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Primary microcephaly

MedGen UID:
383046
Concept ID:
C2677180
Congenital Abnormality; Finding
Synonym: Congenital microcephaly
SNOMED CT: Congenital microcephalus (1148758003); Congenital microcephaly (1148758003)
 
HPO: HP:0011451

Definition

Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender at birth. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVPrimary microcephaly

Conditions with this feature

Landau-Kleffner syndrome
MedGen UID:
79465
Concept ID:
C0282512
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN2A-related speech disorders and epilepsy are characterized by speech disorders in all affected individuals and a range of epilepsy syndromes present in about 90%. Severe speech disorders observed can include dysarthria and speech dyspraxia, and both receptive and expressive language delay/regression; more mildly affected individuals may display subtly impaired intelligibility of conversational speech. Epilepsy features include seizure onset usually between ages three and six years, focal epilepsy with language and/or global developmental regression, and electroencephalogram (EEG) showing continuous spike-and-wave discharges in sleep or very active centrotemporal discharges. Seizure types include seizures associated with aura of perioral paresthesia, focal or focal motor seizures (often evolving to generalized tonic-clonic), and atypical absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (ECSWS), childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), atypical childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (ACECTS), autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia (ADRESD), and infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy.
Jawad syndrome
MedGen UID:
810673
Concept ID:
C0796063
Disease or Syndrome
Jawad syndrome (JWDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital microcephaly, moderate to severely impaired intellectual development, and digital malformations including phalangeal joint swelling, clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, and total absence of nails (summary by Qvist et al., 2011).
Amish lethal microcephaly
MedGen UID:
375938
Concept ID:
C1846648
Disease or Syndrome
Amish lethal microcephaly is characterized by severe congenital microcephaly and highly elevated 2-ketoglutarate or lactic acidosis. The occipitofrontal circumference is typically more than two standard deviations (occasionally >6 SD) below the mean; anterior and posterior fontanels are closed at birth and facial features are distorted. The average life span of an affected infant is between five and six months among the Lancaster Amish, although an affected Amish-Mennonite child was reported to be living with severe developmental delay at age seven years.
Seckel syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
338264
Concept ID:
C1847572
Disease or Syndrome
Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, microcephaly with mental retardation, and a characteristic facial appearance (Borglum et al., 2001). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Seckel syndrome, see SCKL1 (210600).
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
339902
Concept ID:
C1853099
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Microcephaly 1, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
344415
Concept ID:
C1855081
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly refers to the clinical finding of a head circumference more than than 3 standard deviations (SD) below the age- and sex-related mean, present at birth. Primary microcephaly is a static developmental anomaly, distinguished from secondary microcephaly, which refers to a progressive neurodegenerative condition. Microcephaly is a disorder of fetal brain growth; individuals with microcephaly have small brains and almost always have mental retardation, although rare individuals with mild microcephaly (-3 SD) and normal intelligence have been reported. Additional clinical features may include short stature or mild seizures. MCPH is associated with a simplification of the cerebral cortical gyral pattern and a slight reduction in the volume of the white matter, consistent with the small size of the brain, but the architecture of the brain in general is normal, with no evidence of a neuronal migration defect (review by Woods et al., 2005). Most cases of primary microcephaly show an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Because MCPH directly affects neurogenesis, or neurogenic mitosis, rather than growth of the skull, some prefer the term 'micrencephaly' (Hofman, 1984). MCPH1 in particular is associated with premature chromosome condensation