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Hypermetropia

MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Hyperopia
SNOMED CT: Longsightedness (38101003); Longsighted (38101003); Hypermetropia (38101003); Hyperopia (38101003); Farsightedness (38101003)
 
HPO: HP:0000540
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004891

Definition

An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Cystoid macular edema
MedGen UID:
7435
Concept ID:
C0024440
Disease or Syndrome
Dominant cystoid macular dystrophy (DCMD) is a progressive retinal dystrophy characterized primarily by early-onset cystoid fluid collections in the neuroretina (summary by Saksens et al., 2015).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 6 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
44252
Concept ID:
C0024507
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Dubowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
59797
Concept ID:
C0175691
Disease or Syndrome
Dubowitz syndrome (DS) is a rare multiple congenital syndrome characterized primarly by growth retardation, microcephaly, distinctive facial dysmorphism, cutaneous eczema, a mild to severe intellectual deficit and genital abnormalities.
Sotos syndrome
MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures.
Aarskog syndrome
MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
Aarskog-Scott syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the development of many parts of the body, most commonly the head and face, the hands and feet, and the genitals and urinary system (genitourinary tract). This condition mainly affects males, although females may have mild features of the syndrome.\n\nPeople with Aarskog-Scott syndrome often have distinctive facial features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a small nose, a long area between the nose and mouth (philtrum), and a widow's peak hairline. They frequently have mild to moderate short stature during childhood, but their growth usually catches up with that of their peers during puberty. Hand abnormalities are common in this syndrome and include short fingers (brachydactyly), curved pinky fingers (fifth finger clinodactyly), webbing of the skin between some fingers (cutaneous syndactyly), and a single crease across the palm. Affected individuals can also have wide, flat feet with broad, rounded toes. Other abnormalities in people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome include heart defects and a split in the upper lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate).\n\nMost males with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have a shawl scrotum, in which the scrotum surrounds the penis instead of hanging below. Less often, they have undescended testes (cryptorchidism) or a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or in the lower abdomen (inguinal hernia).\n\nThe intellectual development of people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome varies widely. Most individuals with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have normal intelligence; however, some may have mild learning and behavior problems, and in rare cases, severe intellectual disability has been reported.
Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome
MedGen UID:
66312
Concept ID:
C0220663
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is defined by a complex eyelid malformation characterized by four major features, all present at birth: blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. BPES type I includes the four major features and primary ovarian insufficiency; BPES type II includes only the four major features. Other ophthalmic manifestations that can be associated with BPES include dysplastic eyelids, lacrimal duct anomalies, strabismus, refractive errors, and amblyopia. Other craniofacial features may include a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears.
Primary hypomagnesemia
MedGen UID:
120640
Concept ID:
C0268448
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a progressive renal disorder characterized by excessive urinary Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) excretion. There is progressive loss of kidney function, and in about 50% of cases, the need for renal replacement therapy arises as early as the second decade of life (summary by Muller et al., 2006). Amelogenesis imperfecta may also be present in some patients (Bardet et al., 2016). A similar disorder with renal magnesium wasting, renal failure, and nephrocalcinosis (HOMG5; 248190) is caused by mutations in another tight-junction gene, CLDN19 (610036), and is distinguished by the association of severe ocular involvement. For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of familial hypomagnesemia, see HOMG1 (602014).
Symphalangism-brachydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
90977
Concept ID:
C0342282
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple synostoses syndrome is characterized by multiple joint fusions, usually commencing in the hands, conductive deafness, and characteristic facial features, including a broad, tubular-shaped nose and a thin upper vermilion. Other features include brachydactyly, hypoplastic or absent middle phalanges, radial head dislocation, and pectus carinatum (summary by Takahashi et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Synostoses Syndrome Other forms of multiple synostoses syndrome include SYNS2 (610017), caused by mutation in the GDF5 gene (601146) on chromosome 20q11; SYNS3 (612961), caused by mutation in the FGF9 gene (600921) on chromosome 13q12; and SYNS4 (617898), caused by mutation in the GDF6 gene (601147) on chromosome 8q22.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 4
MedGen UID:
140820
Concept ID:
C0410174
Disease or Syndrome
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is characterized by hypotonia, symmetric generalized muscle weakness, and CNS migration disturbances that result in changes consistent with cobblestone lissencephaly with cerebral and cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Mild, typical, and severe phenotypes are recognized. Onset typically occurs in early infancy with poor suck, weak cry, and floppiness. Affected individuals have contractures of the hips, knees, and interphalangeal joints. Later features include myopathic facial appearance, pseudohypertrophy of the calves and forearms, motor and speech delays, intellectual disability, seizures, ophthalmologic abnormalities including visual impairment and retinal dysplasia, and progressive cardiac involvement after age ten years. Swallowing disturbance occurs in individuals with severe FCMD and in individuals older than age ten years, leading to recurrent aspiration pneumonia and death.
