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Flexion contracture of finger

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Synonyms: Flexion contracture of fingers; Flexion contractures (fingers); Flexion contractures of fingers; Flexion contractures of the fingers; Flexion finger contractures
HPO: HP:0012785


Chronic loss of joint motion in a finger due to structural changes in non-bony tissue. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
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Disease or Syndrome
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Posterior column ataxia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
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Disease or Syndrome
Posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (AXPC1) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset retinitis pigmentosa and later onset of gait ataxia due to sensory loss (summary by Ishiura et al., 2011).
H syndrome
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Disease or Syndrome
The histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome comprises features of 4 histiocytic disorders previously thought to be distinct: Faisalabad histiocytosis (FHC), sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), H syndrome, and pigmented hypertrichosis with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus syndrome (PHID). FHC was described as an autosomal recessive disease involving joint deformities, sensorineural hearing loss, and subsequent development of generalized lymphadenopathy and swellings in the eyelids that contain histiocytes (summary by Morgan et al., 2010). SHML, or familial Rosai-Dorfman disease, was described as a rare cause of lymph node enlargement in children, consisting of chronic massive enlargement of cervical lymph nodes frequently accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Extranodal sites were involved in approximately 25% of patients, including salivary glands, orbit, eyelid, spleen, and testes. The involvement of retropharyngeal lymphoid tissue sometimes caused snoring and sleep apnea (summary by Kismet et al., 2005). H syndrome was characterized by cutaneous hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, heart anomalies, and hypogonadism; hearing loss was also found in about half of patients, and many had short stature. PHID was characterized by predominantly antibody-negative insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with pigmented hypertrichosis and variable occurrence of other features of H syndrome, with hepatosplenomegaly occurring in about half of patients (Cliffe et al., 2009). Bolze et al. (2012) noted that mutations in the SLC29A3 gene (612373) had been implicated in H syndrome, PHID, FHC, and SHML, and that some patients presented a combination of features from 2 or more of these syndromes, leading to the suggestion that these phenotypes should be grouped together as 'SLC29A3 disorder.' Bolze et al. (2012) suggested that the histologic features of the lesions seemed to be the most uniform phenotype in these patients. In addition, the immunophenotype of infiltrating cells in H syndrome patients was shown to be the same as that seen in patients with the familial form of Rosai-Dorfman disease, further supporting the relationship between these disorders (Avitan-Hersh et al., 2011; Colmenero et al., 2012).
Acroosteolysis-keloid-like lesions-premature aging syndrome
MedGen UID:
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Disease or Syndrome
Penttinen syndrome (PENTT) is characterized by a prematurely aged appearance involving lipoatrophy and epidermal and dermal atrophy, as well as hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acroosteolysis (Johnston et al., 2015).
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 11
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Disease or Syndrome
Any lethal congenital contracture syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GLDN gene.
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1
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Disease or Syndrome
This autosomal recessive systemic autoinflammatory disorder is characterized by early childhood onset of annular erythematous plaques on the face and extremities with subsequent development of partial lipodystrophy and laboratory evidence of immune dysregulation. More variable features include recurrent fever, severe joint contractures, muscle weakness and atrophy, hepatosplenomegaly, basal ganglia calcifications, and microcytic anemia (summary by Agarwal et al., 2010; Kitamura et al., 2011; Arima et al., 2011). This disorder encompasses Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NKJO); joint contractures, muscular atrophy, microcytic anemia, and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy (JMP syndrome); and chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature syndrome (CANDLE). Among Japanese patients, this disorder is best described as Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, since both Nakajo (1939) and Nishimura et al. (1950) contributed to the original phenotypic descriptions. Genetic Heterogeneity of Proteasome-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome See also PRAAS2 (618048), caused by mutation in the POMP gene (613386) on chromosome 13q12; PRAAS3 (617591), caused by mutation in the PSMB4 gene (602177) on chromosome 1q21; PRAAS4 (619183), caused by mutation in the PSMG2 gene (609702) on chromosome 18p11; and PRAAS5 (619175), caused by mutation in the PSMB10 gene (176847) on chromosome 16q22.
Warburg-cinotti syndrome
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Disease or Syndrome
Warburg-Cinotti syndrome (WRCN) is characterized by progressive corneal neovascularization, keloid formation, chronic skin ulcers, wasting of subcutaneous tissue, flexion contractures of the fingers, and acroosteolysis (Xu et al., 2018).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 3, myogenic type
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Disease or Syndrome
Myogenic-type arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-3 (AMC3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by decreased fetal movements, hypotonia, variable skeletal defects, including clubfoot and scoliosis, and delayed motor milestones with difficulty walking (summary by Baumann et al., 2017).
Myofibrillar myopathy 10
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Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-10 (MFM10) is an autosomal recessive structural muscle disorder characterized by onset of muscle pain, cramping, and exercise fatigue in the first or second decades of life. Some patients have mild contractures of the large joints apparent in early childhood. Affected individuals have a characteristic appearance of a thick neck and prominent shoulder girdle with anteverted shoulders and a tendency toward kyphosis. There is no apparent muscle weakness, but some affected individuals show progressive muscle rigidity leading to limited mobility. There is variable cardiac involvement, ranging from chest pain with left ventricular hypertrophy to subclinical signs such as abnormal EKG or elevated cardiac enzymes. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows structural abnormalities with myofibrillar disorganization and accumulation of autophagocytic vacuoles (summary by Hedberg-Oldfors et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).

Professional guidelines


Hanson ZC, Thompson RG, Andrews JR, Lourie GM
J Hand Surg Am 2023 May;48(5):489-497. Epub 2022 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2022.10.019. PMID: 36593154
Wang ED, Rahgozar P
Clin Plast Surg 2019 Jul;46(3):339-345. Epub 2019 Apr 19 doi: 10.1016/j.cps.2019.02.007. PMID: 31103078
Giugale JM, Fowler JR
Orthop Clin North Am 2015 Oct;46(4):561-9. Epub 2015 Aug 13 doi: 10.1016/j.ocl.2015.06.014. PMID: 26410644

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