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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy(CAA)

MedGen UID:
38998
Concept ID:
C0085220
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Amyloid angiopathy; CAA; Cerebral amyloidosis; Senile cerebral amyloid angiopathy
SNOMED CT: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (230724001); CAA - Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (230724001); Congophilic angiopathy (230724001)
 
HPO: HP:0011970

Definition

Hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition characterized by an abnormal buildup of protein clumps called amyloid deposits in the blood vessels in the brain, causing vascular disease (angiopathy). People with hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy often have progressive loss of intellectual function (dementia), stroke, and other neurological problems starting in mid-adulthood. Due to neurological decline, this condition is typically fatal in one's sixties, although there is variation depending on the severity of the signs and symptoms. Most affected individuals die within a decade after signs and symptoms first appear, although some people with the disease have survived longer.

There are many different types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The different types are distinguished by their genetic cause, which determines whether areas of the brain other than blood vessels are affected, and the signs and symptoms that occur. The various types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy are named after the regions where they were first diagnosed.

The Dutch type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is the most common form. Stroke is frequently the first sign of the Dutch type and is fatal in about one third of people who have this condition. Survivors often develop dementia and have recurrent strokes. About half of individuals with the Dutch type who have one or more strokes will have recurrent seizures (epilepsy).

People with the Flemish and Italian types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy are prone to recurrent strokes and dementia. Individuals with the Piedmont type may have one or more strokes and typically experience impaired movements, numbness or tingling (paresthesias), confusion, or dementia.

The first sign of the Icelandic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is typically a stroke followed by dementia. Strokes associated with the Icelandic type usually occur earlier than the other types, with individuals typically experiencing their first stroke in their twenties or thirties.

Two types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, known as familial British dementia and familial Danish dementia, are characterized by dementia and movement problems. Strokes are uncommon in these types. People with the Danish type also have clouding of the lens of the eyes (cataracts) and deafness.

Strokes are rare in people with the Arctic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which the first sign is usually memory loss that then progresses to severe dementia. Strokes are also uncommon in individuals with the Iowa type. This type is characterized by memory loss, problems with vocabulary and the production of speech, personality changes, and involuntary muscle twitches (myoclonus). [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVCerebral amyloid angiopathy

Conditions with this feature

Alzheimer disease 4
MedGen UID:
376072
Concept ID:
C1847200
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer's disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with Alzheimer's disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nIndividuals with Alzheimer's disease usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. In Alzheimer's disease, death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAlzheimer's disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's disease.
ADan amyloidosis
MedGen UID:
396208
Concept ID:
C1861735
Disease or Syndrome
ITM2B-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy-2, also known as familial Danish dementia (FDD), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive development of cataracts and other ocular disorders including ocular hemorrhages, hearing impairment, varying neurologic symptoms, and dementia, usually associated with paranoid reactions and temporal disturbance of consciousness. Most patients die in the fifth to sixth decade of life. Neuropathologic findings include severe widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hippocampal plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles, similar to Alzheimer disease (see 104300) (summary by Vidal et al., 2000).
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, APP-related
MedGen UID:
414044
Concept ID:
C2751536
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, or cerebroarterial amyloidosis, refers to a pathologic process in which amyloid protein progressively deposits in cerebral blood vessel walls with subsequent degenerative vascular changes that usually result in spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic lesions, and progressive dementia. APP-related CAA is the most common form of CAA (Revesz et al., 2003, 2009).
ABri amyloidosis
MedGen UID:
1677186
Concept ID:
C5190835
Disease or Syndrome
ITM2B-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy-1, also known as familial British dementia (FBD), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, spasticity, and cerebellar ataxia, with onset at around the fifth decade of life. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, nonneuritic and perivascular plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are the predominant pathological lesions (summary by Vidal et al., 1999).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Lancet Neurol 2022 Aug;21(8):714-725. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00208-3. PMID: 35841910Free PMC Article
Greenberg SM, Ziai WC, Cordonnier C, Dowlatshahi D, Francis B, Goldstein JN, Hemphill JC 3rd, Johnson R, Keigher KM, Mack WJ, Mocco J, Newton EJ, Ruff IM, Sansing LH, Schulman S, Selim MH, Sheth KN, Sprigg N, Sunnerhagen KS; American Heart Association/American Stroke Association
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Kozberg MG, Perosa V, Gurol ME, van Veluw SJ
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

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