Brachyrachia (short spine dysplasia)
MedGen UID:
96583
Concept ID:
C0432227
Congenital Abnormality
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II
MedGen UID:
96587
Concept ID:
C0432246
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), the most common form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism, is characterized by extreme short stature and microcephaly along with distinctive facial features. Associated features that differentiate it from other forms of primordial dwarfism and that may necessitate treatment include: abnormal dentition, a slender bone skeletal dysplasia with hip deformity and/or scoliosis, insulin resistance / diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cardiac malformations, and global vascular disease. The latter includes neurovascular disease such as moyamoya vasculopathy and intracranial aneurysms (which can lead to strokes), coronary artery disease (which can lead to premature myocardial infarctions), and renal vascular disease. Hypertension, which is also common, can have multiple underlying causes given the complex comorbidities.
Floating-Harbor syndrome
MedGen UID:
152667
Concept ID:
C0729582
Disease or Syndrome
Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features; low birth weight, normal head circumference, and short stature; bone age delay that normalizes between ages six and 12 years; skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, clubbing, clinodactyly, short thumbs, prominent joints, clavicular abnormalities); severe receptive and expressive language impairment; hypernasality and high-pitched voice; and intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate. Difficulties with temperament and behavior that are present in many children tend to improve in adulthood. Other features can include hyperopia and/or strabismus, conductive hearing loss, seizures, gastroesophageal reflux, renal anomalies (e.g., hydronephrosis / renal pelviectasis, cysts, and/or agenesis), and genital anomalies (e.g., hypospadias and/or undescended testes).
Cockayne syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Cockayne syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Renpenning syndrome
MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome.
SHORT syndrome
MedGen UID:
164212
Concept ID:
C0878684
Disease or Syndrome
SHORT syndrome is a mnemonic for short stature, hyperextensibility, ocular depression (deeply set eyes), Rieger anomaly, and teething delay. It is now recognized that the features most consistently observed in SHORT syndrome are mild intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); mild to moderate short stature; partial lipodystrophy (evident in the face, and later in the chest and upper extremities, often sparing the buttocks and legs); and a characteristic facial gestalt. Insulin resistance may be evident in mid-childhood or adolescence, although diabetes mellitus typically does not develop until early adulthood. Other frequent features include Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly or related ocular anterior chamber dysgenesis, delayed dentition and other dental issues, and sensorineural hearing loss.
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
320559
Concept ID:
C1835265
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or impaired intellectual development (MCLMR) is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves an overlapping but variable spectrum of central nervous system and ocular developmental anomalies. Microcephaly ranges from mild to severe and is often associated with mild to moderate developmental delay and a characteristic facial phenotype with upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nose with rounded tip, long philtrum with thin upper lip, prominent chin, and prominent ears. Chorioretinopathy is the most common eye abnormality, but retinal folds, microphthalmia, and myopic and hypermetropic astigmatism have also been reported, and some individuals have no overt ocular phenotype. Congenital lymphedema, when present, is typically confined to the dorsa of the feet, and lymphoscintigraphy reveals the absence of radioactive isotope uptake from the webspaces between the toes (summary by Ostergaard et al., 2012). Robitaille et al. (2014) found that MCLMR includes a broader spectrum of ocular disease, including retinal detachment with avascularity of the peripheral retina, and noted phenotypic overlap with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR; see EVR1, 133780). Birtel et al. (2017) observed intrafamilial and intraindividual variability in retinal phenotype, and noted that syndromic manifestations in some patients are too subtle to be detected during a routine ophthalmologic evaluation. Variable expressivity and reduced penetrance have also been observed in some families (Jones et al., 2014; Li et al., 2016). Autosomal recessive forms of microcephaly with chorioretinopathy have been reported (see 251270). See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive microcephaly with pigmentary retinopathy and impaired intellectual development; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1.
