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Fatigue

MedGen UID:
41971
Concept ID:
C0015672
Sign or Symptom
Synonyms: Lack of energy; Lack of Energy; Lacking in energy; Tired; Tiredness; Weariness
SNOMED CT: Fatigue (84229001); Lacking in energy (248274002); Lack of energy (248274002); Weariness (84229001)
 
HPO: HP:0012378

Definition

A subjective feeling of tiredness characterized by a lack of energy and motivation. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Lipomatosis dolorosa
MedGen UID:
1757
Concept ID:
C0001529
Disease or Syndrome
Adiposis dolorosa, also known as Dercum disease, is characterized by generalized obesity and pronounced, disabling, and chronic pain in the adipose tissue of the proximal extremities, trunk, pelvic area, and buttocks; the face and hands are usually spared. There are a number of associated symptoms, including multiple lipomas, generalized weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, constipation, and psychiatric abnormalities. It is 5 to 30 times more common in women than men, and usually presents between 35 and 50 years of age (summary by Campen et al., 2001; review by Hansson et al., 2012). Based on a review of the literature and studies of 111 patients, Hansson et al. (2012) proposed a classification of Dercum disease into 4 types: (I) generalized diffuse form without clear lipomas, (II) generalized nodular form with multiple lipomas, (III) localized nodular form, and (IV) juxtaarticular form with solitary fatty deposits near joints.
Rheumatoid arthritis
MedGen UID:
2078
Concept ID:
C0003873
Disease or Syndrome
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease, primarily of the joints, with autoimmune features and a complex genetic component.
Elevated circulating creatine kinase concentration
MedGen UID:
69128
Concept ID:
C0241005
Finding
An elevation of the level of the enzyme creatine kinase (also known as creatine phosphokinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) in the blood. CK levels can be elevated in a number of clinical disorders such as myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, and muscular dystrophy.
Familial hypokalemic alkalosis, Gullner type
MedGen UID:
78677
Concept ID:
C0268444
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia
MedGen UID:
75681
Concept ID:
C0268450
Disease or Syndrome
Gitelman syndrome (GTLMNS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular salt-wasting disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is the most common renal tubular disorder among Caucasians (prevalence of 1 in 40,000). Most patients have onset of symptoms as adults, but some present in childhood. Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, abdominal pains, and chondrocalcinosis (summary by Glaudemans et al., 2012). Gitelman syndrome is sometimes referred to as a mild variant of classic Bartter syndrome (607364). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Alexander disease
MedGen UID:
78724
Concept ID:
C0270726
Disease or Syndrome
Alexander disease, a progressive disorder of cerebral white matter caused by a heterozygous GFAP pathogenic variant, comprises a continuous clinical spectrum most recognizable in infants and children and a range of nonspecific neurologic manifestations in adults. This chapter discusses the spectrum of Alexander disease as four forms: neonatal, infantile, juvenile, and adult. The neonatal form begins in the first 30 days after birth with neurologic findings (e.g., hypotonia, hyperexcitability, myoclonus) and/or gastrointestinal manifestations (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux, vomiting, failure to thrive), followed by severe developmental delay and regression, seizures, megalencephaly, and typically death within two years. The infantile form is characterized by variable developmental issues: initially some have delayed or plateauing of acquisition of new skills, followed in some by a loss of gross and fine motor skills and language during in the first decade or in others a slow disease course that spans decades. Seizures, often triggered by illness, may be less frequent/severe than in the neonatal form. The juvenile form typically presents in childhood or adolescence with clinical and imaging features that overlap with the other forms. Manifestations in early childhood are milder than those in the infantile form (e.g., mild language delay may be the only developmental abnormality or, with language acquisition, hypophonia or nasal speech may alter the voice, often prior to appearance of other neurologic features). Vomiting and failure to thrive as well as scoliosis and autonomic dysfunction are common. The adult form is typically characterized by bulbar or pseudobulbar findings (palatal myoclonus, dysphagia, dysphonia, dysarthria or slurred speech), motor/gait abnormalities with pyramidal tract signs (spasticity, hyperreflexia, positive Babinski sign), or cerebellar abnormalities (ataxia, nystagmus, or dysmetria). Others may have hemiparesis or hemiplegia with a relapsing/remitting course or slowly progressive quadriparesis or quadriplegia. Other neurologic features can include sleep apnea, diplopia or disorders of extraocular motility, and autonomic dysfunction.
