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Leukomelanoderma-infantilism-intellectual disability-hypodontia-hypotrichosis syndrome

MedGen UID:
383698
Concept ID:
C1855504
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Ectodermal dysplasia Berlin type
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009522
OMIM®: 246500
Orphanet: ORPHA1816

Definition

Leukomelanoderma-infantilism-intellectual disability-hypodontia-hypotrichosis syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by congenital generalized melanoleukoderma, hypodontia and hypotrichosis associated with infantilism, intellectual disability and growth delay. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1961. [from ORDO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Partial congenital absence of teeth
MedGen UID:
43794
Concept ID:
C0020608
Congenital Abnormality
Tooth agenesis in some form is a common human anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although tooth agenesis is associated with numerous syndromes, several case reports describe nonsyndromic forms that are either sporadic or familial in nature, as reviewed by Gorlin et al. (1990). The incidence of familial tooth agenesis varies with each class of teeth. Most commonly affected are third molars (wisdom teeth), followed by either upper lateral incisors or lower second premolars; agenesis involving first and second molars is very rare. Also see 114600 and 302400. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth). Faulty use of the terms, however, have confounded their use. The term 'partial anodontia' is obsolete (Salinas, 1978). Genetic Heterogeneity of Selective Tooth Agenesis Other forms of selective tooth agenesis include STHAG2 (602639), mapped to chromosome 16q12; STHAG3 (604625), caused by mutation in the PAX9 gene (167416) on chromosome 14q12; STHAG4 (150400), caused by mutation in the WNT10A gene (606268) on chromosome 2q35; STHAG5 (610926), mapped to chromosome 10q11; STHAG7 (616724), caused by mutation in the LRP6 gene (603507) on chromosome 12p13; STHAG8 (617073), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13; STHAG9 (617275), caused by mutation in the GREM2 gene (608832) on chromosome 1q43; STHAG10 (620173), caused by mutation in the TSPEAR gene (612920) on chromosome 21q22; and STHAGX1 (313500), caused by mutation in the EDA gene (300451) on chromosome Xq13. A type of selective tooth agenesis that was formerly designated STHAG6 has been incorporated into the dental anomalies and short stature syndrome (DASS; 601216). Of 34 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, van den Boogaard et al. (2012) found that 56% (19 patients) had mutations in the WNT10A gene (STHAG4), whereas only 3% and 9% had mutations in the MSX1 (STHAG1) and PAX9 (STHAG3) genes, respectively. The authors concluded that WNT10A is a major gene in the etiology of isolated hypodontia. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations Yu et al. (2016) observed that the most frequently missing permanent teeth in WNT10B-associated oligodontia were the lateral incisors (83.3%), whereas premolars were missing only 51.4% of the time, which they noted was a pattern 'clearly different' from the oligodontia patterns resulting from WNT10A mutations. They also stated that the selective pattern in WNT10B mutants was different from that associated with mutations in other genes, such as MSX1, in which second premolars are missing, and PAX9, in which there is agenesis of molars.
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVLeukomelanoderma-infantilism-intellectual disability-hypodontia-hypotrichosis syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Leukomelanoderma-infantilism-intellectual disability-hypodontia-hypotrichosis syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Styne DM, Arslanian SA, Connor EL, Farooqi IS, Murad MH, Silverstein JH, Yanovski JA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar 1;102(3):709-757. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-2573. PMID: 28359099Free PMC Article
Spasovski G, Vanholder R, Allolio B, Annane D, Ball S, Bichet D, Decaux G, Fenske W, Hoorn EJ, Ichai C, Joannidis M, Soupart A, Zietse R, Haller M, van der Veer S, Van Biesen W, Nagler E; Hyponatraemia Guideline Development Group
Eur J Endocrinol 2014 Mar;170(3):G1-47. Epub 2014 Feb 25 doi: 10.1530/EJE-13-1020. PMID: 24569125
Verbalis JG, Goldsmith SR, Greenberg A, Korzelius C, Schrier RW, Sterns RH, Thompson CJ
Am J Med 2013 Oct;126(10 Suppl 1):S1-42. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.07.006. PMID: 24074529

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Giudice V, Selleri C
Semin Hematol 2022 Jan;59(1):13-20. Epub 2022 Jan 5 doi: 10.1053/j.seminhematol.2021.12.002. PMID: 35491054
Keith KA, Reed LK, Nguyen A, Qaiser R
Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan;33(1):135-148. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.010. PMID: 34801137
Valdebran M, Wine Lee L
Curr Opin Pediatr 2020 Aug;32(4):498-505. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000925. PMID: 32692048
Poh TY, Mac Aogáin M, Chan AK, Yii AC, Yong VF, Tiew PY, Koh MS, Chotirmall SH
Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Apr;11(4):285-298. Epub 2017 Mar 24 doi: 10.1080/17476348.2017.1305895. PMID: 28282995
Cereda A, Carey JC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2012 Oct 23;7:81. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-7-81. PMID: 23088440Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Koster MJ, Samec MJ, Warrington KJ
J Clin Rheumatol 2023 Sep 1;29(6):298-306. Epub 2022 Oct 17 doi: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001905. PMID: 36251488
Keith KA, Reed LK, Nguyen A, Qaiser R
Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan;33(1):135-148. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.010. PMID: 34801137
De Wel B, Claeys KG
Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Oct 1;34(5):714-720. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000963. PMID: 34914668
Geenen KR, Patel S, Thiele EA
Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Mar;63(3):259-262. Epub 2020 Oct 31 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14723. PMID: 33135153
Diñeiro M, Capín R, Cifuentes GÁ, Fernández-Vega B, Villota E, Otero A, Santiago A, Pruneda PC, Castillo D, Viejo-Díaz M, Hernando I, Durán NS, Álvarez R, Lago CG, Ordóñez GR, Fernández-Vega Á, Cabanillas R, Cadiñanos J
Acta Ophthalmol 2020 Dec;98(8):e1034-e1048. Epub 2020 Jun 1 doi: 10.1111/aos.14479. PMID: 32483926Free PMC Article