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome
MedGen UID:
332131
Concept ID:
C1836123
Disease or Syndrome
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (GOSHS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Most patients also have Hirschsprung disease and/or gyral abnormalities of the brain, consistent with defects in migration of neural crest cells and neurons. Other features, such as megalocornea or urogenital anomalies, may also be present. Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome has some resemblance to Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS; 235730) but is genetically distinct (summary by Drevillon et al., 2013).
Leber congenital amaurosis 9
MedGen UID:
325277
Concept ID:
C1837873
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset neurodegeneration in the human retina can lead to Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), the most severe human form of inherited photoreceptor-neuron degeneration resulting in congenital blindness, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 80,000 (summary by Koenekoop et al., 2012). NMNAT1 mutations have been observed to cause severe and rapidly progressive macular degeneration, leading to severe central atrophy with an appearance of congenital macular coloboma in the neonatal period, as well as an unusual early-onset atrophy of the optic nerve (Perrault et al., 2012). Some patients present with later onset and milder phenotype than typical LCA (Kumaran et al., 2021). For a general discussion of the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity in Leber congenital amaurosis, see LCA1 (204000).
Cataract - congenital heart disease - neural tube defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
330832
Concept ID:
C1842363
Disease or Syndrome
Cataract-congenital heart disease-neural tube defect syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by sacral neural tube defects resulting in tethered cord, atrial and/or ventricular septal heart defects (that are detected in infancy), bilateral, symmetrical hyperopia, rapidly progressive early childhood cataracts, bilateral aphakic glaucoma, and abnormal facial features (low frontal hairline, small ears, short philtrum, prominent, widely spaced central incisors, and micrognathia). Hypotonia, growth and developmental delay, seizures, and joint limitation are also reported.
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Claes-Jensen type
MedGen UID:
335139
Concept ID:
C1845243
Disease or Syndrome
Claes-Jensen type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSCJ) is characterized by impaired intellectual development with substantial clinical heterogeneity in affected males. However, males are usually reported to have short stature, microcephaly, hyperreflexia, and aggressive behavior. In rare cases, female carriers exhibit mildly impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties (summary by Guerra et al., 2020).
Creatine transporter deficiency
MedGen UID:
337451
Concept ID:
C1845862
Disease or Syndrome
The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction or intellectual disability and speech-language disorder are common to all three CDDs. Onset of clinical manifestations of GAMT deficiency (reported in ~130 individuals) is between ages three months and two years; in addition to developmental delays, the majority of individuals have epilepsy and develop a behavior disorder (e.g., hyperactivity, autism, or self-injurious behavior), and about 30% have movement disorder. AGAT deficiency has been reported in 16 individuals; none have had epilepsy or movement disorders. Clinical findings of CRTR deficiency in affected males (reported in ~130 individuals) in addition to developmental delays include epilepsy (variable seizure types and may be intractable) and behavior disorders (e.g., attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, autistic features, impulsivity, social anxiety), hypotonia, and (less commonly) a movement disorder. Poor weight gain with constipation and prolonged QTc on EKG have been reported. While mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is commonly observed up to age four years, the majority of adult males with CRTR deficiency have been reported to have severe intellectual disability. Females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency are typically either asymptomatic or have mild intellectual disability, although a more severe phenotype resembling the male phenotype has been reported.
Autosomal recessive pericentral pigmentary retinopathy
MedGen UID:
340314
Concept ID:
C1849398
Disease or Syndrome
A subtype of retinitis pigmentosa in which, instead of the pathology starting in the mid-periphery like typical retinitis pigmentosa, the disease starts in the near periphery closer to the vascular arcades and tends to spare the far periphery.
Metaphyseal dysostosis-intellectual disability-conductive deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
344437
Concept ID:
C1855175
Disease or Syndrome
Metaphyseal dysostosis-intellectual disability-conductive deafness syndrome is characterised by metaphyseal dysplasia, short-limb dwarfism, mild intellectual deficit and conductive hearing loss, associated with repeated episodes of otitis media in childhood. It has been described in three brothers born to consanguineous Sicilian parents. Variable manifestations included hyperopia and strabismus. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.
