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Flattened epiphysis

MedGen UID:
387844
Concept ID:
C1857527
Finding
Synonyms: Flat epiphyses; Flattened epiphyses; Flattening of epiphyses
 
HPO: HP:0003071

Definition

Abnormal flatness (decreased height) of epiphyses. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Diastrophic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
113103
Concept ID:
C0220726
Disease or Syndrome
Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is characterized by limb shortening, normal-sized head, hitchhiker thumbs, spinal deformities (scoliosis, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, cervical kyphosis), and contractures of the large joints with deformities and early-onset osteoarthritis. Other typical findings are ulnar deviation of the fingers, gap between the first and second toes, and clubfoot. On occasion, the disease can be lethal at birth, but most affected individuals survive the neonatal period and develop physical limitations with normal intelligence.
Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia
MedGen UID:
96581
Concept ID:
C0432215
Congenital Abnormality
Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by predominant involvement of articular cartilage with progressive joint stiffness and enlargement in the absence of inflammation. Onset – typically between ages three and six years – begins with the involvement of the interphalangeal joints. Over time, involvement of large joints and the spine causes significant joint contractures, gait disturbance, and scoliosis and/or kyphosis, resulting in abnormal posture and significant morbidity. Despite the considerable arthropathy, pain is not a major presenting feature of this condition. Initially height is normal; however, short stature (<3rd centile) becomes evident in adolescence as the skeletal changes progress.
Wolcott-Rallison dysplasia
MedGen UID:
140926
Concept ID:
C0432217
Disease or Syndrome
Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by permanent neonatal or early infancy insulin-dependent diabetes. Epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation develop at a later age. Other frequent multisystem manifestations include hepatic and renal dysfunction, mental retardation, and cardiovascular abnormalities (summary by Delepine et al., 2000).
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
96586
Concept ID:
C0432235
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations
MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 2
MedGen UID:
333092
Concept ID:
C1838429
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) presents in early childhood, usually with pain in the hips and/or knees after exercise. Affected children complain of fatigue with long-distance walking. Waddling gait may be present. Adult height is either in the lower range of normal or mildly shortened. The limbs are relatively short in comparison to the trunk. Pain and joint deformity progress, resulting in early-onset osteoarthritis, particularly of the large weight-bearing joints.
Eiken syndrome
MedGen UID:
325097
Concept ID:
C1838779
Congenital Abnormality
Eiken syndrome (EKNS) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by delayed ossification of bones, epiphyseal dysplasia, and bone remodeling abnormalities. Type A1 brachydactyly (see 112500), supernumerary epiphyses of proximal phalanges and metacarpals, and failure of eruption of primary teeth have also been described. Defining radiologic features include delayed ossification of epiphyses and primary ossification centers of short tubular bones, modeling abnormalities of tubular bones, and angel-shaped phalanges (Jacob et al., 2019). See 603740 for a disorder with similar radiologic features.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Bieganski type
MedGen UID:
335350
Concept ID:
C1846148
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (SEMDHL) is an X-linked recessive developmental disorder characterized by slowly progressive skeletal and neurologic abnormalities, including short stature, large and deformed joints, significant motor impairment, visual defects, and sometimes cognitive deficits. Affected individuals typically have normal early development in the first year or so of life, followed by development regression and the development of symptoms. Brain imaging shows white matter abnormalities consistent with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (summary by Miyake et al., 2017).
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, Al-Gazali type
MedGen UID:
335505
Concept ID:
C1846722
Disease or Syndrome
Al-Gazali-Bakalinova syndrome (AGBK) is characterized by multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, macrocephaly, and distinctive facial features including frontal bossing, hypertelorism, flat malar regions, low-set ears, and short neck. Other features include pectus excavatum, spindle-shaped fingers, clinodactyly, prominent joints, and genu valgum (summary by Ali et al., 2012).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with multiple dislocations
MedGen UID:
350960
Concept ID:
C1863732
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type 2 (SEMDJL2) is characterized by short stature, distinctive midface retrusion, progressive knee malalignment (genu valgum and/or varum), generalized ligamentous laxity, and mild spinal deformity. Intellectual development is not impaired. Radiographic characteristics include significantly retarded epiphyseal ossification that evolves into epiphyseal dysplasia and precocious osteoarthritis, metaphyseal irregularities and vertical striations, constricted femoral neck, slender metacarpals and metatarsals, and mild thoracolumbar kyphosis or scoliosis with normal or mild platyspondyly (summary by Min et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SEMD with joint laxity, see SEMDJL1 (271640).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Missouri type