in cell studies (Darvish et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Primary Microcephaly Primary microcephaly is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See MCPH2 (604317), caused by mutation in the WDR62 gene (613583) on chromosome 19q13; MCPH3 (604804), caused by mutation in the CDK5RAP2 gene (608201) on 9q33; MCPH4 (604321), caused by mutation in the CASC5 gene (609173) on 15q14; MCPH5 (608716), caused by mutation in the ASPM gene (605481) on 1q31; MCPH6 (608393), caused by mutation in the CENPJ gene (609279) on 13q12; MCPH7 (612703), caused by mutation in the STIL gene (181590) on 1p33; MCPH8 (614673), caused by mutation in the CEP135 gene (611423) on 4q12; MCPH9 (614852), caused by mutation in the CEP152 gene (613529) on 15q21; MCPH10 (615095), caused by mutation in the ZNF335 gene (610827) on 20q13; MCPH11 (615414), caused by mutation in the PHC1 gene (602978) on 12p13; MCPH12 (616080), caused by mutation in the CDK6 gene (603368) on 7q21; MCPH13 (616051), caused by mutation in the CENPE gene (117143) on 4q24; MCPH14 (616402), caused by mutation in the SASS6 gene (609321) on 1p21; MCPH15 (616486), caused by mutation in the MFSD2A gene (614397) on 1p34; MCPH16 (616681), caused by mutation in the ANKLE2 gene (616062) on 12q24; MCPH17 (617090), caused by mutation in the CIT gene (605629) on 12q24; MCPH18 (617520), caused by mutation in the WDFY3 gene (617485) on 4q21; MCPH19 (617800), caused by mutation in the COPB2 gene (606990) on 3q23; MCPH20 (617914), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on 1q31; MCPH21 (617983), caused by mutation in the NCAPD2 gene (615638) on 12p13; MCPH22 (617984), caused by mutation in the NCAPD3 gene (609276) on 11q25; MCPH23 (617985), caused by mutation in the NCAPH gene (602332) on 2q11; MCPH24 (618179), caused by mutation in the NUP37 gene (609264) on 12q23; MCPH25 (618351), caused by mutation in the MAP11 gene (618350) on 7q22; MCPH26 (619179), caused by mutation in the LMNB1 gene (150340) on 5q23; MCPH27 (619180), caused by mutation in the LMNB2 gene (150341) on 19p13; MCPH28 (619453), caused by mutation in the RRP7A gene (619449) on 22q13; MCPH29 (620047), caused by mutation in the PDCD6IP gene (608074) on 3p22; and MCPH30 (620183), caused by mutation in the BUB1 gene (602452) on 2q14.
Microcephaly 3, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
347619
Concept ID:
C1858108
Disease or Syndrome
People with MCPH usually have few or no other features associated with the condition. Some have a narrow, sloping forehead; mild seizures; problems with attention or behavior; or short stature compared to others in their family. The condition typically does not affect any other major organ systems or cause other health problems.\n\nMCPH causes intellectual disability, which is typically mild to moderate and does not become more severe with age. Most affected individuals have delayed speech and language skills. Motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking, may also be mildly delayed.\n\nInfants with MCPH have an unusually small head circumference compared to other infants of the same sex and age. Head circumference is the distance around the widest part of the head, measured by placing a measuring tape above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. Affected infants' brain volume is also smaller than usual, although they usually do not have any major abnormalities in the structure of the brain. The head and brain grow throughout childhood and adolescence, but they continue to be much smaller than normal.\n\nAutosomal recessive primary microcephaly (often shortened to MCPH, which stands for "microcephaly primary hereditary") is a condition in which infants are born with a very small head and a small brain. The term "microcephaly" comes from the Greek words for "small head."
Microcephaly 4, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
347655
Concept ID:
C1858516
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a clinical diagnosis made when an individual has a head circumference more than 3 standard deviations below the age- and sex-matched population mean and mental retardation, with no other associated malformations and with no apparent etiology. Most cases of primary microcephaly show an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance (summary by Woods et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
PHGDH deficiency
MedGen UID:
400935
Concept ID:
C1866174
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency (PHGDHD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of L-serine biosynthesis that is characterized by congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and seizures (summary by Jaeken et al., 1996).