Progressive encephalopathy with leukodystrophy due to DECR deficiency
MedGen UID:
346552
Concept ID:
C1857252
Disease or Syndrome
2,4-Dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency (DECRD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction due to impaired production of NADPH, which is an essential cofactor for several mitochondrial enzymes. Affected individuals have a variable phenotype: some may have severe neurologic symptoms and metabolic dysfunction beginning in early infancy, whereas others may present with more subtle features, such as childhood-onset optic atrophy or intermittent muscle weakness. The variable severity is putatively dependent on the effect of the mutation on the NADK2 enzyme. Biochemical analysis typically shows hyperlysinemia, due to defective activity of the mitochondrial NADP(H)-dependent enzyme AASS (605113), which is usually a benign finding. More severe cases have increased C10:2-carnitine levels, due to defective activity of the enzyme DECR (DECR1; 222745) (summary by Houten et al., 2014 and Pomerantz et al., 2018).
Cornea plana 2
MedGen UID:
346616
Concept ID:
C1857574
Disease or Syndrome
Cornea plana is clinically characterized by reduced corneal curvature leading in most cases to hyperopia, hazy corneal limbus, and arcus lipoides at an early age. CNA2 is a severe form of the disorder, which is frequently associated with additional ocular manifestations (summary by Tahvanainen et al., 1996). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CNA, see CNA1 (121400).
Macular coloboma-cleft palate-hallux valgus syndrome
MedGen UID:
341812
Concept ID:
C1857619
Disease or Syndrome
Macular coloboma-cleft palate-hallux valgus syndrome is characterised by the association of bilateral macular coloboma, cleft palate, and hallux valgus. It has been described in a brother and sister. Pelvic, limb and digital anomalies were also reported. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Craniosynostosis 2
MedGen UID:
346753
Concept ID:
C1858160
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
Leber congenital amaurosis 5
MedGen UID:
388031
Concept ID:
C1858301
Disease or Syndrome
Leber congenital amaurosis, also known as LCA, is an eye disorder that is present from birth (congenital). This condition primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this disorder typically have severe visual impairment beginning at birth or shortly afterward. The visual impairment tends to be severe and may worsen over time.\n\nLeber congenital amaurosis is also associated with other vision problems, including an increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and extreme farsightedness (hyperopia). The pupils, which usually expand and contract in response to the amount of light entering the eye, do not react normally to light. Instead, they expand and contract more slowly than normal, or they may not respond to light at all.\n\nA specific behavior called Franceschetti's oculo-digital sign is characteristic of Leber congenital amaurosis. This sign consists of affected individuals poking, pressing, and rubbing their eyes with a knuckle or finger. Poking their eyes often results in the sensation of flashes of light called phosphenes. Researchers suspect that this behavior may contribute to deep-set eyes in affected children.\n\nIn very rare cases, delayed development and intellectual disability have been reported in people with the features of Leber congenital amaurosis. Because of the visual loss, affected children may become isolated. Providing children with opportunities to play, hear, touch, understand and other early educational interventions may prevent developmental delays in children with Leber congenital amaurosis.\n\nAt least 20 genetic types of Leber congenital amaurosis have been described. The types are distinguished by their genetic cause, patterns of vision loss, and related eye abnormalities.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 3
MedGen UID:
349167
Concept ID:
C1859439
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis- oculomotor limitation-electroretinal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
350678
Concept ID:
C1862472
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 5 is distinguished from other forms of DA by the presence of ocular abnormalities, typically ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and/or strabismus, in addition to contractures of the skeletal muscles. Some cases have been reported to have pulmonary hypertension as a result of restrictive lung disease (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). There are 2 syndromes with features overlapping those of DA5 that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 3 (DA3, or Gordon syndrome; 114300) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS; 248700), which are distinguished by the presence of cleft palate and mental retardation, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders might represent variable expressivity of the same condition. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1A (108120). Genetic Heterogeneity of Distal Arthrogryposis 5 A subtype of DA5 due to mutation in the ECEL1 gene (605896) on chromosome 2q36 has been designated DA5D (615065). See NOMENCLATURE.
Koolen-de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with KdVS function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include speech and language delay (100%), epilepsy (~33%), congenital heart defects (25%-50%), renal and urologic anomalies (25%-50%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative.
Acroosteolysis-keloid-like lesions-premature aging syndrome
MedGen UID:
400936
Concept ID:
C1866182
Disease or Syndrome
Penttinen syndrome (PENTT) is characterized by a prematurely aged appearance involving lipoatrophy and epidermal and dermal atrophy, as well as hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acroosteolysis (Johnston et al., 2015).