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease
MedGen UID:
140788
Concept ID:
C0403529
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, fulminant small vessel vasculitis that affects the capillary beds of the kidneys and lungs and characterized by the presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and, in its full-blown form, anti-alveolar basement membrane (ABM) antibodies. Consequently, it may manifest as a rapidly progressive, isolated glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM nephritis) or as a pulmonary-renal syndrome with severe lung hemorrhage.
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2
MedGen UID:
107893
Concept ID:
C0574083
Disease or Syndrome
Barth syndrome is characterized in affected males by cardiomyopathy, neutropenia, skeletal myopathy, prepubertal growth delay, and distinctive facial gestalt (most evident in infancy); not all features may be present in a given affected male. Cardiomyopathy, which is almost always present before age five years, is typically dilated cardiomyopathy with or without endocardial fibroelastosis or left ventricular noncompaction; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can also occur. Heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality; risk of arrhythmia and sudden death is increased. Neutropenia is most often associated with mouth ulcers, pneumonia, and sepsis. The nonprogressive myopathy predominantly affects the proximal muscles, and results in early motor delays. Prepubertal growth delay is followed by a postpubertal growth spurt with remarkable "catch-up" growth. Heterozygous females who have a normal karyotype are asymptomatic and have normal biochemical studies.
Analbuminemia
MedGen UID:
164210
Concept ID:
C0878666
Finding
Analbuminemia (ANALBA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the presence of a very low amount of circulating serum albumin. Affected individuals have few clinical symptoms other than mild edema, hypotension, fatigue, and occasionally a peculiar lower body lipodystrophy (mainly in adult females). The most common biochemical finding is a gross hyperlipidemia, with a significant increase in the total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, but normal concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Analbuminemia often leads to fetal or neonatal death in sibs in families of analbuminemic individuals, which may explain the rarity of the trait (summary by Caridi et al., 2014).
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 3
MedGen UID:
322173
Concept ID:
C1833372
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the AP2S1 gene.
Satoyoshi syndrome
MedGen UID:
318882
Concept ID:
C1833454
Disease or Syndrome
Satoyoshi syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by progressive, painful, intermittent muscle spasms, diarrhea or unusual malabsorption, endocrinopathy with amenorrhea, and secondary skeletal abnormalities. The disorder is also called komuragaeri disease by the Japanese; in Japanese 'komura' means calf and 'gaeri' means 'turnover' or spasm. All cases have apparently been sporadic, even when occurring in large families (Ehlayel and Lacassie, 1995).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
373087
Concept ID:
C1836439
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Patients with C10ORF2-linked adPEO may have other clinical features including proximal muscle weakness, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, cataracts, depression, and endocrine abnormalities (summary by Fratter et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene (174763) are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the SLC25A4 (103220) or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002).
Chuvash polycythemia
MedGen UID:
332974
Concept ID:
C1837915
Disease or Syndrome
Familial erythrocytosis-2 (ECYT2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased red blood cell mass, increased serum levels of erythropoietin (EPO; 133170), and normal oxygen affinity. Patients with ECYT2 carry a high risk for peripheral thrombosis and cerebrovascular events (Cario, 2005). Familial erythrocytosis-2 has features of both primary and secondary erythrocytosis. In addition to increased circulating levels of EPO, consistent with a secondary, extrinsic process, erythroid progenitors may be hypersensitive to EPO, consistent with a primary, intrinsic process (Prchal, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial erythrocytosis, see ECYT1 (133100).
Epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 2
MedGen UID:
333092
Concept ID:
C1838429
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) presents in early childhood, usually with pain in the hips and/or knees after exercise. Affected children complain of fatigue with long-distance walking. Waddling gait may be present. Adult height is either in the lower range of normal or mildly shortened. The limbs are relatively short in comparison to the trunk. Pain and joint deformity progress, resulting in early-onset osteoarthritis, particularly of the large weight-bearing joints.
Glucocorticoid resistance
MedGen UID:
333960
Concept ID:
C1841972
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized glucocorticoid resistance is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by increased plasma cortisol concentration and high urinary free cortisol, resistance to adrenal suppression by dexamethasone, and the absence of clinical stigmata of Cushing syndrome. The clinical expression of the disease is variable. Common features include hypoglycemia, hypertension, and metabolic alkalosis. In females, overproduction of adrenal androgens has been associated with infertility, male-pattern baldness, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularities. Other features include chronic fatigue and profound anxiety (summary by Chrousos et al., 1983; Donner et al., 2013).
