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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 10(ALS10)

MedGen UID:
383137
Concept ID:
C2677565
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: ALS10; AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS 10 WITH OR WITHOUT FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA; AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS 10 WITH OR WITHOUT FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA AND WITH TDP43 INCLUSIONS; AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS 10 WITHOUT FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA AND WITH TDP43 INCLUSIONS; TARDBP-Related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
SNOMED CT: ALS10 - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 10 (1208412003); Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 10 (1208412003)
 
Gene (location): TARDBP (1p36.22)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0012790
OMIM®: 612069

Definition

A neurodegenerative disease with characteristics of progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurons in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. There is evidence this disease is caused by heterozygous mutation in the TARDBP gene that encodes the TDP43 protein on chromosome 1p36. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

Clinical features

From HPO
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
MedGen UID:
274
Concept ID:
C0002736
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease that affects motor neurons, which are specialized nerve cells that control muscle movement. These nerve cells are found in the spinal cord and the brain. In ALS, motor neurons die (atrophy) over time, leading to muscle weakness, a loss of muscle mass, and an inability to control movement.\n\nThere are many different types of ALS; these types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms and their genetic cause or lack of clear genetic association. Most people with ALS have a form of the condition that is described as sporadic, which means it occurs in people with no apparent history of the disorder in their family. People with sporadic ALS usually first develop features of the condition in their late fifties or early sixties. A small proportion of people with ALS, estimated at 5 to 10 percent, have a family history of ALS or a related condition called frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which is a progressive brain disorder that affects personality, behavior, and language. The signs and symptoms of familial ALS typically first appear in one's late forties or early fifties. Rarely, people with familial ALS develop symptoms in childhood or their teenage years. These individuals have a rare form of the disorder known as juvenile ALS.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of ALS may be so subtle that they are overlooked. The earliest symptoms include muscle twitching, cramping, stiffness, or weakness. Affected individuals may develop slurred speech (dysarthria) and, later, difficulty chewing or swallowing (dysphagia). Many people with ALS experience malnutrition because of reduced food intake due to dysphagia and an increase in their body's energy demands (metabolism) due to prolonged illness. Muscles become weaker as the disease progresses, and arms and legs begin to look thinner as muscle tissue atrophies. Individuals with ALS eventually lose muscle strength and the ability to walk. Affected individuals eventually become wheelchair-dependent and increasingly require help with personal care and other activities of daily living. Over time, muscle weakness causes affected individuals to lose the use of their hands and arms. Breathing becomes difficult because the muscles of the respiratory system weaken. Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure within 2 to 10 years after the signs and symptoms of ALS first appear; however, disease progression varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nApproximately 20 percent of individuals with ALS also develop FTD. Changes in personality and behavior may make it difficult for affected individuals to interact with others in a socially appropriate manner. Communication skills worsen as the disease progresses. It is unclear how the development of ALS and FTD are related. Individuals who develop both conditions are diagnosed as having ALS-FTD.\n\nA rare form of ALS that often runs in families is known as ALS-parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS-PDC). This disorder is characterized by the signs and symptoms of ALS, in addition to a pattern of movement abnormalities known as parkinsonism, and a progressive loss of intellectual function (dementia). Signs of parkinsonism include unusually slow movements (bradykinesia), stiffness, and tremors. Affected members of the same family can have different combinations of signs and symptoms.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
Apathy
MedGen UID:
39083
Concept ID:
C0085632