Stapes ankylosis with broad thumbs and toes
MedGen UID:
357104
Concept ID:
C1866656
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of congenital conductive deafness due to stapes ankylosis, broad thumbs and first toes and hyperopia. So far, it has been described in multiple members of six families. Other skeletal malformations were also reported including short distal phalanges and syndactyly, but symphalangism is usually absent. Transmission is autosomal dominant and the syndrome is caused by mutations in the NOG gene (17q22).
Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy
MedGen UID:
401413
Concept ID:
C1868310
Disease or Syndrome
Pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy is a stationary disease of the ocular fundus in which bone corpuscle pigmentation is seen in a paravenous distribution. Patients are usually asymptomatic; diagnosis is based on the characteristic fundus appearance. Most cases have been reported in males (summary by Traboulsi and Maumenee, 1986).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
409857
Concept ID:
C1969562
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MBD5 haploinsufficiency is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, sleep disturbances, and abnormal behaviors. Most children lack speech entirely or have single words, short phrases, or short sentences. Seizures are present in more than 80% of children; onset is usually around age two years. Sleep disturbances, present in about 90%, can result in excessive daytime drowsiness. Abnormal behaviors can include autistic-like behaviors (80%) and self-injury and aggression (>60%).
Brachydactyly type B2
MedGen UID:
409880
Concept ID:
C1969652
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly type B2 (BDB2) is a subtype of brachydactyly characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges in combination with distal symphalangism, fusion of carpal/tarsal bones, and partial cutaneous syndactyly (summary by Lehmann et al., 2007).
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity comprises two phenotypes, both characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria. The mild phenotype (~75% of affected males) with onset in the second or third decade of life is typically limited to these biochemical findings, whereas the severe phenotype (~25% of affected males) with onset in the first decade of life has in addition to these biochemical findings variable combinations of developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID), sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the mild phenotype, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Chromosome 6pter-p24 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393396
Concept ID:
C2675486
Disease or Syndrome
Distal monosomy 6p is responsible for a distinct chromosome deletion syndrome with a recognizable clinical picture including intellectual deficit, ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, and facial dysmorphism.
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
Fontaine progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
394125
Concept ID:
C2676780
Disease or Syndrome
SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by poor growth, abnormal skeletal features, and distinctive craniofacial features with sagging, thin skin, and decreased subcutaneous fat suggesting an aged appearance that is most pronounced in infancy and improves with time. Characteristic radiographic features include turribrachycephaly with widely open anterior fontanelle, craniosynostosis, and anomalies of the terminal phalanges. Cardiovascular, genitourinary, ocular, and gastrointestinal abnormalities may also occur. To date, 13 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome have been described.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
412567
Concept ID:
C2748502
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare form of stromal corneal dystrophy with characteristics of irregular amorphous sheet-like opacities in the posterior corneal stroma and in the Descemet membrane along with mildly impaired vision. Prevalence of this form of corneal dystrophy is not known. To date cases have been reported primarily in the USA. Patients usually develop corneal abnormalities in infancy or childhood. The condition is non-progressive or slowly progressive. Unlike other corneal dystrophies, non-corneal manifestations have been observed and include abnormalities of the iris including iridocorneal adhesions, corectopia, and pseudopolycoria. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been reported.
Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder
MedGen UID:
442700
Concept ID:
C2751318
Disease or Syndrome
Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder (NBSLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe prenatal growth retardation and persistent postnatal growth restriction, congenital microcephaly, borderline to mildly impaired intellectual development, normal sexual development, and radioresistant DNA synthesis with no immunodeficiency, myelodysplasia, or early neurodegeneration (summary by Ragamin et al., 2020).
Potocki-Lupski syndrome
MedGen UID:
444010
Concept ID:
C2931246
Disease or Syndrome
Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) is characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and medical manifestations. Cognitively, most individuals present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for moderate intellectual disability. Behaviorally, issues with attention, hyperactivity, withdrawal, and anxiety may be seen. Some individuals meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Medically, hypotonia, oropharyngeal dysphagia leading to failure to thrive, congenital heart disease, hypoglycemia associated with growth hormone deficiency, and mildly dysmorphic facial features are observed. Medical manifestations typically lead to identification of PTLS in infancy; however, those with only behavioral and cognitive manifestations may be identified in later childhood.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 1
MedGen UID:
444070
Concept ID:
C2931498
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An X-linked dominant condition caused by mutation(s) in the IQSEC2 gene, encoding IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein 2. It is characterized by substantially impaired intellectual functioning and behavioral abnormalities.
