
GTP cyclohydrolase 1-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (GTPCH1-deficient DRD) is characterized by childhood-onset dystonia and a dramatic and sustained response to low doses of oral administration of levodopa. This disorder typically presents with gait disturbance caused by foot dystonia, later development of parkinsonism, and diurnal fluctuation of symptoms (aggravation of symptoms toward the evening and alleviation of symptoms in the morning after sleep). Initial symptoms are often gait difficulties attributable to flexion-inversion (equinovarus posture) of the foot. Occasionally, initial symptoms are arm dystonia, postural tremor of the hand, or slowness of movements. Brisk deep-tendon reflexes in the legs, ankle clonus, and/or the striatal toe (dystonic extension of the big toe) are present in many affected individuals. In general, gradual progression to generalized dystonia is observed. Intellectual, cerebellar, sensory, and autonomic disturbances generally do not occur.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) is a very rare disease with manifestation of late-onset of cerebral ataxia, dysarthria, and horizontal gaze nystagmus, and that is occasionally accompanied by pyramidal signs, tremor, decreased vibration sense, and hearing difficulties. The mean age of disease onset is 58 years but it can present between the ages of 8 to 83 years. SCA31 is due to non-coding pentanucleotide repeat expansions in the brain expressed, associated with NEDD4, 1 (BEAN1) gene (16q21). Inherited autosomal dominantly with incomplete penetrance.
Dystonia with cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 13
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-13 (SCAR13) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development beginning in infancy. Affected individuals show mildly to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech as well as gait and stance ataxia and hyperreflexia. Most individuals also have eye movement abnormalities. Brain MRI shows cerebellar atrophy and ventriculomegaly (Guergueltcheva et al., 2012).
Myopathy, congenital, progressive, with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-19 (CMYP19) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by infantile-onset of progressive muscle weakness and atrophy associated with scoliosis, variably impaired walking, and dysmorphic facial features (Feichtinger et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 28
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-28 (SCAR28) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset in early childhood of mildly delayed motor development, gait ataxia, incoordination of fine motor movements, and dysarthria. Affected individuals may have features of spasticity and may show mildly impaired cognitive function. Brain imaging shows cerebellar vermis hypoplasia (summary by Walker et al., 2019).
Brunet-Wagner neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Brunet-Wagner neurodevelopmental syndrome (BRUWAG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia and severely impaired development affecting both motor and cognitive skills. Affected individuals either do not achieve independent ambulation or walk with an unsteady gait; those who walk may lose the ability due to spasticity of the lower limbs. They have absent language, poor or absent social skills, and behavioral abnormalities. Most have variable ocular findings, including nystagmus, strabismus, optic atrophy, myopia, or hypermetropia (summary by Brunet et al., 2020 and Samra et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines


Strupp M, Bisdorff A, Furman J, Hornibrook J, Jahn K, Maire R, Newman-Toker D, Magnusson M
J Vestib Res 2022;32(5):389-406. doi: 10.3233/VES-220201. PMID: 35723133Free PMC Article
Kim JS, Newman-Toker DE, Kerber KA, Jahn K, Bertholon P, Waterston J, Lee H, Bisdorff A, Strupp M
J Vestib Res 2022;32(3):205-222. doi: 10.3233/VES-210169. PMID: 35367974Free PMC Article
Zwergal A, Feil K, Schniepp R, Strupp M
Semin Neurol 2020 Feb;40(1):87-96. Epub 2019 Dec 30 doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3400315. PMID: 31887755

Recent clinical studies


Başoğlu M, Yetimalar Y, Gürgör N, Büyükçatalbaş S, Kurt T, Seçil Y, Yeniocak A
Eur J Neurol 2006 Oct;13(10):1089-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01531.x. PMID: 16987161


Tuesta Bernaola M, Ganguly J, Jog M
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jan 1;80(1):107-108. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.3791. PMID: 36342673


Başoğlu M, Yetimalar Y, Gürgör N, Büyükçatalbaş S, Kurt T, Seçil Y, Yeniocak A
Eur J Neurol 2006 Oct;13(10):1089-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01531.x. PMID: 16987161

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