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Apathy is a quantitative reduction of motivation and the initiation and persistence of goal-directed behavior, where the accompanying emotions, thoughts, and social interactions are also suppressed.
Emotional lability
MedGen UID:
39319
Concept ID:
C0085633
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or disproportionate to events and circumstances.
Perseverative thought
MedGen UID:
66686
Concept ID:
C0233651
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Manifestations of perseverative thoughts are behaviors that do not meet the demands of the situation, are not the product of deliberation, and may unfold despite counter intention.
Frontotemporal dementia
MedGen UID:
83266
Concept ID:
C0338451
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) refers to a clinical manifestation of the pathologic finding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FTD, the most common subtype of FTLD, is a behavioral variant characterized by changes in social and personal conduct with loss of volition, executive dysfunction, loss of abstract thought, and decreased speech output. A second clinical subtype of FTLD is 'semantic dementia,' characterized by specific loss of comprehension of language and impaired facial and object recognition. A third clinical subtype of FTLD is 'primary progressive aphasia' (PPA), characterized by a reduction in speech production, speech errors, and word retrieval difficulties resulting in mutism and an inability to communicate. All subtypes have relative preservation of memory, at least in the early stages. FTLD is often associated with parkinsonism or motor neuron disease (MND) resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400) (reviews by Tolnay and Probst, 2002 and Mackenzie and Rademakers, 2007). Mackenzie et al. (2009, 2010) provided a classification of FTLD subtypes according to the neuropathologic findings (see PATHOGENESIS below). Clinical Variability of Tauopathies Tauopathies comprise a clinically variable group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized neuropathologically by accumulation of abnormal MAPT-positive inclusions in nerve and/or glial cells. In addition to frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, and PPA, different clinical syndromes with overlapping features have been described, leading to confusion in the terminology (Tolnay and Probst, 2002). Other terms used historically include parkinsonism and dementia with pallidopontonigral degeneration (PPND) (Wszolek et al., 1992); disinhibition-dementia-parkinsonism-amyotrophy complex (DDPAC) (Lynch et al., 1994); frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism (FLDEM) (Yamaoka et al., 1996); and multiple system tauopathy with presenile dementia (MSTD) (Spillantini et al., 1997). These disorders are characterized by variable degrees of frontal lobe dementia, parkinsonism, motor neuron disease, and amyotrophy. Other neurodegenerative associated with mutations in the MAPT gene include Pick disease (172700) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; 601104), Inherited neurodegenerative tauopathies linked to chromosome 17 and caused by mutation in the MAPT gene have also been collectively termed 'FTDP17' (Lee et al., 2001). Kertesz (2003) suggested the term 'Pick complex' to represent the overlapping syndromes of FTD, primary progressive aphasia (PPA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), PSP, and FTD with motor neuron disease. He noted that frontotemporal dementia may also be referred to as 'clinical Pick disease' and that the term 'Pick disease' should be restricted to the pathologic finding of Pick bodies. Genetic Heterogeneity of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Mutations in several different genes can cause frontotemporal dementia and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, with or without motor neuron disease. See FTLD with TDP43 inclusions (607485), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on chromosome 17q21; FTLALS7 (600795), caused by mutation in the CHMP2B gene (609512) on chromosome 3p11; inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease and FTD (IBMPFD; 167320), caused by mutation in the VCP gene (601023) on chromosome 9p13; ALS6 (608030), caused by mutation in the FUS gene (137070) on 16p11; ALS10 (612069), caused by mutation in the TARDBP gene (605078) on 1p36; and FTDALS1 (105550), caused by mutation in the C9ORF72 gene (614260) on 9p21. In 1 family with FTD, a mutation was identified in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on chromosome 14, which is usually associated with a familial form of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD3; 607822).
Disinhibition
MedGen UID:
633911
Concept ID:
C0474398
Finding
Reduced ability to control, or a failure to resist a temptation, urge, or impulse. Examples include disregard for social conventions, general impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.
Muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding
Reduced strength of muscles.
Skeletal muscle atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
812797
Concept ID:
C3806467
Finding