Retinal degeneration-nanophthalmos-glaucoma syndrome
MedGen UID:
444153
Concept ID:
C2931831
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of progressive pigmentary retinal degeneration (with nyctalopia and visual field restriction), cystic macular degeneration and angle closure glaucoma. It has been described in seven members of one family. Patients also have hyperopia and nanophthalmos. The mode of transmission is autosomal recessive.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A2
MedGen UID:
461761
Concept ID:
C3150411
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and death usually in the first years of life. It represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (van Reeuwijk et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
14q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism.
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Intellectual disability, anterior maxillary protrusion, and strabismus
MedGen UID:
462274
Concept ID:
C3150924
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with the association of severe intellectual disability, strabismus and anterior maxillary protrusion with vertical maxillary excess, open bite and prominent crowded teeth. Mild cochlear hearing loss has been reported in addition.
Leber congenital amaurosis 15
MedGen UID:
462556
Concept ID:
C3151206
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting rod and cone photoreceptors simultaneously. The most severe cases are termed Leber congenital amaurosis, whereas the less aggressive forms are usually considered juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (summary by Gu et al., 1997). Mutation in TULP1 can also cause a form of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP14; 600132). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of Leber congenital amaurosis, see LCA1 (204000); for retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type
MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 4
MedGen UID:
482246
Concept ID:
C3280616
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Chromosome 17q12 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
482768
Concept ID:
C3281138
Disease or Syndrome
The 17q12 recurrent deletion syndrome is characterized by variable combinations of the three following findings: structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), and neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and bipolar disorder). Using a method of data analysis that avoids ascertainment bias, the authors determined that multicystic kidneys and other structural and functional kidney anomalies occur in 85% to 90% of affected individuals, MODY5 in approximately 40%, and some degree of developmental delay or learning disability in approximately 50%. MODY5 is most often diagnosed before age 25 years (range: age 10-50 years).
Microspherophakia and/or megalocornea, with ectopia lentis and with or without secondary glaucoma
MedGen UID:
761238
Concept ID:
C3538951
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature-optic atrophy-Pelger-HuC+t anomaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
762020
Concept ID:
C3541319
Disease or Syndrome
Among the Yakuts, an Asian population isolate that is located in the northeastern part of Siberia, Maksimova et al. (2010) ascertained an autosomal recessive short stature syndrome involving postnatal growth failure, small hands and feet, loss of visual acuity with abnormalities of color vision, abnormal nuclear shape in neutrophil granulocytes (Pelger-Huet anomaly; see 169400), and normal intelligence.
Malan overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
766574
Concept ID:
C3553660
Disease or Syndrome
Malan syndrome (MALNS) is clinically characterized by overgrowth, advanced bone age, macrocephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Patients develop marfanoid habitus, with long and slender body, very low body mass, long narrow face, and arachnodactyly, with age. Impaired intellectual development and behavior anomalies are present (summary by Martinez et al., 2015).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8
MedGen UID:
767123
Concept ID:
C3554209
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, abnormal movements, hypotonia, spasticity, and variable visual defects. Brain MRI shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, decreased cerebral white matter, and a thin corpus callosum (summary by Mochida et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Severe intellectual disability-poor language-strabismus-grimacing face-long fingers syndrome
MedGen UID:
767362
Concept ID:
C3554448
Disease or Syndrome
GAND syndrome is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, with motor delay and moderate to severely impaired intellectual development. Most patients have poor speech acquisition, especially expressive language development, and may manifest signs of speech apraxia. Affected individuals have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, as well as common dysmorphic features, such as macrocephaly, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, deep-set eyes, posteriorly rotated ears, and elongated wide nose with prominent nasal tip. More variable features may include seizures, cardiac abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (summary by Shieh et al., 2020).
