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Diphtheria

MedGen UID:
4334
Concept ID:
C0012546
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Corynebacterium infection; diphtheria
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005504
Orphanet: ORPHA1679

Definition

A rare bacterial infectious disease characterized by an affliction of the upper respiratory tract mediated by the toxin of <i>Corynebacterium diphtheriae</i>. Symptoms include formation of an inflammatory pseudomembrane, fever, sore throat, headaches, coughing, dysphagia, dyspnea, and prominently swollen cervical lymph nodes. The disease may lead to respiratory failure and severe toxin-mediated damage of internal organs, including the heart and kidneys. A cutaneous form of diphtheria is more common in tropical climates and usually follows an indolent course. [from ORDO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVDiphtheria
Follow this link to review classifications for Diphtheria in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Mazurek H, Bręborowicz A, Doniec Z, Emeryk A, Krenke K, Kulus M, Zielnik-Jurkiewicz B
Adv Respir Med 2019;87(5):308-316. doi: 10.5603/ARM.2019.0056. PMID: 31680234
Liang JL, Tiwari T, Moro P, Messonnier NE, Reingold A, Sawyer M, Clark TA
MMWR Recomm Rep 2018 Apr 27;67(2):1-44. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6702a1. PMID: 29702631Free PMC Article
Zibners L
Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2017 Feb;14(2):1-24. PMID: 28749121

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Peterson JT, Zareba AM, Fitz-Patrick D, Essink BJ, Scott DA, Swanson KA, Chelani D, Radley D, Cooper D, Jansen KU, Dormitzer PR, Gruber WC, Gurtman A
J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 15;225(12):2077-2086. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab505. PMID: 34637519Free PMC Article
Truelove SA, Keegan LT, Moss WJ, Chaisson LH, Macher E, Azman AS, Lessler J
Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 24;71(1):89-97. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz808. PMID: 31425581Free PMC Article
Sharma NC, Efstratiou A, Mokrousov I, Mutreja A, Das B, Ramamurthy T
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2019 Dec 5;5(1):81. doi: 10.1038/s41572-019-0131-y. PMID: 31804499
Weinberger B
Clin Exp Immunol 2017 Jan;187(1):93-99. Epub 2016 Jul 12 doi: 10.1111/cei.12822. PMID: 27279025Free PMC Article
Sanghi V
Handb Clin Neurol 2014;121:1355-9. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7020-4088-7.00092-4. PMID: 24365424

Diagnosis

Sharma NC, Efstratiou A, Mokrousov I, Mutreja A, Das B, Ramamurthy T
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2019 Dec 5;5(1):81. doi: 10.1038/s41572-019-0131-y. PMID: 31804499
Sah R, Neupane S
N Engl J Med 2019 Sep 26;381(13):1267. doi: 10.1056/NEJMicm1814405. PMID: 31553838
Berkowitz AL
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Oct;24(5, Neuroinfectious Disease):1459-1488. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000651. PMID: 30273248
Mathur SB, Mukherjee SB
Indian Pediatr 2017 May 15;54(5):411-412. doi: 10.1007/s13312-017-1115-1. PMID: 28601852
Laing GS
Arch Emerg Med 1987 Mar;4(1):3-5. doi: 10.1136/emj.4.1.3. PMID: 3580072Free PMC Article

Therapy

Abdullahi LH, Kagina BM, Ndze VN, Hussey GD, Wiysonge CS
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jan 17;1(1):CD011895. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011895.pub2. PMID: 31978259Free PMC Article
Akbari B, Farajnia S, Ahdi Khosroshahi S, Safari F, Yousefi M, Dariushnejad H, Rahbarnia L
Int Rev Immunol 2017 Jul 4;36(4):207-219. Epub 2017 Mar 1 doi: 10.1080/08830185.2017.1284211. PMID: 28282218
Geskin LJ
Dermatol Clin 2015 Oct;33(4):777-86. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2015.05.015. PMID: 26433849
Munoz FM, Bond NH, Maccato M, Pinell P, Hammill HA, Swamy GK, Walter EB, Jackson LA, Englund JA, Edwards MS, Healy CM, Petrie CR, Ferreira J, Goll JB, Baker CJ
JAMA 2014 May 7;311(17):1760-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.3633. PMID: 24794369Free PMC Article
Frampton JE
Paediatr Drugs 2011 Dec 1;13(6):401-15. doi: 10.2165/11207740-000000000-00000. PMID: 21999652

Prognosis

Benn CS, Fisker AB, Rieckmann A, Sørup S, Aaby P
Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Oct;20(10):e274-e283. Epub 2020 Jul 6 doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30742-X. PMID: 32645296
Sah R, Neupane S
N Engl J Med 2019 Sep 26;381(13):1267. doi: 10.1056/NEJMicm1814405. PMID: 31553838
Berghella V, Buchanan E, Pereira L, Baxter JK
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2010 Feb;65(2):119-31. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181d0c358. PMID: 20100361
Kristensen I, Aaby P, Jensen H
BMJ 2000 Dec 9;321(7274):1435-8. doi: 10.1136/bmj.321.7274.1435. PMID: 11110734Free PMC Article
Guyer B, Freedman MA, Strobino DM, Sondik EJ
Pediatrics 2000 Dec;106(6):1307-17. doi: 10.1542/peds.106.6.1307. PMID: 11099582

Clinical prediction guides

Peterson JT, Zareba AM, Fitz-Patrick D, Essink BJ, Scott DA, Swanson KA, Chelani D, Radley D, Cooper D, Jansen KU, Dormitzer PR, Gruber WC, Gurtman A
J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 15;225(12):2077-2086. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab505. PMID: 34637519Free PMC Article
Arguni E, Karyanti MR, Satari HI, Hadinegoro SR
PLoS One 2021;16(2):e0246301. Epub 2021 Feb 4 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246301. PMID: 33539453Free PMC Article
Habib H, Kurniawaty H
West J Emerg Med 2020 Aug 21;21(5):1156-1159. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2020.6.46094. PMID: 32970569Free PMC Article
Jain A, Samdani S, Meena V, Sharma MP
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Jul;86:68-71. Epub 2016 Apr 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.04.024. PMID: 27260583
Shah R, Bansal A, Singhi SC
Indian J Pediatr 2011 Oct;78(10):1268-72. Epub 2011 Jun 10 doi: 10.1007/s12098-011-0467-0. PMID: 21660400Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Gidengil C, Goetz MB, Newberry S, Maglione M, Hall O, Larkin J, Motala A, Hempel S
Vaccine 2021 Jun 23;39(28):3696-3716. Epub 2021 May 25 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.03.079. PMID: 34049735
Yuan S, Xiong Y, Larsson SC
J Neurol 2021 Jan;268(1):114-124. Epub 2020 Jul 29 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10119-8. PMID: 32728946Free PMC Article
Truelove SA, Keegan LT, Moss WJ, Chaisson LH, Macher E, Azman AS, Lessler J
Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 24;71(1):89-97. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz808. PMID: 31425581Free PMC Article
Leidner AJ, Murthy N, Chesson HW, Biggerstaff M, Stoecker C, Harris AM, Acosta A, Dooling K, Bridges CB
Vaccine 2019 Jan 7;37(2):226-234. Epub 2018 Dec 4 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.056. PMID: 30527660Free PMC Article
Jarrett C, Wilson R, O'Leary M, Eckersberger E, Larson HJ; SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy
Vaccine 2015 Aug 14;33(34):4180-90. Epub 2015 Apr 18 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.040. PMID: 25896377

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