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Humeroradial synostosis

MedGen UID:
418931
Concept ID:
C2930865
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Humero-radial synostosis
SNOMED CT: Humeroradial synostosis (205329008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
HPO: HP:0003041
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0007737
OMIM®: 143050
Orphanet: ORPHA3265

Definition

An abnormal osseous union (fusion) between the radius and the humerus. [from HPO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Humeroradial synostosis
MedGen UID:
418931
Concept ID:
C2930865
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormal osseous union (fusion) between the radius and the humerus.

Conditions with this feature

Acrocephalosyndactyly type I
MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
Apert syndrome is characterized by the presence of multisuture craniosynostosis, midface retrusion, and syndactyly of the hands with fusion of the second through fourth nails. Almost all affected individuals have coronal craniosynostosis, and a majority also have involvement of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. The midface in Apert syndrome is underdeveloped as well as retruded; a subset of affected individuals have cleft palate. The hand in Apert syndrome always includes fusion of the middle three digits; the thumb and fifth finger are sometimes also involved. Feeding issues, dental abnormalities, hearing loss, hyperhidrosis, and progressive synostosis of multiple bones (skull, hands, feet, carpus, tarsus, and cervical vertebrae) are also common. Multilevel airway obstruction may be present and can be due to narrowing of the nasal passages, tongue-based airway obstruction, and/or tracheal anomalies. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly is present in a majority of individuals, with a small subset having true hydrocephalus. Most individuals with Apert syndrome have normal intelligence or mild intellectual disability; moderate-to-severe intellectual disability has been reported in some individuals. A minority of affected individuals have structural cardiac abnormalities, true gastrointestinal malformations, and anomalies of the genitourinary tract.
Pfeiffer syndrome
MedGen UID:
67390
Concept ID:
C0220658
Disease or Syndrome
Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndrome with characteristic anomalies of the hands and feet. Three clinical subtypes, which have important diagnostic and prognostic implications, have been identified. Type 1, the classic syndrome, is compatible with life and consists of craniosynostosis, midface deficiency, broad thumbs, broad great toes, brachydactyly, and variable syndactyly. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull with Pfeiffer hands and feet, together with ankylosis of the elbows. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without cloverleaf skull. Ocular proptosis is severe, and the anterior cranial base is markedly short. Various visceral malformations have been found in association with type 3. Early demise is characteristic of types 2 and 3 (Cohen, 1993). Cohen and Barone (1994) further tabulated the findings in the 3 types of Pfeiffer syndrome.
Femoral hypoplasia - unusual facies syndrome
MedGen UID:
120523
Concept ID:
C0265263
Disease or Syndrome
Femoral-facial syndrome (FFS), also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FHUFS), is a rare and sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome comprising bilateral femoral hypoplasia and characteristic facial features, such as long philtrum, thin upper lip, micrognathia with or without cleft palate, upward-slanting palpebral fissures, and a short nose with broad tip. Other features, such as renal anomalies, are more variable (summary by Nowaczyk et al., 2010).
Lenz-Majewski hyperostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
98483
Concept ID:
C0432269
Congenital Abnormality
Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfism is a rare condition characterized by intellectual disability, sclerosing bone dysplasia, distinct craniofacial and dental anomalies, loose skin, and distal limb anomalies, particularly brachydactyly and symphalangism. Patients have multiple radiographic abnormalities due to progressive generalized hyperostosis that affects the cranium, vertebrae, and diaphyses of tubular bones, leading to severe growth retardation (summary by Sousa et al., 2014).
Multiple synostoses syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
331348
Concept ID:
C1832708
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple synostoses syndrome-2 (SYNS2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive joint fusions of the fingers, wrists, ankles, and cervical spine; characteristic facies, including a broad hemicylindrical nose; and progressive conductive hearing loss (summary by Dawson et al., 2006). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple synostoses syndrome, see SYNS1 (186500).
Schinzel phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
336388
Concept ID:
C1848651
Disease or Syndrome
The Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome (AARRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe malformations of upper and lower limbs with severely hypoplastic pelvis and abnormal genitalia. The disorder is believed to represent a defect of dorsoventral patterning and outgrowth of limbs (summary by Kantaputra et al., 2010).
Pelviscapular dysplasia
MedGen UID:
342400
Concept ID:
C1850040
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of pelviscapular dysplasia with epiphyseal abnormalities, congenital dwarfism and facial dysmorphism. The facial dysmorphism has manifestations of frontal bossing, hypertelorism, narrow palpebral fissures, deep-set eyes, strabismus, low-set posteriorly rotated and malformed ears, dysplasia of conchae, a small chin, a short neck with redundant skin folds, and a low hairline. Intelligence may vary from normal to moderately impaired. Radiographic features comprise aplasia of the body of the scapula, hypoplasia of the iliac bone, humeroradial synostosis, dislocation of the femoral heads, and moderate brachydactyly. Mutations in the TBX15 gene have been identified as potentially causative. Pelviscapular dysplasia is phenotypically similar to pelvis-shoulder dysplasia.
Microcephaly-micromelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
381553
Concept ID:
C1855079
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly-micromelia syndrome (MIMIS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder that usually results in death in utero or in the perinatal period. Affected individuals have severe growth retardation with microcephaly and variable malformations of the limbs, particularly the upper limbs. Defects include radial ray anomalies, malformed digits, and clubfeet (summary by Evrony et al., 2017).
Autosomal recessive humeroradial synostosis
MedGen UID:
343467
Concept ID:
C1856055
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive form of humeroradial synostosis (disease).
Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome
MedGen UID:
348322
Concept ID:
C1861305
Disease or Syndrome
Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome is a rare, inherited bone disorder that affects primarily the hands and feet. Several individual bones make up each wrist (carpal bones) and ankle (tarsal bones). In tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome, the carpal bones fuse together, as do the tarsal bones, which causes stiffness and immobility of the hands and feet. Symptoms of the condition can become apparent in infancy, and they worsen with age. The severity of the symptoms can vary, even among members of the same family.\n\nIn this condition, fusion at the joints between the bones that make up each finger and toe (symphalangism) can also occur. Consequently, the fingers and toes become stiff and difficult to bend. Stiffness of the pinky fingers and toes (fifth digits) is usually noticeable first. The joints at the base of the pinky fingers and toes fuse first, and slowly, the other joints along the length of these digits may also be affected. Progressively, the bones in the fourth, third, and second digits (the ring finger, middle finger, and forefinger, and the corresponding toes) become fused. The thumb and big toe are usually not involved. Affected individuals have increasing trouble forming a fist, and walking often becomes painful and difficult. Occasionally, there is also fusion of bones in the upper and lower arm at the elbow joint (humeroradial fusion). Less common features of tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome include short stature or the development of hearing loss.
Multiple synostoses syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
414116
Concept ID:
C2751826
Disease or Syndrome
Any multiple synostoses syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FGF9 gene.
Humeroradial synostosis
MedGen UID:
418931
Concept ID:
C2930865
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormal osseous union (fusion) between the radius and the humerus.
Antley-Bixler syndrome without genital anomalies or disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
422448
Concept ID:
C2936791
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
461449
Concept ID:
C3150099
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Lethal occipital encephalocele-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
482359
Concept ID:
C3280729
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal occipital encephalocele-skeletal dysplasia syndrome is a rare, genetic, bone development disorder characterized by occipital and parietal bone hypoplasia leading to occipital encephalocele, calvarial mineralization defects, craniosynostosis, radiohumeral fusions, oligodactyly and other skeletal anomalies (arachnodactyly, terminal phalangeal aplasia of the thumbs, bilateral absence of the great toes, pronounced bilateral angulation of femora, shortened limbs, advanced osseous maturation). Fetal death in utero is associated.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gençay I, Vargel I, Büyükkoçak U, Yazc I, Apan A
J Craniofac Surg 2013 Jan;24(1):e21-3. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318267be0f. PMID: 23348324
McIntyre JD, Brooks A, Benson MK
J Pediatr Orthop B 2003 May;12(3):192-6. doi: 10.1097/01.bpb.0000060287.16932.ec. PMID: 12703033