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Pili torti-developmental delay-neurological abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
342358
Concept ID:
C1849811
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal hair, joint laxity, and developmental delay (HJDD) is characterized by normal hair at birth that gradually becomes sparse, twisted, brittle, and easily broken, with pili torti and trichorrhexis nodosa observed on light microscopy. Other features include increased joint mobility and cognitive delay (summary by Sharma et al., 2019).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B
MedGen UID:
338149
Concept ID:
C1850889
Disease or Syndrome
Dysferlinopathy includes a spectrum of muscle disease characterized by two major phenotypes: Miyoshi muscular dystrophy (MMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B); and two minor phenotypes: asymptomatic hyperCKemia and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset (DMAT). MMD (median age of onset 19 years) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy, most marked in the distal parts of the legs, especially the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Over a period of years, the weakness and atrophy spread to the thighs and gluteal muscles. The forearms may become mildly atrophic with decrease in grip strength; the small muscles of the hands are spared. LGMD2B is characterized by early weakness and atrophy of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles in adolescence or young adulthood, with slow progression. Other phenotypes in this spectrum are scapuloperoneal syndrome and congenital muscular dystrophy. Asymptomatic hyperCKemia is characterized by marked elevation of serum CK concentration only. DMAT is characterized by early and predominant distal muscle weakness, particularly of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the legs.
Corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency
MedGen UID:
343831
Concept ID:
C1852529
Disease or Syndrome
Corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency is a condition with subtle signs and symptoms, the most frequent being extreme tiredness (fatigue), especially after physical exertion. Many people with this condition have unusually low blood pressure (hypotension). Some affected individuals have a fatty liver or experience chronic pain, particularly in their muscles. These features vary among affected individuals, even those within the same family.\n\nMany people with corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency have only one or two of these features; others have no signs and symptoms of the disorder and are only diagnosed after a relative is found to be affected.\n\nSome people with corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency also have a condition called myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). The features of ME/CFS are prolonged fatigue that interferes with daily activities, as well as general symptoms, such as sore throat or headaches.
Hemochromatosis type 4
MedGen UID:
340044
Concept ID:
C1853733
Disease or Syndrome
Hemochromatosis type 4 (HFE4) is a dominantly inherited iron overload disorder with heterogeneous phenotypic manifestations that can be classified into 2 groups. One group is characterized by an early rise in ferritin (see 134790) levels with low to normal transferrin (190000) saturation and iron accumulation predominantly in macrophages. The other group is similar to classical hemochromatosis, with high transferrin saturation and prominent parenchymal iron loading (summary by De Domenico et al., 2005). For general background information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary hemochromatosis, see 235200.
Mitochondrial myopathy-lactic acidosis-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
343245
Concept ID:
C1855033
Disease or Syndrome
A rare metabolic myopathy presenting during childhood, and characterized clinically by growth failure, severe muscle weakness, and moderate sensorineural deafness and biochemically by metabolic acidosis, elevated serum pyruvate concentration, hyperalaninemia and hyperalaninuria. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1973.
Hemochromatosis type 3
MedGen UID:
388114
Concept ID:
C1858664
Disease or Syndrome
TFR2-related hereditary hemochromatosis (TFR2-HHC) is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption resulting in iron accumulation in the liver, heart, pancreas, and endocrine organs. Age of onset is earlier than in HFE-HHC. The majority of individuals present with signs and symptoms of iron overload in the third decade (e.g., weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, arthritis, arthralgia, progressive increase in skin pigmentation). Others present as young adults with nonspecific symptoms and abnormal serum iron studies or as adults with abnormal serum iron studies and signs of organ involvement including cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and arthropathy.
Sengers syndrome
MedGen UID:
395228
Concept ID:
C1859317
Disease or Syndrome
Sengers syndrome is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Mental development is normal, but affected individuals may die early from cardiomyopathy (summary by Mayr et al., 2012). Skeletal muscle biopsies of 2 affected individuals showed severe mtDNA depletion (Calvo et al., 2012).
Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis
MedGen UID:
348876
Concept ID:
C1861455
Disease or Syndrome
Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis is a variably compensated macrocytic hemolytic anemia of fluctuating severity, characterized by circulating erythrocytes with slit-like lucencies (stomata) evident on peripheral blood smears. OHST red cells exhibit cation leak, resulting in elevated cell Na+ content with reduced K+ content, with increased ouabain-resistant cation leak fluxes in the presence of presumably compensatory increases in ouabain-sensitive Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity, and red cell age-dependent loss of stomatin/EBP7.2 (EBP72; 133090) from the erythroid membrane. Clinically, patients with OHST exhibit overhydrated erythrocytes and a temperature-dependent red cell cation leak. The temperature dependence of the leak is 'monotonic' and has a steep slope, reflecting the very large leak at 37 degrees centigrade (summary by Bruce, 2009 and Stewart et al., 2011). For a discussion of clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the hereditary stomatocytoses, see 194380.