MedGen UID:
355563
Concept ID:
C1865832
Disease or Syndrome
Disorder with manifestations of moderate-to-severe metaphyseal changes, mild epiphyseal involvement, rhizomelic shortening of the lower limbs with bowing of the femora and/or tibiae, coxa vara, genu varum and pear-shaped vertebrae in childhood. The syndrome has been described in a large Missouri (US) kindred with 14 affected members in 4 generations. Though some spontaneous improvement of the skeletal defects may occur in adolescence, the affected individuals remained shorter than their age-matched unaffected siblings. Predisposition deformities to osteoarthritis have been noted. This condition is caused by mutation in the MMP13 gene (locus 11q22.3) and transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylocheirodysplastic type
MedGen UID:
393515
Concept ID:
C2676510
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 3 is characterized by short stature, hyperelastic skin and hypermobile joints, protuberant eyes with bluish sclerae, finely wrinkled palms, and characteristic radiologic features (Giunta et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the spondylodysplastic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see 130070.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
MedGen UID:
412530
Concept ID:
C2745959
Congenital Abnormality
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature (short trunk), abnormal epiphyses, and flattened vertebral bodies. Skeletal features are manifested at birth and evolve with time. Other features include myopia and/or retinal degeneration with retinal detachment and cleft palate (summary by Anderson et al., 1990).
Smith-McCort dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
811489
Concept ID:
C3714896
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-McCort dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by short trunk dwarfism with a barrel-shaped chest, rhizomelic limb shortening, and specific radiologic features including marked platyspondyly with double-humped end-plates, kyphoscoliosis, metaphyseal irregularities, laterally displaced capital femoral epiphyses, and small pelvis with a lace-like appearance of iliac crests. These clinical and radiologic features are also common to Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome (DMC; 223800), which is distinguished from SMC by the additional feature of mental retardation (summary by Dupuis et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Smith-McCort dysplasia, see SMC1 (607326).
Desbuquois dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
860583
Concept ID:
C4012146
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia belonging to the multiple dislocation group and characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation (stature less than -5 SD), joint laxity, short extremities, and progressive scoliosis. The main radiologic features are short long bones with metaphyseal splay, a 'Swedish key' appearance of the proximal femur (exaggerated trochanter), and advanced carpal and tarsal bone age with a delta phalanx (summary by Huber et al., 2009). Desbuquois dysplasia is clinically and radiographically heterogeneous, and had been classified into 2 types based on the presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of characteristic hand anomalies, including an extra ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, delta phalanx, bifid distal thumb phalanx, and dislocation of the interphalangeal joints (Faivre et al., 2004). However, patients with and without these additional hand anomalies have been reported to have mutations in the same gene (see, e.g., CANT1); thus, these features are not distinctive criteria to predict the molecular basis of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). In addition, Kim et al. (2010) described another milder variant of DBQD with almost normal outwardly appearing hands, but significant radiographic changes, including short metacarpals, elongated phalanges, and remarkably advanced carpal bone age. However, there is no accessory ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, and patients do not have thumb anomalies. Similar changes occur in the feet. These patients also tend to develop precocious osteoarthritis of the hand and spine with age. This phenotype is sometimes referred to as the 'Kim variant' of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Desbuquois Dysplasia DBQD2 (615777) is caused by mutation in the XYLT1 gene (608124) on chromosome 16p12. Two unrelated patients with immunodeficiency-23 (IMD23; 615816), due to mutation in the PGM3 gene (172100), were reported to have skeletal features reminiscent of DBQD.
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1676818
Concept ID:
C5193055
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis (SSASKS)is characterized by disproportionate short stature, defective tooth enamel formation, and skeletal dysplasia with severe scoliosis in some patients. Variable features include facial dysmorphism, moderate hearing impairment, and mildly impaired intellectual development (Ashikov et al., 2018).

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