Severe intellectual disability-progressive spastic diplegia syndrome
MedGen UID:
767363
Concept ID:
C3554449
Disease or Syndrome
CTNNB1 neurodevelopmental disorder (CTNNB1-NDD) is characterized in all individuals by mild-to-profound cognitive impairment and in up to 39% of reported individuals by exudative vitreoretinopathy, an ophthalmologic finding consistent with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Other common findings include truncal hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, dystonia, behavior problems, microcephaly, and refractive errors and strabismus. Less common features include intrauterine growth restriction, feeding difficulties, and scoliosis.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, MKB type
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Juvenile retinoschisis
MedGen UID:
811458
Concept ID:
C3714753
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked congenital retinoschisis (XLRS) is characterized by symmetric bilateral macular involvement with onset in the first decade of life, in some cases as early as age three months. Fundus examination shows areas of schisis (splitting of the nerve fiber layer of the retina) in the macula, sometimes giving the impression of a spoke wheel pattern. Schisis of the peripheral retina, predominantly inferotemporally, occurs in approximately 50% of individuals. Affected males typically have 20/60 to 20/120 vision. Visual acuity often deteriorates during the first and second decades of life but then remains relatively stable until the fifth or sixth decade.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815686
Concept ID:
C3809356
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Intellectual disability-feeding difficulties-developmental delay-microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
816016
Concept ID:
C3809686
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare, genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, borderline to severe intellectual disability, feeding difficulties, behavioral anomalies, vision anomalies and mild facial dysmorphism. Other associated features may include microcephaly, short stature, urogenital or palatal anomalies (e.g. cleft palate), minor cardiac defects, recurrent infections or hearing loss.
Chromosome 5q12 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
816612
Concept ID:
C3810282
Disease or Syndrome
PDE4D haploinsufficiency syndrome is a rare syndromic intellectual disability characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, low body mass index, long arms, fingers and toes, prominent nose and small chin.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
854728
Concept ID:
C3888026
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy
MedGen UID:
854806
Concept ID:
C3888198
Disease or Syndrome
Bestrophinopathies, the spectrum of ophthalmic disorders caused by pathogenic variants in BEST1, are typically characterized by retinal degeneration. The four recognized phenotypes are the three autosomal dominant disorders: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD), BEST1 adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (AVMD), and autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC); and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). Onset is usually in the first decade (except AVMD in which onset is age 30 to 50 years). Slow visual deterioration is the usual course. Choroidal neovascularization can occur in rare cases. ADVIRC is also associated with panophthalmic involvement including nanophthalmos, microcornea, hyperopia, and narrow anterior chamber angle with angle closure glaucoma.
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Nanophthalmos 4
MedGen UID:
863285
Concept ID:
C4014848
Disease or Syndrome
Nanophthalmos is characterized by axial lengths of the ocular globe that are more than 2 SDs smaller than the normal range, or less than 20 mm in adults, with a cornea and lens that are typically of normal size, associated with severe hyperopia (farsightedness) of +7.00 diopters or more. The smaller dimensions of the anterior chamber depth cause the iridocorneal angle to be typically narrow. Abnormal thickening of the scleral connective tissue is often observed (summary by Awadalla et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nanophthalmos, see NNO1 (600165).
Cataract-growth hormone deficiency-sensory neuropathy-sensorineural hearing loss-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
863379
Concept ID:
C4014942
Disease or Syndrome
CAGSSS, which comprises cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with a highly variable phenotypic spectrum. Not all of these features are always present, and almost all the features may present at different times and/or become more apparent with age. The skeletal features are consistent with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) (summary by Vona et al., 2018). One family had a distinctive presentation with infantile-onset intractable seizures and cortical abnormalities reminiscent of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). The correlation between genotype and phenotype remains unclear, but since the IARS2 gene is involved in mitochondrial function, heterogeneous manifestations can be expected (Takezawa et al., 2018).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 29
MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (SETBP1-HD) is characterized by hypotonia and mild motor developmental delay; intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability; speech and language disorder; behavioral problems (most commonly attention/concentration deficits and hyperactivity, impulsivity), and refractive errors and strabismus. Typically children with SETBP1-HD whose intellect is in the normal or borderline range (IQ 80-90) were diagnosed following genetic testing for behavioral problems and/or severe speech and language disorders (respectively: the inability to produce sounds in words correctly, and deficits in the understanding and/or expression of words and sentences). To date, 47 individuals with SETBP1-HD have been reported.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 9
MedGen UID:
863690
Concept ID:
C4015253
Disease or Syndrome
Any mitochondrial complex III deficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the UQCC3 gene.