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Finsterer J
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2023 Mar;179(3):173-182. Epub 2022 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2022.09.004. PMID: 36371266
James E, Ellis C, Brassington R, Sathasivam S, Young CA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 May 20;5(5):CD006981. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006981.pub3. PMID: 35593746Free PMC Article
Wadman RI, van der Pol WL, Bosboom WM, Asselman FL, van den Berg LH, Iannaccone ST, Vrancken AF
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jan 6;1(1):CD006282. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006282.pub5. PMID: 32006461Free PMC Article

Curated

Orphanet, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 2007

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

James E, Ellis C, Brassington R, Sathasivam S, Young CA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 May 20;5(5):CD006981. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006981.pub3. PMID: 35593746Free PMC Article
Li CY, Yang TM, Ou RW, Wei QQ, Shang HF
BMC Med 2021 Feb 5;19(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s12916-021-01903-y. PMID: 33541344Free PMC Article
Chatwin M, Simonds AK
Respir Care 2020 Feb;65(2):135-143. Epub 2019 Nov 5 doi: 10.4187/respcare.06882. PMID: 31690614
Salminen A, Kaarniranta K, Kauppinen A, Ojala J, Haapasalo A, Soininen H, Hiltunen M
Prog Neurobiol 2013 Jul-Aug;106-107:33-54. Epub 2013 Jul 1 doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.06.002. PMID: 23827971
Chiò A, Logroscino G, Hardiman O, Swingler R, Mitchell D, Beghi E, Traynor BG; Eurals Consortium
Amyotroph Lateral Scler 2009 Oct-Dec;10(5-6):310-23. doi: 10.3109/17482960802566824. PMID: 19922118Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Bagyinszky E, Hulme J, An SSA
Cells 2023 Jul 27;12(15) doi: 10.3390/cells12151948. PMID: 37566027Free PMC Article
Donohue C, Gray LT, Anderson A, DiBiase L, Wymer JP, Plowman EK
J Speech Lang Hear Res 2023 Jan 12;66(1):154-162. Epub 2022 Dec 16 doi: 10.1044/2022_JSLHR-22-00312. PMID: 36525626Free PMC Article
Johnson JO, Chia R, Miller DE, Li R, Kumaran R, Abramzon Y, Alahmady N, Renton AE, Topp SD, Gibbs JR, Cookson MR, Sabir MS, Dalgard CL, Troakes C, Jones AR, Shatunov A, Iacoangeli A, Al Khleifat A, Ticozzi N, Silani V, Gellera C, Blair IP, Dobson-Stone C, Kwok JB, Bonkowski ES, Palvadeau R, Tienari PJ, Morrison KE, Shaw PJ, Al-Chalabi A, Brown RH Jr, Calvo A, Mora G, Al-Saif H, Gotkine M, Leigh F, Chang IJ, Perlman SJ, Glass I, Scott AI, Shaw CE, Basak AN, Landers JE, Chiò A, Crawford TO, Smith BN, Traynor BJ; FALS Sequencing Consortium; American Genome Center; International ALS Genomics Consortium; and ITALSGEN Consortium, Smith BN, Ticozzi N, Fallini C, Gkazi AS, Topp SD, Scotter EL, Kenna KP, Keagle P, Tiloca C, Vance C, Troakes C, Colombrita C, King A, Pensato V, Castellotti B, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, McKenna-Yasek D, McLaughlin RL, Polak M, Asress S, Esteban-Pérez J, Stevic Z, D'Alfonso S, Mazzini L, Comi