Tremor, hereditary essential, 2
MedGen UID:
356087
Concept ID:
C1865810
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 5
MedGen UID:
413981
Concept ID:
C2751319
Disease or Syndrome
Four phenotypes comprise the RRM2B mitochondrial DNA maintenance defects (RRM2B-MDMDs): RRM2B encephalomyopathic MDMD, the most severe phenotype, usually manifesting shortly after birth as hypotonia, poor feeding, and faltering growth requiring hospitalization. Subsequent assessments are likely to reveal multisystem involvement including sensorineural hearing loss, renal tubulopathy, and respiratory failure. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), typically adult onset; other manifestations can include ptosis, bulbar dysfunction, fatigue, and muscle weakness. RRM2B autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO), a typically childhood-onset predominantly myopathic phenotype of PEO, ptosis, proximal muscle weakness, and bulbar dysfunction. RRM2B mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE)-like, characterized by progressive ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, and peripheral neuropathy. To date, 78 individuals from 52 families with a molecularly confirmed RRM2B-MDMD have been reported.
RIN2 syndrome
MedGen UID:
416526
Concept ID:
C2751321
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare inherited connective tissue disorder with characteristics of macrocephaly, sparse scalp hair, soft redundant and hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. Patients have progressive facial coarsening with downslanted palpebral fissures, upper eyelid fullness/infraorbital folds, thick/everted vermillion, gingival overgrowth and abnormal position of the teeth. Rare manifestations such as abnormal high-pitched voice, bronchiectasis, hypergonadotropic hypergonadism and brachydactyly have also been reported. Caused by homozygous mutation in the RIN2 gene on chromosome 20p11.
PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2O
MedGen UID:
461767
Concept ID:
C3150417
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGC3 is a rare form of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with normal cognition (Clement et al., 2008). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type C, see MDDGC1 (609308).
Autoimmune enteropathy and endocrinopathy - susceptibility to chronic infections syndrome
MedGen UID:
481620
Concept ID:
C3279990
Disease or Syndrome
IMD31C is a disorder of immunologic dysregulation with highly variable manifestations resulting from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 (600555). Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Other highly variable features include recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycoplasmal infections, disseminated dimorphic fungal infections, enteropathy with villous atrophy, and autoimmune disorders, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. A subset of patients show apparently nonimmunologic features, including osteopenia, delayed puberty, and intracranial aneurysms. Laboratory studies show increased activation of gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570)-mediated inflammation (summary by Uzel et al., 2013 and Sampaio et al., 2013).
Thyroid hormone resistance, generalized, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
483749
Concept ID:
C3489796
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, autosomal recessive inherited disorder usually caused by mutations in the THRB gene. It is characterized by a defective physiological resistance to thyroid hormones, resulting in the elevation of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in the serum.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
MedGen UID:
811223
Concept ID:
C3495801
Disease or Syndrome
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly termed Wegener granulomatosis, is a systemic disease with a complex genetic background. It is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmatic autoantibodies (ANCAs) in patient sera. These ANCAs are antibodies to a defined target antigen, proteinase-3 (PR3, PRTN3; 177020), which is present within primary azurophil granules of neutrophils (PMNs) and lysozymes of monocytes. On cytokine priming of PMNs, PR3 translocates to the cell surface, where PR3-ANCAs can interact with their antigens and activate PMNs. PMNs from patients with active GPA express PR3 on their surface, produce respiratory burst, and release proteolytic enzymes after activation with PR3-ANCAs. The consequence is a self-sustaining inflammatory process (Jagiello et al., 2004).
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
764868
Concept ID:
C3551954
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 13
MedGen UID:
766730
Concept ID:
C3553816
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-13 (SCAR13) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development beginning in infancy. Affected individuals show mildly to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech as well as gait and stance ataxia and hyperreflexia. Most individuals also have eye movement abnormalities. Brain MRI shows cerebellar atrophy and ventriculomegaly (Guergueltcheva et al., 2012).