Diagnosis

Schneeberger PE, Nayak SS, Fuchs S, Kutsche K, Girisha KM
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Nov;182(11):2793-2796. Epub 2020 Aug 11 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61826. PMID: 32783269
Drivas TG, Taylor JA, Zackai EH
Am J Med Genet A 2019 Jun;179(6):1063-1068. Epub 2019 Mar 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61121. PMID: 30924273
Özdemir M, Turan A, Kavak RP
Skeletal Radiol 2019 Jul;48(7):1137-1143. Epub 2019 Feb 2 doi: 10.1007/s00256-019-3167-x. PMID: 30712123
Adolphs N, Klein M, Haberl EJ, Graul-Neumann L, Menneking H, Hoffmeister B
J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2011 Oct;39(7):487-95. Epub 2010 Dec 10 doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2010.10.026. PMID: 21146417
McIntyre JD, Brooks A, Benson MK
J Pediatr Orthop B 2003 May;12(3):192-6. doi: 10.1097/01.bpb.0000060287.16932.ec. PMID: 12703033

Therapy

Gençay I, Vargel I, Büyükkoçak U, Yazc I, Apan A
J Craniofac Surg 2013 Jan;24(1):e21-3. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318267be0f. PMID: 23348324
Marles SL, Reed M, Evans JA
Am J Med Genet A 2003 Jan 1;116A(1):85-9. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.10731. PMID: 12476458

Prognosis

Kantaputra PN, Dejkhamron P, Intachai W, Ngamphiw C, Kawasaki K, Ohazama A, Krisanaprakornkit S, Olsen B, Tongsima S, Ketudat Cairns JR
Eur J Orthod 2021 Jan 29;43(1):45-50. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjaa023. PMID: 32255174
Bianchi E, Cordini S, Fiori P, Torcetta F, Beluffi G
Skeletal Radiol 1991;20(5):339-43. doi: 10.1007/BF01267660. PMID: 1896874

Clinical prediction guides

Almeida M, Takagi T, Torii A, Takayama S
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2024 Apr;29(2):148-151. Epub 2024 Mar 15 doi: 10.1142/S2424835524720044. PMID: 38494163
Kantaputra PN, Dejkhamron P, Intachai W, Ngamphiw C, Kawasaki K, Ohazama A, Krisanaprakornkit S, Olsen B, Tongsima S, Ketudat Cairns JR
Eur J Orthod 2021 Jan 29;43(1):45-50. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjaa023. PMID: 32255174
Özdemir M, Turan A, Kavak RP
Skeletal Radiol 2019 Jul;48(7):1137-1143. Epub 2019 Feb 2 doi: 10.1007/s00256-019-3167-x. PMID: 30712123
Yammine K, Salon A, Pouliquen JC
Chir Main 1998;17(4):300-8. PMID: 10855298
Pfeiffer RA, Braun-Quentin C
Genet Couns 1994;5(3):269-74. PMID: 7811427

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