GP, Del Bo R, Ceroni M, Gagliardi S, Querin G, Bertolin C, van Rheenen W, Rademakers R, van Blitterswijk M, Lauria G, Duga S, Corti S, Cereda C, Corrado L, Sorarù G, Williams KL, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Leblond-Manry C, Rouleau GA, Hardiman O, Morrison KE, Veldink JH, van den Berg LH, Al-Chalabi A, Pall H, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Taroni F, García-Redondo A, Wu Z, Glass JD, Gellera C, Ratti A, Brown RH Jr, Silani V, Shaw CE, Landers JE, Dalgard CL, Adeleye A, Soltis AR, Alba C, Viollet C, Bacikova D, Hupalo DN, Sukumar G, Pollard HB, Wilkerson MD, Martinez EM, Abramzon Y, Ahmed S, Arepalli S, Baloh RH, Bowser R, Brady CB, Brice A, Broach J, Campbell RH, Camu W, Chia R, Cooper-Knock J, Ding J, Drepper C, Drory VE, Dunckley TL, Eicher JD, England BK, Faghri F, Feldman E, Floeter MK, Fratta P, Geiger JT, Gerhard G, Gibbs JR, Gibson SB, Glass JD, Hardy J, Harms MB, Heiman-Patterson TD, Hernandez DG, Jansson L, Kirby J, Kowall NW, Laaksovirta H, Landeck N, Landi F, Le Ber I, Lumbroso S, MacGowan DJL, Maragakis NJ, Mora G, Mouzat K, Murphy NA, Myllykangas L, Nalls MA, Orrell RW, Ostrow LW, Pamphlett R, Pickering-Brown S, Pioro EP, Pletnikova O, Pliner HA, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, Renton AE, Rivera A, Robberecht W, Rogaeva E, Rollinson S, Rothstein JD, Scholz SW, Sendtner M, Shaw PJ, Sidle KC, Simmons Z, Singleton AB, Smith N, Stone DJ, Tienari PJ, Troncoso JC, Valori M, Van Damme P, Van Deerlin VM, Van Den Bosch L, Zinman L, Landers JE, Chiò A, Traynor BJ, Angelocola SM, Ausiello FP, Barberis M, Bartolomei I, Battistini S, Bersano E, Bisogni G, Borghero G, Brunetti M, Cabona C, Calvo A, Canale F, Canosa A, Cantisani TA, Capasso M, Caponnetto C, Cardinali P, Carrera P, Casale F, Chiò A, Colletti T, Conforti FL, Conte A, Conti E, Corbo M, Cuccu S, Dalla Bella E, D'Errico E, DeMarco G, Dubbioso R, Ferrarese C, Ferraro PM, Filippi M, Fini N, Floris G, Fuda G, Gallone S, Gianferrari G, Giannini F, Grassano M, Greco L, Iazzolino B, Introna A, La Bella V, Lattante S, Lauria G, Liguori R, Logroscino G, Logullo FO, Lunetta C, Mandich P, Mandrioli J, Manera U, Manganelli F, Marangi G, Marinou K, Marrosu MG, Martinelli I, Messina S, Moglia C, Mora G, Mosca L, Murru MR, Origone P, Passaniti C, Petrelli C, Petrucci A, Pozzi S, Pugliatti M, Quattrini A, Ricci C, Riolo G, Riva N, Russo M, Sabatelli M, Salamone P, Salivetto M, Salvi F, Santarelli M, Sbaiz L, Sideri R, Simone I, Simonini C, Spataro R, Tanel R, Tedeschi G, Ticca A, Torriello A, Tranquilli S, Tremolizzo L, Trojsi F, Vasta R, Vacchiano V, Vita G, Volanti P, Zollino M, Zucchi E
JAMA Neurol 2021 Oct 1;78(10):1236-1248. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2598. PMID: 34459874Free PMC Article
Chatwin M, Simonds AK
Respir Care 2020 Feb;65(2):135-143. Epub 2019 Nov 5 doi: 10.4187/respcare.06882. PMID: 31690614
Chiò A, Logroscino G, Hardiman O, Swingler R, Mitchell D, Beghi E, Traynor BG; Eurals Consortium
Amyotroph Lateral Scler 2009 Oct-Dec;10(5-6):310-23. doi: 10.3109/17482960802566824. PMID: 19922118Free PMC Article