Glycogen storage disease IXa1
MedGen UID:
854172
Concept ID:
C3694531
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) deficiency causing glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD IX) results from deficiency of the enzyme phosphorylase b kinase, which has a major regulatory role in the breakdown of glycogen. The two types of PhK deficiency are liver PhK deficiency (characterized by early childhood onset of hepatomegaly and growth restriction, and often, but not always, fasting ketosis and hypoglycemia) and muscle PhK deficiency, which is considerably rarer (characterized by any of the following: exercise intolerance, myalgia, muscle cramps, myoglobinuria, and progressive muscle weakness). While symptoms and biochemical abnormalities of liver PhK deficiency were thought to improve with age, it is becoming evident that affected individuals need to be monitored for long-term complications such as liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria 2
MedGen UID:
815699
Concept ID:
C3809369
Disease or Syndrome
Any paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PIGT gene.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 12B (cardiomyopathic type), autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
815773
Concept ID:
C3809443
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-12B is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and generalized skeletal myopathy resulting in exercise intolerance, and, in some patients, muscle weakness and atrophy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows ragged-red fibers, mtDNA depletion, and accumulation of abnormal mitochondria (summary by Echaniz-Laguna et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041).
Early-onset Parkinson disease 20
MedGen UID:
816154
Concept ID:
C3809824
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease-20 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young adult-onset of parkinsonism. Additional features may include seizures, cognitive decline, abnormal eye movements, and dystonia (summary by Krebs et al., 2013 and Quadri et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see PD (168600).
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 2
MedGen UID:
863240
Concept ID:
C4014803
Disease or Syndrome
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-2 is an autosomal dominant tumor susceptibility with syndromic incomplete penetrance, as a second hit to the ARMC5 gene is required to develop macronodular hyperplasia (Assie et al., 2013).
Periodic fever-infantile enterocolitis-autoinflammatory syndrome
MedGen UID:
863504
Concept ID:
C4015067
Disease or Syndrome
Autoinflammation with infantile enterocolitis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by onset of recurrent flares of autoinflammation in early infancy. Affected individuals tend to have poor overall growth and gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy associated with laboratory evidence of activated inflammation. This initial presentation is followed by recurrent febrile episodes with splenomegaly and sometimes hematologic disturbances, arthralgias, or myalgias. The disorder results from overactivation of an arm of the immune response system (Romberg et al., 2014; Canna et al., 2014).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
902189
Concept ID:
C4225367
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors or amifampridine may be helpful (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease
MedGen UID:
929215
Concept ID:
C4303546
Disease or Syndrome
An infantile-onset neurometabolic disease with characteristics of dystonia, parkinsonism, nonambulation, autonomic dysfunction, developmental delay and mood disturbances. The prevalence is unknown. It has been described in 8 patients from one Saudi Arabian family to date. Caused by a mutation in the SLC18A2 gene (10q25), encoding the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) which is responsible for the transport of dopamine and serotonin into synaptic vesicles. Mutations in this gene lead to the impairment of VMAT2 and consequently to problems with motor control, autonomic functioning and mood regulation. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
934621
Concept ID:
C4310654
Disease or Syndrome
Any congenital myasthenic syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC18A3 gene.
Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy, 1
MedGen UID:
934642
Concept ID:
C4310675
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-1 (PEBEL1) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and seizures, resulting in coma and death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Kremer et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of PEBEL See also PEBEL2 (618321), caused by mutation in the NAXD gene (615910) on chromosome 13q34.
Micrognathia-recurrent infections-behavioral abnormalities-mild intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
934707
Concept ID:
C4310740
Disease or Syndrome
TRIO-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by delay in acquisition of motor and language skills, mild to borderline intellectual disability, and neurobehavioral problems (including autistic traits or autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or aggression). Neonatal or infantile feeding difficulties including poor suck, impaired bottle feeding, and failure to thrive are common and are often the presenting finding. Other findings can include microcephaly, variable hand and dental abnormalities, and suggestive facial features. Only ten of the 20 individuals with a TRIO pathogenic variant reported to date had sufficient information to make preliminary generalizations about clinical manifestations; it is anticipated that the phenotype of this newly described disorder will continue to evolve.