Microcephaly 7, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
436370
Concept ID:
C2675187
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (often shortened to MCPH, which stands for "microcephaly primary hereditary") is a condition in which infants are born with a very small head and a small brain. The term "microcephaly" comes from the Greek words for "small head."\n\nInfants with MCPH have an unusually small head circumference compared to other infants of the same sex and age. Head circumference is the distance around the widest part of the head, measured by placing a measuring tape above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. Affected infants' brain volume is also smaller than usual, although they usually do not have any major abnormalities in the structure of the brain. The head and brain grow throughout childhood and adolescence, but they continue to be much smaller than normal.\n\nMCPH causes intellectual disability, which is typically mild to moderate and does not become more severe with age. Most affected individuals have delayed speech and language skills. Motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking, may also be mildly delayed.\n\nPeople with MCPH usually have few or no other features associated with the condition. Some have a narrow, sloping forehead; mild seizures; problems with attention or behavior; or short stature compared to others in their family. The condition typically does not affect any other major organ systems or cause other health problems.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 39
MedGen UID:
414492
Concept ID:
C2751855
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-39 with leukodystrophy (DEE39) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized clinically by global developmental delay apparent in early infancy, early-onset seizures, hypotonia with poor motor function, and hypomyelination on brain imaging. Other features include absent speech and inability to walk; spasticity and hyperreflexia has also been reported. Although there is significant hypomyelination on brain imaging, the disorder was not classified as a primary leukodystrophy. The myelination defect was thought to stem from primary neuronal dysfunction due to impaired mitochondrial transport activity (summary by Wibom et al., 2009 and Falk et al., 2014). However, serial brain imaging in a patient with DEE39 by Kavanaugh et al. (2019) suggested that the mechanism of disease is consistent with a leukoaxonopathy type of leukodystrophy. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
COG7 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419311
Concept ID:
C2931010
Disease or Syndrome
CDG IIe is caused by a mutation that impairs the integrity of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex and alters Golgi trafficking, resulting in the disruption of multiple glycosylation pathways. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Chromosome 6q11-q14 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462140
Concept ID:
C3150790
Disease or Syndrome
The cardinal features of chromosome 6q11-q14 interstitial deletions include hypotonia, short stature, skeletal/limb anomalies, umbilical hernia, and urinary tract anomalies, as well as characteristic facial features including upslanting palpebral fissures, low-set and/or dysplastic ears, and high-arched palate (summary by Wang et al., 2009).
Lissencephaly 4
MedGen UID:
462811
Concept ID:
C3151461
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-4 (LIS4) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by lissencephaly, severe brain atrophy, extreme microcephaly (head circumference of more than 10 standard deviations (SD) below the mean), and profound mental retardation. It has also been referred to as 'microlissencephaly' (summary by Bakircioglu et al., 2011 and Alkuraya et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome
MedGen UID:
481870
Concept ID:
C3280240
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly-epilepsy-permanent neonatal diabetes syndrome is a rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (manifesting as intractable, myoclonic and/or tonic-clonic seizures), permanent, neonatal, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and severe global developmental delay. Muscular hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic facial features (including narrow forehead, anteverted nares, small mouth with deep philtrum, tented upper lip vermilion) are frequently associated. Brain MRI reveals cerebral atrophy with cortical gyral simplification and aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum.
Microcephaly 8, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
766328
Concept ID:
C3553414
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CEP135 gene.
Seckel syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
766496
Concept ID:
C3553582
Disease or Syndrome
Any Seckel syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CEP63 gene.
Severe intellectual disability-progressive spastic diplegia syndrome
MedGen UID:
767363
Concept ID:
C3554449
Disease or Syndrome
CTNNB1 neurodevelopmental disorder (CTNNB1-NDD) is characterized in all individuals by mild-to-profound cognitive impairment and in up to 39% of reported individuals by exudative vitreoretinopathy, an ophthalmologic finding consistent with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Other common findings include truncal hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, dystonia, behavior problems, microcephaly, and refractive errors and strabismus. Less common features include intrauterine growth restriction, feeding difficulties, and scoliosis.
Microcephalic primordial dwarfism due to ZNF335 deficiency
MedGen UID:
767413
Concept ID:
C3554499
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly-10 (MCPH10) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extremely small head size (-9 SD) at birth and death usually by 1 year of age. Neuropathologic examination shows severe loss of neurons as well as neuronal loss of polarity and abnormal dendritic maturation (summary by Yang et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Congenital microcephaly - severe encephalopathy - progressive cerebral atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816301
Concept ID:
C3809971
Disease or Syndrome
Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASD) mainly presents as a triad of congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine level can help the clinician in differentiating this disorder from others. In most cases age of onset of apnea, excessive irritability, and seizures is soon after birth. Affected individuals typically do not acquire any developmental milestones. Spastic quadriplegia can lead to severe contractures of the limbs and neurogenic scoliosis. Feeding difficulties (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, swallowing dysfunction, and gastroesophageal incoordination) are a significant problem in most affected individuals. A majority have cortical blindness. MRI findings are nonspecific but may include generalized atrophy and simplified gyral pattern.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 6
MedGen UID:
862720
Concept ID:
C4014283
Disease or Syndrome
Any complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TUBB gene.
