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PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation(CDG1T; CDGIt; GSD14)

MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CDG It; Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1t; Glycogen storage disease XIV; GSD XIV; PGM1 DEFICIENCY; PGM1-CDG; PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE 1 DEFICIENCY
SNOMED CT: PGM1-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (783717008); Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (783717008); Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1t (783717008); PGM1-CDG - Phosphoglucomutase 1-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (783717008); Phosphoglucomutase 1-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (783717008); Phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiency (783717008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): PGM1 (1p31.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013968
OMIM®: 614921
Orphanet: ORPHA319646

Definition

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Fatigue
MedGen UID:
41971
Concept ID:
C0015672
Sign or Symptom
A subjective feeling of tiredness characterized by a lack of energy and motivation.
Sudden cardiac death
MedGen UID:
38841
Concept ID:
C0085298
Pathologic Function
The heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating resulting in death within a short time period (generally within 1 h of symptom onset).
Exercise intolerance
MedGen UID:
603270
Concept ID:
C0424551
Finding
A functional motor deficit where individuals whose responses to the challenges of exercise fail to achieve levels considered normal for their age and gender.
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing or constriction of a segment of the aorta.
Primary dilated cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
2880
Concept ID:
C0007193
Disease or Syndrome
Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. It occurs when heart (cardiac) muscle becomes thin and weakened in at least one chamber of the heart, causing the open area of the chamber to become enlarged (dilated). As a result, the heart is unable to pump blood as efficiently as usual. To compensate, the heart attempts to increase the amount of blood being pumped through the heart, leading to further thinning and weakening of the cardiac muscle. Over time, this condition results in heart failure.\n\nIt usually takes many years for symptoms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy to cause health problems. They typically begin in mid-adulthood, but can occur at any time from infancy to late adulthood. Signs and symptoms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy can include an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), shortness of breath (dyspnea), extreme tiredness (fatigue), fainting episodes (syncope), and swelling of the legs and feet. In some cases, the first sign of the disorder is sudden cardiac death. The severity of the condition varies among affected individuals, even in members of the same family.
Cardiomegaly
MedGen UID:
5459
Concept ID:
C0018800
Finding
Increased size of the heart, clinically defined as an increased transverse diameter of the cardiac silhouette that is greater than or equal to 50% of the transverse diameter of the chest (increased cardiothoracic ratio) on a posterior-anterior projection of a chest radiograph or a computed tomography.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Tachycardia
MedGen UID:
21453
Concept ID:
C0039231
Finding
A rapid heartrate that exceeds the range of the normal resting heartrate for age.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
MedGen UID:
425404
Concept ID:
C2973725
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary hypertension is defined mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25mmHg or more and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15mmHg or less when measured by right heart catheterisation at rest and in a supine position.
Aborted sudden cardiac death
MedGen UID:
1632505
Concept ID:
C4703449
Finding
Cardiac arrest that would have led to rapid and unexpected death had an intervention not taken place to prevent it.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Intrahepatic cholestasis
MedGen UID:
3042
Concept ID:
C0008372
Disease or Syndrome
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in the small bile ducts within the liver.
Hepatitis
MedGen UID:
5515
Concept ID:
C0019158
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the liver.
Chronic hepatitis
MedGen UID:
9223
Concept ID:
C0019189
Disease or Syndrome
Hepatitis that lasts for more than six months.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Vomiting
MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions.
Chronic diarrhea
MedGen UID:
96036
Concept ID:
C0401151
Finding
The presence of chronic diarrhea, which is usually taken to mean diarrhea that has persisted for over 4 weeks.
Increased hepatic glycogen content
MedGen UID:
344698
Concept ID:
C1856285
Finding
An increase in the amount of glycogen stored in hepatocytes compared to normal.
Hepatic steatosis
MedGen UID:
398225
Concept ID:
C2711227
Disease or Syndrome
Steatosis is a term used to denote lipid accumulation within hepatocytes.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Cerebral venous thrombosis
MedGen UID:
57743
Concept ID:
C0151945
Disease or Syndrome
Formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a cerebral vein, causing the obstruction of blood flow.
Prolonged partial thromboplastin time
MedGen UID:
66815
Concept ID:
C0240671
Finding
Increased time to coagulation in the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test, a measure of the intrinsic and common coagulation pathways. Phospholipid, and activator, and calcium are mixed into an anticoagulated plasma sample, and the time is measured until a thrombus forms.
Hereditary antithrombin deficiency
MedGen UID:
75781
Concept ID:
C0272375
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of antithrombin III is a major risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease. Two categories of AT-III deficiency have been defined on the basis of AT-III antigen levels in the plasma of affected individuals. The majority of AT-III deficiency families belong in the type I (classic) deficiency group and have a quantitatively abnormal phenotype in which antigen and heparin cofactor levels are both reduced to about 50% of normal. The second category of AT-III deficiency has been termed type II (functional) deficiency. Affected individuals from these kindreds produce dysfunctional AT-III molecules; they have reduced heparin cofactor activity levels (about 50% of normal) but levels of AT-III antigen are often normal or nearly normal (summary by Bock and Prochownik, 1987). The 2 categories of antithrombmin III deficiency have been classified further. Type I (low functional and immunologic antithrombin) has been subdivided into subtype Ia (reduced levels of normal antithrombin), and type Ib (reduced levels of antithrombin and the presence of low levels of a variant). Type II (low functional but normal immunologic antithrombin) has been subdivided into subtype IIa (functional abnormalities affecting both the reactive site and the heparin-binding site of AT3); subtype IIb (functional abnormalities limited to the reactive site); and subtype IIc (functional abnormalities limited to the heparin-binding site) (summary by Lane et al., 1992).