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 7
MedGen UID:
1372458
Concept ID:
C4511136
Disease or Syndrome
Nongoitrous congenital hypothyroidism-7 (CHNG7) is characterized by normal-to-low T4 and normal-to-high thyrotropin (TSH; see 188540) levels, with reduced or absent pituitary responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; 613879). Patients may exhibit short stature, growth retardation, and delayed bone age, as well as lethargy or fatigue (Collu et al., 1997; Bonomi et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital nongoitrous hypothyroidism, see 275200.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 33
MedGen UID:
1623699
Concept ID:
C4540209
Disease or Syndrome
COXPD33 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder resulting from a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from death in infancy to adult-onset progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and myopathy. A common finding is cardiomyopathy and increased serum lactate (summary by Feichtinger et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Primary familial polycythemia due to EPO receptor mutation
MedGen UID:
1641215
Concept ID:
C4551637
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP) is characterized by isolated erythrocytosis in an individual with a normal-sized spleen and absence of disorders causing secondary erythrocytosis. Clinical manifestations relate to the erythrocytosis and can include plethora, the hyperviscosity syndrome (headache, dizziness, fatigue, lassitude, visual and auditory disturbances, paresthesia, myalgia), altered mental status caused by hypoperfusion and local hypoxia, and arterial and/or venous thromboembolic events. Although the majority of individuals with PFCP have only mild manifestations of hyperviscosity such as dizziness or headache, some affected individuals have had severe and even fatal complications including arterial hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, coronary disease, and myocardial infarction. To date 116 affected individuals from 24 families have been reported.
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1647324
Concept ID:
C4551895
Disease or Syndrome
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are a group of conditions that have overlapping signs and symptoms and the same genetic cause. The group includes three conditions known as familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome type 1 (FCAS1), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID). These conditions were once thought to be distinct disorders but are now considered to be part of the same condition spectrum. FCAS1 is the least severe form of CAPS, MWS is intermediate in severity, and NOMID is the most severe form.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of CAPS affect multiple body systems. Generally, CAPS are characterized by periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain. These episodes can be triggered by exposure to cold temperatures, fatigue, other stressors, or they may arise spontaneously. Episodes can last from a few hours to several days. These episodes typically begin in infancy or early childhood and persist throughout life.\n\nIn people with NOMID, the signs and symptoms of the condition are usually present from birth and persists throughout life. In addition to skin rash and fever, affected individuals may have joint inflammation, swelling, and joint deformities called contractures that may restrict movement. People with NOMID typically have headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment resulting from chronic meningitis, which is inflammation of the tissue that covers and protects the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Other features of NOMID include eye problems, short stature, distinctive facial features, and kidney damage caused by amyloidosis.\n\nWhile the CAPS spectrum shares similar signs and symptoms, the individual conditions tend to have distinct patterns of features. People with FCAS1 are particularly sensitive to the cold, and exposure to cold temperatures can trigger a painful or burning rash. The rash usually affects the torso and limbs but may spread to the rest of the body. In addition to fever and joint pain, other possible symptoms include muscle aches, chills, drowsiness, eye redness, headache, and nausea.\n\nIndividuals with MWS develop the typical periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain after cold exposure, although episodes may occur spontaneously or all the time. Additionally, they can develop progressive hearing loss in their teenage years. Other features of MWS include skin lesions or kidney damage from abnormal deposits of a protein called amyloid (amyloidosis).
Tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 3
MedGen UID:
1638917
Concept ID:
C4693864
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the progressive deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular spaces, soft tissues, and sometimes bone (Chefetz et al., 2005). The biochemical hallmark of tumoral calcinosis is hyperphosphatemia caused by increased renal absorption of phosphate due to loss-of-function mutations in the FGF23 (605380) or GALNT3 (601756) gene. The term 'hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome' (HHS) is sometimes used when the disorder is characterized by involvement of the long bones associated with the radiographic findings of periosteal reaction and cortical hyperostosis. Although some have distinguished HHS from FTC by the presence of bone involvement and the absence of skin involvement (Frishberg et al., 2005), Ichikawa et al. (2010) concluded that the 2 entities represent a continuous spectrum of the same disease, best described as familial hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. HFTC is considered to be the clinical converse of autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR; 193100), an allelic disorder caused by gain-of-function mutations in the FGF23 gene and associated with hypophosphatemia and decreased renal phosphate absorption (Chefetz et al., 2005; Ichikawa et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HFTC, see 211900.
Osteopetrosis, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
1648454
Concept ID:
C4748197
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-3 (OPTA3) is characterized by phenotypic variability. Some patients have typical features of osteopetrosis, including fractures after minor trauma, early tooth loss, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and a generalized increase in bone mineral density, whereas other patients exhibit localized osteosclerosis and generalized osteopenia. OPTA3 represents a relatively malignant form of osteopetrosis in some patients who develop significant pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly (Bo et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, see OPTA1 (607634).