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 1
MedGen UID:
863434
Concept ID:
C4014997
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism-1 (MSSGM1) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly associated with impaired intellectual development, short stature, and early-onset diabetes or abnormalities of glucose homeostasis (Igoillo-Esteve et al., 2013; Gillis et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Microcephaly, Short Stature, and Impaired Glucose Metabolism MSSGM2 (616817) is caused by mutation in the PPP1R15B gene (613257) on chromosome 1q32. Also see Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (226980), which is characterized by multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, microcephaly, short stature, and early-onset diabetes mellitus and is caused by mutation in the EIF2AK3 gene (604032) on chromosome 2p11.
Microcephaly 13, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
863517
Concept ID:
C4015080
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CENPE gene.
Microcephaly 12, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
863593
Concept ID:
C4015156
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CDK6 gene.
Severe intellectual disability-corpus callosum agenesis-facial dysmorphism-cerebellar ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
902346
Concept ID:
C4225193
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disorder with characteristics of congenital microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, hypertonia at birth lessening with age, ataxia and specific dysmorphic facial features including hirsutism, low anterior hairline and bitemporal narrowing arched thick and medially sparse eyebrows, long eyelashes, lateral upper eyelids swelling and a skin fold partially covering the inferior eyelids, low-set posteriorly rotated protruding ears, anteverted nares and a full lower lip. Brain imaging shows partial to almost complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and variable degrees of cerebellar hypoplasia. Caused by homozygous mutation in the FRMD4A gene on chromosome 10p13.
Microcephaly 16, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
898705
Concept ID:
C4225249
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly 14, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
906798
Concept ID:
C4225338
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SASS6 gene.
Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019).
Growth retardation, intellectual developmental disorder, hypotonia, and hepatopathy
MedGen UID:
934687
Concept ID:
C4310720
Disease or Syndrome
GRIDHH is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and variable liver dysfunction. Additional features, such as seizures and hearing loss, may also be present (summary by Kopajtich et al., 2016).
Microcephaly 17, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
934690
Concept ID:
C4310723
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-17 (MCPH17) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by very small head circumference that is apparent at birth and worsens over time (up to -12 SD). Affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, spasticity, axial hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. Brain imaging shows a simplified gyral pattern; more severe cases have lissencephaly with hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum (summary by Harding et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with midbrain and hindbrain malformations
MedGen UID:
1385580
Concept ID:
C4479613
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with midbrain and hindbrain malformations (NEDMHM) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising impaired intellectual development, speech delay, mild microcephaly, and midbrain-hindbrain malformation (Ravindran et al., 2017).
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1615973
Concept ID:
C4538630
Disease or Syndrome
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome-1 (DMJDS1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly, severely delayed or even absent psychomotor development with profound intellectual disability, and spasticity or dystonia. Some patients may have seizures and/or visual impairment. Brain imaging shows a characteristic developmental malformation of the midbrain; subtle intracranial calcifications may also be present (summary by Aran et al., 2016 and Guemez-Gamboa et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia Syndrome See also DMJDS2 (618646), caused by mutation in the GSX2 gene (616253) on chromosome 4q12.
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 2, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1625619
Concept ID:
C4538784
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities of the brain, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1613511
Concept ID:
C4540270
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
1617227
Concept ID:
C4540274
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism and ear abnormalities. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual or hearing impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Neu-Laxova syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1633287
Concept ID:
C4551478
Disease or Syndrome
Any Neu-Laxova syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PHGDH gene.
