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Encephalitis

MedGen UID:
4027
Concept ID:
C0014038
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Brain Inflammation; Brain Inflammations; Inflammation, Brain
SNOMED CT: Encephalitis (45170000)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0019956
Orphanet: ORPHA97275

Definition

An inflammatory process affecting the brain parenchyma. Causes include viral infections and less frequently bacterial infections, toxins, and immune-mediated processes. [from NCI]

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Dalmau J, Graus F
Lancet Neurol 2023 Jun;22(6):529-540. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00083-2. PMID: 37210100
Banwell B, Bennett JL, Marignier R, Kim HJ, Brilot F, Flanagan EP, Ramanathan S, Waters P, Tenembaum S, Graves JS, Chitnis T, Brandt AU, Hemingway C, Neuteboom R, Pandit L, Reindl M, Saiz A, Sato DK, Rostasy K, Paul F, Pittock SJ, Fujihara K, Palace J
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):268-282. Epub 2023 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00431-8. PMID: 36706773
Abboud H, Probasco JC, Irani S, Ances B, Benavides DR, Bradshaw M, Christo PP, Dale RC, Fernandez-Fournier M, Flanagan EP, Gadoth A, George P, Grebenciucova E, Jammoul A, Lee ST, Li Y, Matiello M, Morse AM, Rae-Grant A, Rojas G, Rossman I, Schmitt S, Venkatesan A, Vernino S, Pittock SJ, Titulaer MJ; Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance Clinicians Network
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Jul;92(7):757-768. Epub 2021 Mar 1 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2020-325300. PMID: 33649022Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Richie MB
Neurol Clin 2022 Feb;40(1):93-112. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.08.007. PMID: 34798977
Venkatesan A
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2021 Aug 1;27(4):855-886. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001006. PMID: 34623096
Uy CE, Binks S, Irani SR
Pract Neurol 2021 Oct;21(5):412-423. Epub 2021 Jun 9 doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2020-002567. PMID: 34108243Free PMC Article
Nissen MS, Ryding M, Meyer M, Blaabjerg M
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2020;19(8):584-598. doi: 10.2174/1871527319666200708133103. PMID: 32640967
Richie MB, Josephson SA
Semin Neurol 2015 Dec;35(6):611-20. Epub 2015 Nov 23 doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1564686. PMID: 26595861

Diagnosis

Richie MB
Neurol Clin 2022 Feb;40(1):93-112. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.08.007. PMID: 34798977
Bystritsky RJ, Chow FC
Neurol Clin 2022 Feb;40(1):77-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.08.006. PMID: 34798976
Costa BKD, Sato DK
J Pediatr (Rio J) 2020 Mar-Apr;96 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):12-19. Epub 2019 Sep 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2019.07.006. PMID: 31513761Free PMC Article
Aneja S, Sharma S
Indian J Pediatr 2019 Jan;86(1):70-75. Epub 2018 Sep 19 doi: 10.1007/s12098-018-2775-0. PMID: 30232787
Ellul M, Solomon T
Clin Med (Lond) 2018 Mar;18(2):155-159. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.18-2-155. PMID: 29626021Free PMC Article

Therapy

Lareau CA, Yin Y, Maurer K, Sandor KD, Daniel B, Yagnik G, Peña J, Crawford JC, Spanjaart AM, Gutierrez JC, Haradhvala NJ, Riberdy JM, Abay T, Stickels RR, Verboon JM, Liu V, Buquicchio FA, Wang F, Southard J, Song R, Li W, Shrestha A, Parida L, Getz G, Maus MV, Li S, Moore A, Roberts ZJ, Ludwig LS, Talleur AC, Thomas PG, Dehghani H, Pertel T, Kundaje A, Gottschalk S, Roth TL, Kersten MJ, Wu CJ, Majzner RG, Satpathy AT
Nature 2023 Nov;623(7987):608-615. Epub 2023 Nov 8 doi: 10.1038/s41586-023-06704-2. PMID: 37938768Free PMC Article
Yang J, Liu X
Front Immunol 2021;12:790962. Epub 2021 Dec 16 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.790962. PMID: 34975890Free PMC Article
Toledano M, Pittock SJ
Semin Neurol 2015 Jun;35(3):245-58. Epub 2015 Jun 10 doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1552625. PMID: 26060904
Dalmau J, Lancaster E, Martinez-Hernandez E, Rosenfeld MR, Balice-Gordon R
Lancet Neurol 2011 Jan;10(1):63-74. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70253-2. PMID: 21163445Free PMC Article
Gnann JW Jr, Barton NH, Whitley RJ
Pharmacotherapy 1983 Sep-Oct;3(5):275-83. doi: 10.1002/j.1875-9114.1983.tb03274.x. PMID: 6359082