Prolonged prothrombin time
MedGen UID:
208879
Concept ID:
C0853225
Finding
Increased time to coagulation in the prothrombin time test, which is a measure of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. The results of the prothrombin time test are often expressed in terms of the International normalized ratio (INR), which is calculated as a ratio of the patient's prothrombin time (PT) to a control PT standardized for the potency of the thromboplastin reagent developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the formula
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Rhabdomyolysis
MedGen UID:
19775
Concept ID:
C0035410
Pathologic Function
Breakdown of muscle fibers that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents (myoglobin) into the bloodstream.
Muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding
Reduced strength of muscles.
Dyspnea
MedGen UID:
3938
Concept ID:
C0013404
Sign or Symptom
Difficult or labored breathing. Dyspnea is a subjective feeling only the patient can rate, e.g., on a Borg scale.
Recurrent otitis media
MedGen UID:
155436
Concept ID:
C0747085
Disease or Syndrome
Increased susceptibility to otitis media, as manifested by recurrent episodes of otitis media.
Hypoglycemia
MedGen UID:
6979
Concept ID:
C0020615
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased concentration of glucose in the blood.
Malignant hyperthermia of anesthesia
MedGen UID:
9867
Concept ID:
C0024591
Injury or Poisoning
Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle calcium regulation associated with uncontrolled skeletal muscle hypermetabolism. Manifestations of malignant hyperthermia (MH) are precipitated by certain volatile anesthetics (i.e., halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, enflurane), either alone or in conjunction with a depolarizing muscle relaxant (specifically, succinylcholine). The triggering substances cause uncontrolled release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and may promote entry of extracellular calcium into the myoplasm, causing contracture of skeletal muscles, glycogenolysis, and increased cellular metabolism, resulting in production of heat and excess lactate. Affected individuals experience acidosis, hypercapnia, tachycardia, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis with subsequent increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration, hyperkalemia with a risk for cardiac arrhythmia or even cardiac arrest, and myoglobinuria with a risk for renal failure. In nearly all cases, the first manifestations of MH (tachycardia and tachypnea) occur in the operating room; however, MH may also occur in the early postoperative period. There is mounting evidence that some individuals with MHS will also develop MH with exercise and/or on exposure to hot environments. Without proper and prompt treatment with dantrolene sodium, mortality is extremely high.
Elevated circulating aspartate aminotransferase concentration
MedGen UID:
57497
Concept ID:
C0151904
Finding
An abnormally high concentration in the circulation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST).
Elevated circulating alanine aminotransferase concentration
MedGen UID:
57740
Concept ID:
C0151905
Finding
An abnormally high concentration in the circulation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT).
Elevated circulating creatine kinase concentration
MedGen UID:
69128
Concept ID:
C0241005
Finding
An elevation of the level of the enzyme creatine kinase (also known as creatine phosphokinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) in the blood. CK levels can be elevated in a number of clinical disorders such as myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, and muscular dystrophy.
Elevated hepatic transaminase
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Abnormal isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin
MedGen UID:
413671
Concept ID:
C2749688
Finding
Glycosylated transferrin concentrations can be measured in serum as a marker of N-linked glycosylation fidelity. In the traditional nomenclature for congenital disorders of glycosylation, absence of entire glycans was designated type I, and loss of one or more monosaccharides as type II. These terms are retained for historical reasons but for new annotations the precise glycosylation defect should be recorded.
Isolated Pierre-Robin syndrome
MedGen UID:
19310
Concept ID:
C0031900
Congenital Abnormality
Pierre Robin sequence is a craniofacial anomaly comprising mandibular hypoplasia, cleft secondary palate, and glossoptosis leading to life-threatening obstructive apnea and feeding difficulaties during the neonatal period (summary by Tan et al., 2013).
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Bifid uvula
MedGen UID:
1646931
Concept ID:
C4551488
Congenital Abnormality
Uvula separated into two parts most easily seen at the tip.
Delayed puberty
MedGen UID:
46203
Concept ID:
C0034012
Pathologic Function
Passing the age when puberty normally occurs with no physical or hormonal signs of the onset of puberty.
Decreased serum insulin-like growth factor 1
MedGen UID:
892792
Concept ID:
C4072897
Finding
A reduced level of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in the blood circulation.
Blue sclerae
MedGen UID:
154236
Concept ID:
C0542514
Finding
An abnormal bluish coloration of the sclera.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Perales-Clemente E, Liedtke K, Studinski A, Radenkovic S, Gavrilov D, Oglesbee D, Matern D, Rinaldo P, Tortorelli S, Morava E, Raymond K
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Sep;44(5):1263-1271. Epub 2021 Jun 22 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12406. PMID: 34043239
Altassan R, Radenkovic S, Edmondson AC, Barone R, Brasil S, Cechova A, Coman D, Donoghue S, Falkenstein K, Ferreira V, Ferreira C, Fiumara A, Francisco R, Freeze H, Grunewald S, Honzik T, Jaeken J, Krasnewich D, Lam C, Lee J, Lefeber D, Marques-da-Silva D, Pascoal C, Quelhas D, Raymond KM, Rymen D, Seroczynska M, Serrano M, Sykut-Cegielska J, Thiel C, Tort F, Vals MA, Videira P, Voermans N, Witters P, Morava E
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):148-163. Epub 2020 Sep 15 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12286. PMID: 32681750Free PMC Article

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