Therapy

Ly CV, Ireland MD, Self WK, Bollinger J, Jockel-Balsarotti J, Herzog H, Allred P, Miller L, Doyle M, Anez-Bruzual I, Trikamji B, Hyman T, Kung T, Nicholson K, Bucelli RC, Patterson BW, Bateman RJ, Miller TM
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2023 Jun;10(6):1012-1024. Epub 2023 Apr 29 doi: 10.1002/acn3.51784. PMID: 37119480Free PMC Article
Thornton CA, Moxley RT 3rd, Eichinger K, Heatwole C, Mignon L, Arnold WD, Ashizawa T, Day JW, Dent G, Tanner MK, Duong T, Greene EP, Herbelin L, Johnson NE, King W, Kissel JT, Leung DG, Lott DJ, Norris DA, Pucillo EM, Schell W, Statland JM, Stinson N, Subramony SH, Xia S, Bishop KM, Bennett CF
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):218-228. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00001-7. PMID: 36804094
James E, Ellis C, Brassington R, Sathasivam S, Young CA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 May 20;5(5):CD006981. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006981.pub3. PMID: 35593746Free PMC Article
Mariosa D, Kamel F, Bellocco R, Ronnevi LO, Almqvist C, Larsson H, Ye W, Fang F
Eur J Neurol 2020 Jun;27(6):1010-1016. Epub 2020 Mar 17 doi: 10.1111/ene.14190. PMID: 32097525Free PMC Article
Chiò A, Logroscino G, Hardiman O, Swingler R, Mitchell D, Beghi E, Traynor BG; Eurals Consortium
Amyotroph Lateral Scler 2009 Oct-Dec;10(5-6):310-23. doi: 10.3109/17482960802566824. PMID: 19922118Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Bagyinszky E, Hulme J, An SSA
Cells 2023 Jul 27;12(15) doi: 10.3390/cells12151948. PMID: 37566027Free PMC Article
Thornton CA, Moxley RT 3rd, Eichinger K, Heatwole C, Mignon L, Arnold WD, Ashizawa T, Day JW, Dent G, Tanner MK, Duong T, Greene EP, Herbelin L, Johnson NE, King W, Kissel JT, Leung DG, Lott DJ, Norris DA, Pucillo EM, Schell W, Statland JM, Stinson N, Subramony SH, Xia S, Bishop KM, Bennett CF
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):218-228. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00001-7. PMID: 36804094
Chatwin M, Simonds AK
Respir Care 2020 Feb;65(2):135-143. Epub 2019 Nov 5 doi: 10.4187/respcare.06882. PMID: 31690614
Fecher C, Trovò L, Müller SA, Snaidero N, Wettmarshausen J, Heink S, Ortiz O, Wagner I, Kühn R, Hartmann J, Karl RM, Konnerth A, Korn T, Wurst W, Merkler D, Lichtenthaler SF, Perocchi F, Misgeld T
Nat Neurosci 2019 Oct;22(10):1731-1742. Epub 2019 Sep 9 doi: 10.1038/s41593-019-0479-z. PMID: 31501572
Chiò A, Logroscino G, Hardiman O, Swingler R, Mitchell D, Beghi E, Traynor BG; Eurals Consortium
Amyotroph Lateral Scler 2009 Oct-Dec;10(5-6):310-23. doi: 10.3109/17482960802566824. PMID: 19922118Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Thornton CA, Moxley RT 3rd, Eichinger K, Heatwole C, Mignon L, Arnold WD, Ashizawa T, Day JW, Dent G, Tanner MK, Duong T, Greene EP, Herbelin L, Johnson NE, King W, Kissel JT, Leung DG, Lott DJ, Norris DA, Pucillo EM, Schell W, Statland JM, Stinson N, Subramony SH, Xia S, Bishop KM, Bennett CF
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):218-228. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00001-7. PMID: 36804094
James E, Ellis C, Brassington R, Sathasivam S, Young CA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 May 20;5(5):CD006981. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006981.pub3. PMID: 35593746Free PMC Article
Johnson JO, Chia R, Miller DE, Li R, Kumaran R, Abramzon Y, Alahmady N, Renton AE, Topp SD, Gibbs JR, Cookson MR, Sabir MS, Dalgard CL, Troakes C, Jones AR, Shatunov A, Iacoangeli A, Al Khleifat A, Ticozzi N, Silani V, Gellera C, Blair IP, Dobson-Stone C, Kwok JB, Bonkowski ES, Palvadeau R, Tienari PJ, Morrison KE, Shaw PJ, Al-Chalabi A, Brown RH Jr, Calvo A, Mora G, Al-Saif H, Gotkine M, Leigh F, Chang IJ, Perlman SJ, Glass I, Scott AI, Shaw CE, Basak AN, Landers JE, Chiò A, Crawford TO, Smith BN, Traynor BJ; FALS Sequencing Consortium; American Genome Center; International ALS Genomics Consortium; and ITALSGEN Consortium, Smith BN, Ticozzi N, Fallini C, Gkazi AS, Topp SD, Scotter EL, Kenna KP, Keagle P, Tiloca C, Vance C, Troakes C, Colombrita C, King A, Pensato V, Castellotti B, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, McKenna-Yasek D, McLaughlin RL, Polak M, Asress S, Esteban-Pérez J, Stevic Z, D'Alfonso S, Mazzini L, Comi GP, Del Bo R, Ceroni M, Gagliardi S, Querin G, Bertolin C, van Rheenen W, Rademakers R, van Blitterswijk M, Lauria G, Duga S, Corti S, Cereda C, Corrado L, Sorarù G, Williams KL, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Leblond-Manry C, Rouleau GA, Hardiman O, Morrison KE, Veldink JH, van den Berg LH, Al-Chalabi A, Pall H, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Taroni F, García-Redondo A, Wu Z, Glass JD, Gellera C, Ratti A, Brown RH Jr, Silani V, Shaw CE, Landers JE, Dalgard CL, Adeleye A, Soltis AR, Alba C, Viollet C, Bacikova D, Hupalo DN, Sukumar G, Pollard HB, Wilkerson MD, Martinez EM, Abramzon Y, Ahmed S, Arepalli S, Baloh RH, Bowser R, Brady CB, Brice A, Broach J, Campbell RH, Camu W, Chia R, Cooper-Knock J, Ding J, Drepper C, Drory VE, Dunckley TL, Eicher JD, England BK, Faghri F, Feldman E, Floeter MK, Fratta P, Geiger JT, Gerhard G, Gibbs JR, Gibson SB, Glass JD, Hardy J, Harms MB, Heiman-Patterson TD, Hernandez DG, Jansson L, Kirby J, Kowall NW, Laaksovirta H, Landeck N, Landi F, Le Ber I, Lumbroso S, MacGowan DJL, Maragakis NJ, Mora G, Mouzat K, Murphy NA, Myllykangas L, Nalls MA, Orrell RW, Ostrow LW, Pamphlett R, Pickering-Brown S, Pioro EP, Pletnikova O, Pliner HA, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, Renton AE, Rivera A, Robberecht W, Rogaeva E, Rollinson S, Rothstein JD, Scholz SW, Sendtner M, Shaw PJ, Sidle KC, Simmons Z, Singleton AB, Smith N, Stone DJ, Tienari PJ, Troncoso JC, Valori M, Van Damme P, Van Deerlin VM, Van Den Bosch L, Zinman L, Landers JE, Chiò A, Traynor BJ, Angelocola SM, Ausiello FP, Barberis M, Bartolomei I, Battistini S, Bersano E, Bisogni G, Borghero G, Brunetti M, Cabona C, Calvo A, Canale F, Canosa A, Cantisani TA, Capasso M, Caponnetto C, Cardinali P, Carrera P, Casale F, Chiò A, Colletti T, Conforti FL, Conte A, Conti E, Corbo M, Cuccu S, Dalla Bella E, D'Errico E, DeMarco G, Dubbioso R, Ferrarese C, Ferraro PM, Filippi M, Fini N, Floris G, Fuda G, Gallone S, Gianferrari G, Giannini F, Grassano M, Greco L, Iazzolino B, Introna A, La Bella V, Lattante S, Lauria G, Liguori R, Logroscino G, Logullo FO, Lunetta C, Mandich P, Mandrioli J, Manera U, Manganelli F, Marangi G, Marinou K, Marrosu MG, Martinelli I, Messina S, Moglia C, Mora G, Mosca L, Murru MR, Origone P, Passaniti C, Petrelli C, Petrucci A, Pozzi S, Pugliatti M, Quattrini A, Ricci C, Riolo G, Riva N, Russo M, Sabatelli M, Salamone P, Salivetto M, Salvi F, Santarelli M, Sbaiz L, Sideri R, Simone I, Simonini C, Spataro R, Tanel R, Tedeschi G, Ticca A, Torriello A, Tranquilli S, Tremolizzo L, Trojsi F, Vasta R, Vacchiano V, Vita G, Volanti P, Zollino M, Zucchi E
JAMA Neurol 2021 Oct 1;78(10):1236-1248. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2598. PMID: 34459874Free PMC Article
Chatwin M, Simonds AK
Respir Care 2020 Feb;65(2):135-143. Epub 2019 Nov 5 doi: 10.4187/respcare.06882. PMID: 31690614
Fecher C, Trovò L, Müller SA, Snaidero N, Wettmarshausen J, Heink S, Ortiz O, Wagner I, Kühn R, Hartmann J, Karl RM, Konnerth A, Korn T, Wurst W, Merkler D, Lichtenthaler SF, Perocchi F, Misgeld T
Nat Neurosci 2019 Oct;22(10):1731-1742. Epub 2019 Sep 9 doi: 10.1038/s41593-019-0479-z. PMID: 31501572

Recent systematic reviews

James E, Ellis C, Brassington R, Sathasivam S, Young CA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 May 20;5(5):CD006981. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006981.pub3. PMID: 35593746Free PMC Article
Beswick E, Park E, Wong C, Mehta AR, Dakin R, Chandran S, Newton J, Carson A, Abrahams S, Pal S
J Neurol 2021 Dec;268(12):4510-4521. Epub 2020 Sep 10 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10203-z. PMID: 32910255Free PMC Article
Luo W, Li Y, Xu Q, Gu R, Zhao J
Eur Spine J 2019 Oct;28(10):2293-2301. Epub 2019 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00586-019-05990-7. PMID: 31037421
Byrne S, Walsh C, Lynch C, Bede P, Elamin M, Kenna K, McLaughlin R, Hardiman O
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