Prognosis

Ladani AP, Loganathan M, Kolikonda MK, Lippmann S
South Med J 2021 Dec;114(12):751-759. doi: 10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001337. PMID: 34853850Free PMC Article
Siow I, Lee KS, Zhang JJY, Saffari SE, Ng A
Eur J Neurol 2021 Oct;28(10):3491-3502. Epub 2021 Jun 2 doi: 10.1111/ene.14913. PMID: 33982853Free PMC Article
GBD 2016 Neurology Collaborators
Lancet Neurol 2019 May;18(5):459-480. Epub 2019 Mar 14 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30499-X. PMID: 30879893Free PMC Article
van Sonderen A, Thijs RD, Coenders EC, Jiskoot LC, Sanchez E, de Bruijn MA, van Coevorden-Hameete MH, Wirtz PW, Schreurs MW, Sillevis Smitt PA, Titulaer MJ
Neurology 2016 Oct 4;87(14):1449-1456. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003173. PMID: 27590293
Abe T, Kojima K, Shoji H, Tanaka N, Fujimoto K, Uchida M, Nishimura H, Hayabuchi N, Norbash AM
J Magn Reson Imaging 1998 Jul-Aug;8(4):755-61. doi: 10.1002/jmri.1880080402. PMID: 9702874

Clinical prediction guides

Lee WJ, Lee HS, Kim DY, Lee HS, Moon J, Park KI, Lee SK, Chu K, Lee ST
Brain 2022 Oct 21;145(10):3509-3521. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac166. PMID: 35512357
Gillinder L, Britton J
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 Apr 1;28(2):363-398. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001079. PMID: 35393963
Thaler FS, Zimmermann L, Kammermeier S, Strippel C, Ringelstein M, Kraft A, Sühs KW, Wickel J, Geis C, Markewitz R, Urbanek C, Sommer C, Doppler K, Penner L, Lewerenz J, Rößling R, Finke C, Prüss H, Melzer N, Wandinger KP, Leypoldt F, Kümpfel T; German Network for Research on Autoimmune Encephalitis (GENERATE)
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 Nov;8(6) Epub 2021 Oct 1 doi: 10.1212/NXI.0000000000001088. PMID: 34599001Free PMC Article
Nepal G, Shing YK, Yadav JK, Rehrig JH, Ojha R, Huang DY, Gajurel BP
Acta Neurol Scand 2020 Nov;142(5):449-459. Epub 2020 Jun 16 doi: 10.1111/ane.13291. PMID: 32484900
Rubin S, Eckhaus M, Rennick LJ, Bamford CG, Duprex WP
J Pathol 2015 Jan;235(2):242-52. doi: 10.1002/path.4445. PMID: 25229387Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Islam MA, Cavestro C, Alam SS, Kundu S, Kamal MA, Reza F
Cells 2022 Aug 18;11(16) doi: 10.3390/cells11162575. PMID: 36010650Free PMC Article
Nabizadeh F, Balabandian M, Sodeifian F, Rezaei N, Rostami MR, Naser Moghadasi A
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Jun;62:103795. Epub 2022 Apr 6 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.103795. PMID: 35472834Free PMC Article
Lagarde S, Boucraut J, Bartolomei F
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2022 Sep;178(7):675-691. Epub 2022 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2022.01.007. PMID: 35131107
GBD 2017 US Neurological Disorders Collaborators, Feigin VL, Vos T, Alahdab F, Amit AML, Bärnighausen TW, Beghi E, Beheshti M, Chavan PP, Criqui MH, Desai R, Dhamminda Dharmaratne S, Dorsey ER, Wilder Eagan A, Elgendy IY, Filip I, Giampaoli S, Giussani G, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hole MK, Ikeda T, Owens Johnson C, Kalani R, Khatab K, Khubchandani J, Kim D, Koroshetz WJ, Krishnamoorthy V, Krishnamurthi RV, Liu X, Lo WD, Logroscino G, Mensah GA, Miller TR, Mohammed S, Mokdad AH, Moradi-Lakeh M, Morrison SD, Shivamurthy VKN, Naghavi M, Nichols E, Norrving B, Odell CM, Pupillo E, Radfar A, Roth GA, Shafieesabet A, Sheikh A, Sheikhbahaei S, Shin JI, Singh JA, Steiner TJ, Stovner LJ, Wallin MT, Weiss J, Wu C, Zunt JR, Adelson JD, Murray CJL
JAMA Neurol 2021 Feb 1;78(2):165-176. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.4152. PMID: 33136137Free PMC Article
Tansarli GS, Chapin KC
Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Mar;26(3):281-290. Epub 2019 Nov 21 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.11.016. PMID: 31760115

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