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Nodular goiter

MedGen UID:
42271
Concept ID:
C0018023
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Goiter, Nodular; Goiters, Nodular; Nodular Goiter; Nodular Goiters
SNOMED CT: Nodular goiter (419153005); Nodular hyperplasia of thyroid (419153005)
 
HPO: HP:0005994
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0006869

Definition

Enlargement of the thyroid gland related to one or more nodules in the thyroid gland. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B
MedGen UID:
9959
Concept ID:
C0025269
Neoplastic Process
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) includes the following phenotypes: MEN2A, FMTC (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, which may be a variant of MEN2A), and MEN2B. All three phenotypes involve high risk for development of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC); MEN2A and MEN2B involve an increased risk for pheochromocytoma; MEN2A involves an increased risk for parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. Additional features in MEN2B include mucosal neuromas of the lips and tongue, distinctive facies with enlarged lips, ganglioneuromatosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and a marfanoid habitus. MTC typically occurs in early childhood in MEN2B, early adulthood in MEN2A, and middle age in FMTC.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Campennì A, Avram AM, Verburg FA, Iakovou I, Hänscheid H, de Keizer B, Petranović Ovčariček P, Giovanella L
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2023 Sep;50(11):3324-3348. Epub 2023 Jul 3 doi: 10.1007/s00259-023-06274-5. PMID: 37395802Free PMC Article
Mao L, Zheng C, Ou S, He Y, Liao C, Deng G
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:1067390. Epub 2022 Dec 23 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.1067390. PMID: 36619577Free PMC Article
Liontiris MI, Mazokopakis EE
Hell J Nucl Med 2017 Jan-Apr;20(1):51-56. Epub 2017 Mar 20 doi: 10.1967/s002449910507. PMID: 28315909

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Yildirim Simsir I, Cetinkalp S, Kabalak T
Med Princ Pract 2020;29(1):1-5. Epub 2019 Sep 23 doi: 10.1159/000503575. PMID: 31542786Free PMC Article
Bel Lassen P, Kyrilli A, Lytrivi M, Corvilain B
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2019 Sep;80(4):240-249. Epub 2018 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2018.09.004. PMID: 31427038
Führer D, Bockisch A, Schmid KW
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2012 Jul;109(29-30):506-15; quiz 516. Epub 2012 Jul 23 doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2012.0506. PMID: 23008749Free PMC Article
Paschke R
Langenbecks Arch Surg 2011 Dec;396(8):1127-36. Epub 2011 Apr 14 doi: 10.1007/s00423-011-0788-5. PMID: 21487943
Yaqub A, Choudhry MI, Wheaton J, Gress T
W V Med J 2011 Mar-Apr;107(2):37-40. PMID: 21476476

Diagnosis

Bartsch DK, Luster M, Buhr HJ, Lorenz D, Germer CT, Goretzki PE; German Society for General and Visceral Surgery
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018 Jan 8;115(1-02):1-7. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2018.0001. PMID: 29345225Free PMC Article
Knobel M
J Endocrinol Invest 2016 Apr;39(4):357-73. Epub 2015 Sep 21 doi: 10.1007/s40618-015-0391-7. PMID: 26392367
del Ghianda S, Tonacchera M, Vitti P
Climacteric 2014 Jun;17(3):225-34. Epub 2013 Nov 7 doi: 10.3109/13697137.2013.838554. PMID: 23998691
Führer D, Bockisch A, Schmid KW
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2012 Jul;109(29-30):506-15; quiz 516. Epub 2012 Jul 23 doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2012.0506. PMID: 23008749Free PMC Article
Cakir M
J Natl Med Assoc 2005 Jul;97(7):1036-8. PMID: 16080676Free PMC Article

Therapy

Chaker L, Cooper DS, Walsh JP, Peeters RP
Lancet 2024 Feb 24;403(10428):768-780. Epub 2024 Jan 23 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)02016-0. PMID: 38278171
Campennì A, Avram AM, Verburg FA, Iakovou I, Hänscheid H, de Keizer B, Petranović Ovčariček P, Giovanella L
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2023 Sep;50(11):3324-3348. Epub 2023 Jul 3 doi: 10.1007/s00259-023-06274-5. PMID: 37395802Free PMC Article
Wiersinga WM, Poppe KG, Effraimidis G
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2023 Apr;11(4):282-298. Epub 2023 Feb 24 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(23)00005-0. PMID: 36848916
Liontiris MI, Mazokopakis EE
Hell J Nucl Med 2017 Jan-Apr;20(1):51-56. Epub 2017 Mar 20 doi: 10.1967/s002449910507. PMID: 28315909
Yaqub A, Choudhry MI, Wheaton J, Gress T
W V Med J 2011 Mar-Apr;107(2):37-40. PMID: 21476476

Prognosis

Chaker L, Cooper DS, Walsh JP, Peeters RP
Lancet 2024 Feb 24;403(10428):768-780. Epub 2024 Jan 23 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)02016-0. PMID: 38278171
Wiersinga WM, Poppe KG, Effraimidis G
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2023 Apr;11(4):282-298. Epub 2023 Feb 24 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(23)00005-0. PMID: 36848916
Knobel M
J Endocrinol Invest 2016 Apr;39(4):357-73. Epub 2015 Sep 21 doi: 10.1007/s40618-015-0391-7. PMID: 26392367
Paschke R
Langenbecks Arch Surg 2011 Dec;396(8):1127-36. Epub 2011 Apr 14 doi: 10.1007/s00423-011-0788-5. PMID: 21487943
Yaqub A, Choudhry MI, Wheaton J, Gress T
W V Med J 2011 Mar-Apr;107(2):37-40. PMID: 21476476

Clinical prediction guides

Brenta G, Di Fermo F
Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2024 Feb;25(1):19-34. Epub 2023 Nov 14 doi: 10.1007/s11154-023-09849-7. PMID: 37957487
Wémeau JL, Kopp P
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar;31(2):213-224. Epub 2017 May 10 doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2017.04.011. PMID: 28648509
Buła G, Mucha R, Paliga M, Koziołek H, Niedzielski Z, Gawrychowski J
Pol Przegl Chir 2015 Jul 1;87(7):336-9. doi: 10.1515/pjs-2015-0066. PMID: 26351787
Yaqub A, Choudhry MI, Wheaton J, Gress T
W V Med J 2011 Mar-Apr;107(2):37-40. PMID: 21476476
Tonacchera M, Pinchera A, Vitti P
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010 Feb;24(1):51-61. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2009.08.008. PMID: 20172470

Recent systematic reviews

Bharath S, Yadav SK, Sharma D, Jha CK, Mishra A, Mishra SK, Shekhar S
Langenbecks Arch Surg 2023 May 19;408(1):200. doi: 10.1007/s00423-023-02941-1. PMID: 37204607
Brito JP, Yarur AJ, Prokop LJ, McIver B, Murad MH, Montori VM
Thyroid 2013 Apr;23(4):449-55. doi: 10.1089/thy.2012.0156. PMID: 23067375
Porterfield JR Jr, Thompson GB, Farley DR, Grant CS, Richards ML
World J Surg 2008 Jul;32(7):1278-84. doi: 10.1007/s00268-008-9566-0. PMID: 18357484
Phitayakorn R, McHenry CR
World J Surg 2008 Jul;32(7):1374-84. doi: 10.1007/s00268-008-9487-y. PMID: 18311576
Kahaly GJ, Dietlein M
Thyroid 2002 Oct;12(10):909-14. doi: 10.1089/105072502761016548. PMID: 12487774

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