Microcephaly 21, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1646916
Concept ID:
C4693831
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly 24, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1648413
Concept ID:
C4748555
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 12
MedGen UID:
1648343
Concept ID:
C4748873
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly 25, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1674123
Concept ID:
C5193046
Disease or Syndrome
Sandestig-stefanova syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718072
Concept ID:
C5394118
Disease or Syndrome
Sandestig-Stefanova syndrome (SANDSTEF) is an autosomal recessive developmental syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal microcephaly, trigonocephaly, congenital cataract, microphthalmia, facial gestalt, camptodactyly, loss of periventricular white matter, thin corpus callosum, delayed myelinization, and poor prognosis (Sandestig et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1719418
Concept ID:
C5394218
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 1 (NSDVS1) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, variable behavioral abnormalities, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features, including round face, small palpebral fissures, highly arched eyebrows, and short nose. The severity is variable (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Microcephaly 27, primary, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1783457
Concept ID:
C5543051
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-27 (MCPH27) is characterized by small head circumference apparent in early childhood and associated with global developmental delay manifest as delayed walking, inability to walk, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have variable and nonspecific additional features, including facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, limb hypertonia, poor feeding, and distal skeletal anomalies. Brain imaging may show enlarged ventricles or gyral abnormalities, but most have normal imaging (Parry et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Cerebellar hypoplasia-intellectual disability-congenital microcephaly-dystonia-anemia-growth retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
1780242
Concept ID:
C5543287
Disease or Syndrome
CIMDAG syndrome (CIMDAG) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by severely impaired psychomotor development and hematologic abnormalities apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals show poor overall growth with microcephaly, impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, poor eye contact, and motor problems, such as inability to walk, hypotonia, and spasticity. Brain imaging typically shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination. The associated hematologic abnormalities are variable, but are mostly consistent with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) (summary by Rodger et al., 2020 and Seu et al., 2020).
KINSSHIP syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779339
Concept ID:
C5543317
Disease or Syndrome
KINSSHIP syndrome (KINS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of anomalies including developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, mesomelic dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, horseshoe or hypoplastic kidney, and failure to thrive (summary by Voisin et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 96
MedGen UID:
1780167
Concept ID:
C5543446
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-96 (DEE96) is characterized by onset of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Affected infants have tonic or myoclonic seizures associated with burst-suppression pattern on EEG. They also have hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency that may result in premature death. Those that survive have profound developmental delay and persistent seizures (summary by Suzuki et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Faundes-Banka syndrome
MedGen UID:
1782083
Concept ID:
C5543554
Disease or Syndrome
Faundes-Banka syndrome (FABAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable combinations of developmental delay and microcephaly, as well as micrognathia and other dysmorphic features (Faundes et al., 2021).
Luo-Schoch-Yamamoto syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794156
Concept ID:
C5561946
Disease or Syndrome
Luo-Schoch-Yamamoto syndrome (LUSYAM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking, early-onset seizures, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging (Luo et al., 2021).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
1794230
Concept ID:
C5562020
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-10 (GAMOS10) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of symptoms soon after birth. Affected individuals have progressive renal dysfunction with proteinuria associated with diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) on renal biopsy. Other features include global developmental delay, microcephaly, hypothyroidism, arachnodactyly, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients may have seizures or abnormalities on brain imaging. All reported patients have died in infancy (summary by Arrondel et al., 2019 and Schmidt et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
DYRK1A-related intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1799566
Concept ID:
C5568143
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
DYRK1A syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability including impaired speech development, autism spectrum disorder including anxious and/or stereotypic behavior problems, and microcephaly. Affected individuals often have a clinically recognizable phenotype including a typical facial gestalt, feeding problems, seizures, hypertonia, gait disturbances, and foot anomalies. The majority of affected individuals function in the moderate-to-severe range of intellectual disability; however, individuals with mild intellectual disability have also been reported. Other medical concerns relate to febrile seizures in infancy; the development of epilepsy with seizures of the atonic, absence, and generalized myoclonic types; short stature; and gastrointestinal problems. Ophthalmologic, urogenital, cardiac, and/or dental anomalies have been reported.
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1801540
Concept ID:
C5676972
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with progressive microcephaly (CONPM) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: the most severely affected individuals have severe and progressive microcephaly, early-onset seizures, lack of visual tracking, and almost no developmental milestones, resulting in early death. Less severely affected individuals have a small head circumference and severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and motor delay. Additional features may include poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia with spasticity, undescended testes, and cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss (Lam et al., 2019 and Vanoevelen et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823982
Concept ID:
C5774209
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities (NEDSMBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a core phenotype of moderate to profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, epilepsy, and periventricular calcifications (summary by Rosenhahn et al., 2022).