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to CARMIL2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648422
Concept ID:
C4748304
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-58 is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder characterized by early-onset skin lesions, including eczematous dermatitis, infectious abscesses, and warts, recurrent respiratory infections or allergies, and chronic persistent infections with candida, Molluscum contagiosum, mycobacteria, EBV, bacteria, and viruses. Some patients may have gastrointestinal involvement, including inflammatory bowel disease, EBV+ smooth muscle tumors, and esophagitis. Immunologic analysis shows defective T-cell function with decreased Treg cells and deficient CD3/CD28 costimulation responses in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. B-cell function may also be impaired (summary by Wang et al., 2016 and Alazami et al., 2018).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 29
MedGen UID:
1648451
Concept ID:
C4748830
Disease or Syndrome
Hepatitis, fulminant viral, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
1684882
Concept ID:
C5231406
Finding
VEXAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1765785
Concept ID:
C5435753
Disease or Syndrome
VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic syndrome) is an adult-onset inflammatory disease that primarily affects males and is caused by somatic, not germline, mutations. The disorder is characterized by adult onset of rheumatologic symptoms at a mean age of 64 years. Features include recurrent fevers, pulmonary and dermatologic inflammatory manifestations, vasculitis, deep vein thrombosis, arthralgias, and ear and nose chondritis. Laboratory studies indicate hematologic abnormalities, including macrocytic anemia, as well as increased levels of acute-phase reactants; about half of patients have positive autoantibodies. Bone marrow biopsy shows degenerative vacuolization restricted to myeloid and erythroid precursor cells, as well as variable hematopoietic dyspoiesis and dysplasias. The condition does not respond to rheumatologic medications and the features may result in premature death (summary by Beck et al., 2020).
Myofibrillar myopathy 11
MedGen UID:
1782465
Concept ID:
C5543038
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-11 (MFM11) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness in the first decade of life. Some patients may present at birth with hypotonia and feeding difficulties, whereas others present later in mid-childhood. Although most patients show delayed walking at 2 to 3 years, all remain ambulatory into adulthood. More variable features may include decreased respiratory forced vital capacity, variable cardiac features, and calf hypertrophy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with variation in fiber size, type 1 fiber predominance, centralized nuclei, eccentrically placed core-like lesions, and distortion of the myofibrillary pattern with Z-line streaming and abnormal myofibrillar aggregates or inclusions (summary by Donkervoort et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Short stature, oligodontia, dysmorphic facies, and motor delay
MedGen UID:
1787876
Concept ID:
C5543206
Disease or Syndrome
SOFM is characterized by marked short stature, oligodontia, mild facial dysmorphism, and motor delay. Endosteal hyperostosis has also been observed, and patients may exhibit some features of progeria (Terhal et al., 2020; Beauregard-Lacroix et al., 2020).
Neurodegeneration with ataxia and late-onset optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
1779901
Concept ID:
C5543254
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with ataxia and late-onset optic atrophy (NDAXOA) is an autosomal dominant disorder with somewhat variable manifestations. Most affected individuals present in mid-adulthood with slowly progressive cerebellar and gait ataxia, optic atrophy, and myopathy or myalgia. Some patients may have a childhood history of neurologic features, including limited extraocular movements. Additional features can include cardiomyopathy, psychiatric disturbances, and peripheral sensory impairment (summary by Taylor et al., 1996 and Courage et al., 2017).
Portal hypertension, noncirrhotic, 2
MedGen UID:
1794158
Concept ID:
C5561948
Disease or Syndrome
Noncirrhotic portal hypertension-2 (NCPH2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by signs of liver dysfunction that become apparent in the first decades of life. Affected individuals have jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, pancytopenia, including neutropenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and esophageal varices. Some patients may have recurrent infections or features suggestive of an immunodeficiency. Liver biopsy is notable for the absence of cirrhosis and the presence of nodular regeneration. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have abnormal expression of CD34 (142230) (summary by Drzewiecki et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NCPH, see 617068.
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 3, digenic
MedGen UID:
1794169
Concept ID:
C5561959
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy-3 (FSHD3) is a digenic muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of proximal muscle weakness affecting the face, neck, scapular muscles, and upper and lower limbs. Muscle involvement is usually asymmetric, and other muscle groups may become involved with progression of the disease (summary by Hamanaka et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FSHD, see FSHD1 (158900).