Therapy

Dou Z, Xia Y, Zhang J, Li Y, Zhang Y, Zhao L, Huang Z, Sun H, Wu L, Han D, Liu Y
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:728032. Epub 2021 Dec 23 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.728032. PMID: 35002950Free PMC Article
Saha S, Roy P, Corbitt C, Kakar SS
Cells 2021 Jun 28;10(7) doi: 10.3390/cells10071613. PMID: 34203240Free PMC Article
Geenen KR, Patel S, Thiele EA
Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Mar;63(3):259-262. Epub 2020 Oct 31 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14723. PMID: 33135153
Kagan R, Kellogg-Spadt S, Parish SJ
Drugs Aging 2019 Oct;36(10):897-908. doi: 10.1007/s40266-019-00700-w. PMID: 31452067Free PMC Article
Sosa-Reina MD, Nunez-Nagy S, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Pecos-Martín D, Monserrat J, Álvarez-Mon M
Biomed Res Int 2017;2017:2356346. Epub 2017 Sep 20 doi: 10.1155/2017/2356346. PMID: 29291206Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Fardeau C, Alafaleq M, Dhaenens CM, Dollfus H, Koné-Paut I, Grunewald O, Morel JB, Titah C, Saadoun D, Lazeran PO, Meunier I
Clin Genet 2023 Apr;103(4):453-458. Epub 2022 Dec 30 doi: 10.1111/cge.14286. PMID: 36543582
Košutova P, Mikolka P
Physiol Res 2021 Dec 30;70(Suppl4):S567-S583. doi: 10.33549/physiolres.934767. PMID: 35199544Free PMC Article
Tan Tanny SP, Beck C, King SK, Hawley A, Brooks JA, McLeod E, Hutson JM, Teague WJ
Pediatrics 2021 May;147(5) doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-029884. PMID: 33911029
Cristescu Teodor R, Mihaltan FD
Rom J Ophthalmol 2019 Jan-Mar;63(1):2-9. PMID: 31198891Free PMC Article
Park CY, Lee JK, Chuck RS
BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Oct 25;18(1):276. doi: 10.1186/s12886-018-0939-3. PMID: 30359246Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Yapijakis C, Pachis N, Sotiriadou T, Vaila C, Michopoulou V, Vassiliou S
In Vivo 2023 Jan-Feb;37(1):36-46. doi: 10.21873/invivo.13052. PMID: 36593018Free PMC Article
Balaji S, Johnson P, Dvorak AV, Kolind SH
Curr Opin Neurol 2022 Aug 1;35(4):467-474. Epub 2022 Jul 5 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001078. PMID: 35788545
Boßelmann CM
Seizure 2021 Nov;92:230-233. Epub 2021 Sep 27 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2021.09.019. PMID: 34607271
Nazerian P, Mueller C, Soeiro AM, Leidel BA, Salvadeo SAT, Giachino F, Vanni S, Grimm K, Oliveira MT Jr, Pivetta E, Lupia E, Grifoni S, Morello F; ADvISED Investigators
Circulation 2018 Jan 16;137(3):250-258. Epub 2017 Oct 13 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.029457. PMID: 29030346
Wijdicks EF, Bamlet WR, Maramattom BV, Manno EM, McClelland RL
Ann Neurol 2005 Oct;58(4):585-93. doi: 10.1002/ana.20611. PMID: 16178024

Recent systematic reviews

Freitas DA, Souza-Santos R, Carvalho LMA, Barros WB, Neves LM, Brasil P, Wakimoto MD
PLoS One 2020;15(12):e0242367. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242367. PMID: 33320867Free PMC Article
Sosa-Reina MD, Nunez-Nagy S, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Pecos-Martín D, Monserrat J, Álvarez-Mon M
Biomed Res Int 2017;2017:2356346. Epub 2017 Sep 20 doi: 10.1155/2017/2356346. PMID: 29291206Free PMC Article
Sorensen CJ, DeSanto K, Borgelt L, Phillips KT, Monte AA
J Med Toxicol 2017 Mar;13(1):71-87. Epub 2016 Dec 20 doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0595-z. PMID: 28000146Free PMC Article
Fhon JR, Rodrigues RA, Neira WF, Huayta VM, Robazzi ML
Rev Esc Enferm USP 2016 Nov-Dec;50(6):1005-1013. doi: 10.1590/S0080-623420160000700018. PMID: 28198967
Canavan TN, Mathes EF, Frieden I, Shinkai K
J Am Acad Dermatol 2015 Feb;72(2):239-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.06.026. PMID: 25592340

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