Microcephaly 29, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1823993
Concept ID:
C5774220
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-29 (MCPH29) is characterized by small head circumference apparent at birth and associated with global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals also have poor overall growth with short stature, mild dysmorphic facial features, and seizures (Khan et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 109
MedGen UID:
1824036
Concept ID:
C5774263
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-109 (DEE109) is characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals show developmental delay before and concurrent with the onset of seizures. Features include impaired intellectual development with poor speech, ataxic gait, coordination problems, and behavioral abnormalities (Manivannan et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Microcephaly 30, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1824053
Concept ID:
C5774280
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-30 (MCPH30) is characterized by small head circumference, poor overall growth, and global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals have been reported to have variable additional congenital anomalies, including atrial septal defect, dysmorphic facial features, tracheal stenosis, and anomalies of the skin and teeth (Carvalhal et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

M Almeida P, Sá J, Branco M, Galhano E, Ramos F
Eur J Med Genet 2023 Jan;66(1):104652. Epub 2022 Oct 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104652. PMID: 36374791
Duerinckx S, Désir J, Perazzolo C, Badoer C, Jacquemin V, Soblet J, Maystadt I, Tunca Y, Blaumeiser B, Ceulemans B, Courtens W, Debray FG, Destree A, Devriendt K, Jansen A, Keymolen K, Lederer D, Loeys B, Meuwissen M, Moortgat S, Mortier G, Nassogne MC, Sekhara T, Van Coster R, Van Den Ende J, Van der Aa N, Van Esch H, Vanakker O, Verhelst H, Vilain C, Weckhuysen S, Passemard S, Verloes A, Aeby A, Deconinck N, Van Bogaert P, Pirson I, Abramowicz M
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Sep;9(9):e1768. Epub 2021 Aug 17 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1768. PMID: 34402213Free PMC Article
Braun DA, Rao J, Mollet G, Schapiro D, Daugeron MC, Tan W, Gribouval O, Boyer O, Revy P, Jobst-Schwan T, Schmidt JM, Lawson JA, Schanze D, Ashraf S, Ullmann JFP, Hoogstraten CA, Boddaert N, Collinet B, Martin G, Liger D, Lovric S, Furlano M, Guerrera IC, Sanchez-Ferras O, Hu JF, Boschat AC, Sanquer S, Menten B, Vergult S, De Rocker N, Airik M, Hermle T, Shril S, Widmeier E, Gee HY, Choi WI, Sadowski CE, Pabst WL, Warejko JK, Daga A, Basta T, Matejas V, Scharmann K, Kienast SD, Behnam B, Beeson B, Begtrup A, Bruce M, Ch'ng GS, Lin SP, Chang JH, Chen CH, Cho MT, Gaffney PM, Gipson PE, Hsu CH, Kari JA, Ke YY, Kiraly-Borri C, Lai WM, Lemyre E, Littlejohn RO, Masri A, Moghtaderi M, Nakamura K, Ozaltin F, Praet M, Prasad C, Prytula A, Roeder ER, Rump P, Schnur RE, Shiihara T, Sinha MD, Soliman NA, Soulami K, Sweetser DA, Tsai WH, Tsai JD, Topaloglu R, Vester U, Viskochil DH, Vatanavicharn N, Waxler JL, Wierenga KJ, Wolf MTF, Wong SN, Leidel SA, Truglio G, Dedon PC, Poduri A, Mane S, Lifton RP, Bouchard M, Kannu P, Chitayat D, Magen D, Callewaert B, van Tilbeurgh H, Zenker M, Antignac C, Hildebrandt F