IL21-related infantile inflammatory bowel disease
MedGen UID:
1799211
Concept ID:
C5567788
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by infancy onset of severe inflammatory bowel disease with life-threatening diarrhea and failure to thrive, oral aphthous ulcers, and recurrent severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections with finger clubbing. Laboratory examination reveals increased IgE and decreased IgG levels, as well as reduced numbers of circulating CD19+ B-cells including IgM+ naive and class-switched IgG memory B-cells, with a concomitant increase in transitional B-cells, while T-cell numbers and function are normal.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 28
MedGen UID:
1800504
Concept ID:
C5569081
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-28 (COXPD28) is a complex autosomal recessive multisystem disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The phenotype is variable, but includes episodic metabolic decompensation beginning in infancy that can result in mild muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory insufficiency, developmental delay, or even death. Biochemical studies of patient tissues show variable mitochondrial defects, including decreased activities of respiratory chain enzymes (summary by Kishita et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Pulmonary hypertension, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1802382
Concept ID:
C5676877
Disease or Syndrome
Primary pulmonary hypertension-5 (PPH5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of pulmonary arterial hypertension in infancy, resulting in right heart dysfunction and ultimately right heart failure. Death in early childhood is common (Machado et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary pulmonary hypertension, see PPH1 (178600).
Intellectual disability and myopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1808193
Concept ID:
C5676904
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability and myopathy syndrome (IDMYS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with mildly impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, muscle weakness and fatigue, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. Variable additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, dysmorphic facies, and progressive heart disease (summary by Smeland et al., 2019).
Immunodeficiency 97 with autoinflammation
MedGen UID:
1802936
Concept ID:
C5676946
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-97 with autoinflammation (IMD97) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder with variable features. Affected individuals present in the first decade of life with inflammatory interstitial lung disease or colitis due to abnormal tissue infiltration by activated T cells. Patients develop autoimmune cytopenias and may have lymphadenopathy; 1 reported patient had features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH; see FHL1, 267700). Some patients may have recurrent infections associated with mild lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and NK cell dysfunction. Immunologic workup indicates signs of significant immune dysregulation with elevation of inflammatory serum markers, variable immune cell defects involving neutrophils, NK cells, and myeloid cells, and disrupted levels of T regulatory cells (Tregs). Two unrelated patients have been reported (summary by Takeda et al., 2019 and Thian et al., 2020).
Hogue-Janssens syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1830493
Concept ID:
C5779996
Disease or Syndrome
PPP2R5D-related neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by mild to severe neurodevelopmental delay. Pronounced hypotonia with delay in gross motor skills is common. Onset of independent walking varies widely and ataxia is reported. All reported individuals have speech impairment, with a wide range of abilities. Autism spectrum disorder is reported in six individuals. Macrocephaly is common. Seizures and ophthalmologic abnormalities are reported in fewer than half of individuals. Additional anomalies include skeletal, endocrine, and cardiac malformations, each reported in a few individuals. To date, 23 individuals with PPP2R5D-related neurodevelopmental disorder have been reported.
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 112
MedGen UID:
1840225
Concept ID:
C5829589
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disorder-112 (XLID112) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, with speech delay more prominent than motor delay, autism or autism traits, and variable dysmorphic features. Affected females have been reported, which appears to be related to skewed X-inactivation (summary by Hiatt et al., 2023).
Congenital myopathy 22A, classic
MedGen UID:
1841089
Concept ID:
C5830453
Disease or Syndrome
Classic congenital myopathy-22A (CMYP22A) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero or soon after birth. Early features may include fetal hypokinesia, breech presentation, and polyhydramnios. Affected individuals are born with severe hypotonia and require respiratory and feeding assistance. Those who survive the neonatal period show a 'classic' phenotype of congenital myopathy with delayed motor development, difficulty walking, proximal muscle weakness of the upper and lower limbs, facial and neck muscle weakness, easy fatigability, and mild limb contractures or foot deformities. Some have persistent respiratory insufficiency; dysmorphic facial features may be present (Zaharieva et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Autoinflammatory disease, systemic, with vasculitis
MedGen UID:
1841161
Concept ID:
C5830525
Disease or Syndrome
Systemic autoinflammatory disease with vasculitis (SAIDV) is an autosomal dominant disorder that manifests soon after birth with features such as purpuric skin rash, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP; 123260). Laboratory studies may show leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and autoantibodies. A subset of patients develop progressive liver involvement that may result in fibrosis. Other systemic features, such as periorbital edema, conjunctivitis, infections, abdominal pain, and arthralgia are usually observed. Mutations occur de novo. De Jesus et al. (2023) referred to this disorder as LAVLI (LYN kinase-associated vasculopathy and liver fibrosis).

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PubMed

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Etiology

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