Nat Genet 2017 Oct;49(10):1529-1538. Epub 2017 Aug 14 doi: 10.1038/ng.3933. PMID: 28805828Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Leyne E, Anselem O, Jordan P, Vivanti AJ, Benachi A, Salomon L, Jacquier M, Jouannic JM, Dhombres F, Cambier T, Rosenblatt J, Pannier E, Goffinet F, Tsatsaris V, Athiel Y
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2024 Jan;103(1):51-58. Epub 2023 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/aogs.14716. PMID: 37942915Free PMC Article
Khalaf-Nazzal R, Fasham J, Inskeep KA, Blizzard LE, Leslie JS, Wakeling MN, Ubeyratna N, Mitani T, Griffith JL, Baker W, Al-Hijawi F, Keough KC, Gezdirici A, Pena L, Spaeth CG, Turnpenny PD, Walsh JR, Ray R, Neilson A, Kouranova E, Cui X, Curiel DT, Pehlivan D, Akdemir ZC, Posey JE, Lupski JR, Dobyns WB, Stottmann RW, Crosby AH, Baple EL
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Nov 3;109(11):2068-2079. Epub 2022 Oct 24 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.09.012. PMID: 36283405Free PMC Article
Li N, Zhou P, Tang H, He L, Fang X, Zhao J, Wang X, Qi Y, Sun C, Lin Y, Qin F, Yang M, Zhang Z, Liao C, Zheng S, Peng X, Xue T, Zhu Q, Li H, Li Y, Liu L, Huang J, Liu L, Peng C, Kaindl AM, Gecz J, Han D, Liu D, Xu K, Hu H
Brain 2022 Mar 29;145(1):119-141. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab209. PMID: 34077496Free PMC Article
Stracker TH, Morrison CG, Gergely F
Chromosoma 2020 Jun;129(2):115-120. Epub 2020 May 18 doi: 10.1007/s00412-020-00737-6. PMID: 32424716
Malone RW, Homan J, Callahan MV, Glasspool-Malone J, Damodaran L, Schneider Ade B, Zimler R, Talton J, Cobb RR, Ruzic I, Smith-Gagen J, Janies D, Wilson J; Zika Response Working Group
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar;10(3):e0004530. Epub 2016 Mar 2 doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004530. PMID: 26934531Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Gönenc II, Elcioglu NH, Martinez Grijalva C, Aras S, Großmann N, Praulich I, Altmüller J, Kaulfuß S, Li Y, Nürnberg P, Burfeind P, Yigit G, Wollnik B
Clin Genet 2022 May;101(5-6):559-564. Epub 2022 Mar 11 doi: 10.1111/cge.14125. PMID: 35218564
Nunez C, Morris A, Jones CA, Badawi N, Baynam G, Hansen M, Elliott EJ
Arch Dis Child 2021 Sep;106(9):849-854. Epub 2020 Nov 23 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-320456. PMID: 33229416
Shaheen R, Maddirevula S, Ewida N, Alsahli S, Abdel-Salam GMH, Zaki MS, Tala SA, Alhashem A, Softah A, Al-Owain M, Alazami AM, Abadel B, Patel N, Al-Sheddi T, Alomar R, Alobeid E, Ibrahim N, Hashem M, Abdulwahab F, Hamad M, Tabarki B, Alwadei AH, Alhazzani F, Bashiri FA, Kentab A, Şahintürk S, Sherr E, Fregeau B, Sogati S, Alshahwan SAM, Alkhalifi S, Alhumaidi Z, Temtamy S, Aglan M, Otaify G, Girisha KM, Tulbah M, Seidahmed MZ, Salih MA, Abouelhoda M, Momin AA, Saffar MA, Partlow JN, Arold ST, Faqeih E, Walsh C, Alkuraya FS
Genet Med 2019 Mar;21(3):545-552. Epub 2018 Sep 14 doi: 10.1038/s41436-018-0140-3. PMID: 30214071Free PMC Article
Araujo Júnior E, Carvalho FH, Tonni G, Werner H
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Apr;29(2):95-105. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000345. PMID: 28134669
Woods CG, Parker A
Arch Dis Child 2013 Sep;98(9):707-13. Epub 2013 Jun 28 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-302882. PMID: 23814088

Therapy

M Almeida P, Sá J, Branco M, Galhano E, Ramos F
Eur J Med Genet 2023 Jan;66(1):104652. Epub 2022 Oct 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104652. PMID: 36374791
Nasser H, Vera L, Elmaleh-Bergès M, Steindl K, Letard P, Teissier N, Ernault A, Guimiot F, Afenjar A, Moutard ML, Héron D, Alembik Y, Momtchilova M, Milani P, Kubis N, Pouvreau N, Zollino M, Guilmin Crepon S, Kaguelidou F, Gressens P, Verloes A, Rauch A, El Ghouzzi V, Drunat S, Passemard S
J Med Genet 2020 Jun;57(6):389-399. Epub 2020 Feb 3 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106474. PMID: 32015000
Zombor M, Kalmár T, Nagy N, Berényi M, Telcs B, Maróti Z, Brandau O, Sztriha L
J Appl Genet 2019 May;60(2):151-162. Epub 2019 Feb 1 doi: 10.1007/s13353-019-00486-y. PMID: 30706430
Miyamoto T, Akutsu SN, Fukumitsu A, Morino H, Masatsuna Y, Hosoba K, Kawakami H, Yamamoto T, Shimizu K, Ohashi H, Matsuura S
Hum Mol Genet 2017 Nov 15;26(22):4429-4440. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddx330. PMID: 28973348
Raile K, Klammt J, Schneider A, Keller A, Laue S, Smith R, Pfäffle R, Kratzsch J, Keller E, Kiess W
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Jun;91(6):2264-71. Epub 2006 Mar 28 doi: 10.1210/jc.2005-2146. PMID: 16569742

Prognosis

Fang H, Zhang Y, Lin C, Sun Z, Wen W, Sheng H, Lin J
Front Immunol 2023;14:1227143. Epub 2023 Aug 1 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1227143. PMID: 37593739Free PMC Article
Gao ZY, Yu F, Jia HX, Ye Z, Yao SJ
Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2020 Dec;36(12):1021-1029. Epub 2020 Aug 6 doi: 10.1002/kjm2.12284. PMID: 32767492
Alhaddad B, Schossig A, Haack TB, Kovács-Nagy R, Braunisch MC, Makowski C, Senderek J, Vill K, Müller-Felber W, Strom TM, Krabichler B, Freisinger P, Deshpande C, Polster T, Wolf NI, Desguerre I, Wörmann F, Rötig A, Ahting U, Kopajtich R, Prokisch H, Meitinger T, Feichtinger RG, Mayr JA, Jungbluth H, Hubmann M, Zschocke J, Distelmaier F, Koch J
Neuropediatrics 2018 Oct;49(5):330-338. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1661396. PMID: 29940663
Stouffs K, Stergachis AB, Vanderhasselt T, Dica A, Janssens S, Vandervore L, Gheldof A, Bodamer O, Keymolen K, Seneca S, Liebaers I, Jayaraman D, Hill HE, Partlow JN, Walsh CA, Jansen AC
Clin Genet 2018 Aug;94(2):246-251. Epub 2018 May 3 doi: 10.1111/cge.13260. PMID: 29652087Free PMC Article
Malone RW, Homan J, Callahan MV, Glasspool-Malone J, Damodaran L, Schneider Ade B, Zimler R, Talton J, Cobb RR, Ruzic I, Smith-Gagen J, Janies D, Wilson J; Zika Response Working Group
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar;10(3):e0004530. Epub 2016 Mar 2 doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004530. PMID: 26934531Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Stouffs K, Stergachis AB, Vanderhasselt T, Dica A, Janssens S, Vandervore L, Gheldof A, Bodamer O, Keymolen K, Seneca S, Liebaers I, Jayaraman D, Hill HE, Partlow JN, Walsh CA, Jansen AC
Clin Genet 2018 Aug;94(2):246-251. Epub 2018 May 3 doi: 10.1111/cge.13260. PMID: 29652087Free PMC Article
Klase ZA, Khakhina S, Schneider Ade B, Callahan MV, Glasspool-Malone J, Malone R
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Malone RW, Homan J, Callahan MV, Glasspool-Malone J, Damodaran L, Schneider Ade B, Zimler R, Talton J, Cobb RR, Ruzic I, Smith-Gagen J, Janies D, Wilson J; Zika Response Working Group
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar;10(3):e0004530. Epub 2016 Mar 2 doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004530. PMID: 26934531Free PMC Article
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