Joubert syndrome 24
MedGen UID:
905319
Concept ID:
C4084841
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Cerebellar atrophy, visual impairment, and psychomotor retardation;
MedGen UID:
905041
Concept ID:
C4225172
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 75
MedGen UID:
896387
Concept ID:
C4225250
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-75 (SPG75) is an autosomal recessive, slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and cognitive impairment in childhood (summary by Lossos et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Au-Kline syndrome
MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
Au-Kline syndrome is characterized by developmental delay and hypotonia with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and typical facial features that include long palpebral fissures, ptosis, shallow orbits, large and deeply grooved tongue, broad nose with a wide nasal bridge, and downturned mouth. There is frequently variable autonomic dysfunction (gastrointestinal dysmotility, high pain threshold, heat intolerance, recurrent fevers, abnormal sweating). Congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, palate abnormalities, and oligodontia are also reported in the majority of affected individuals. Additional complications can include craniosynostosis, feeding difficulty, vision issues, osteopenia, and other skeletal anomalies.
Intellectual disability-microcephaly-strabismus-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
897984
Concept ID:
C4225351
Disease or Syndrome
White-Sutton syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunction, developmental delays (particularly in speech and language acquisition), hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and other behavioral problems. Additional features commonly reported include seizures, refractive errors and strabismus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance (particularly sleep apnea), feeding and gastrointestinal problems, mild genital abnormalities in males, and urinary tract involvement in both males and females.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 99, syndromic, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
899839
Concept ID:
C4225416
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-99 (MRXS99F) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Affected females can have a wide range of additional congenital anomalies, including scoliosis, postaxial polydactyly, mild cardiac or urogenital anomalies, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities (summary by Reijnders et al., 2016).
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity
MedGen UID:
924883
Concept ID:
C4284592
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity (SINO) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by rapid growth in infancy, global developmental delay, spastic paraplegia, variable ophthalmologic defects, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Josifova et al., 2016).
Optic atrophy 11
MedGen UID:
934595
Concept ID:
C4310628
Disease or Syndrome
Optic atrophy-11 (OPA11) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, ataxia, optic atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on brain imaging. Laboratory studies are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Hartmann et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of optic atrophy, see OPA1 (165500).
Global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
934611
Concept ID:
C4310644
Disease or Syndrome
GDACCF is an intellectual disability syndrome apparent soon after birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and respiratory insufficiency followed by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability with poor speech. Brain imaging shows aplasia or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals have variable dysmorphic facial features, and some may have dysplastic, cystic kidneys or mild cardiac defects (summary by Stevens et al., 2016).
ZTTK syndrome
MedGen UID:
934663
Concept ID:
C4310696
Disease or Syndrome
ZTTK syndrome (ZTTKS) is a severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia, poor feeding, poor overall growth, and eye or visual abnormalities. Most patients also have musculoskeletal abnormalities, and some have congenital defects of the heart and urogenital system. Brain imaging usually shows developmental abnormalities such as gyral changes, cortical and/or cerebellar atrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Kim et al., 2016).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934674
Concept ID:
C4310707
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-20 (BBS20), a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with ciliary dysfunction, is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, truncal obesity, renal anomalies, and learning disability, as well as hypogonadism in males and genital abnormalities in females (Saida et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 16 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
934685
Concept ID:
C4310718
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
Bone marrow failure syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
934711
Concept ID:
C4310744
Disease or Syndrome
Bone marrow failure syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of pancytopenia in early childhood. Patients may have additional variable nonspecific somatic abnormalities, including poor growth, microcephaly, and skin anomalies (summary by Tummala et al., 2016). BMFS3 has a distinct phenotype and may include features that overlap with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS1; 260400), such as pancreatic insufficiency and short stature, and with dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., DKCA1, 127550), such as dental and hair abnormalities and shortened telomeres. In addition, some patients may have joint and skeletal abnormalities, impaired development, and retinal dysplasia (summary by D'Amours et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675).
Congenital stationary night blindness 1H
MedGen UID:
934725
Concept ID:
C4310758
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital stationary night blindness type 1H (CSNB1H) is an unusual and unique stationary retinal disorder with a dual anomaly in visual processing, characterized by a partial or severe degree of ON bipolar dysfunction and variably reduced cone sensitivity. Patients present with childhood-onset night blindness and middle age-onset photophobia, but have near-normal vision and do not exhibit nystagmus or high myopia (Vincent et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital stationary night blindness, see CSNB1A (310500).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 43
MedGen UID:
934738
Concept ID:
C4310771
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
HIVEP2-related intellectual disability is a neurological disorder characterized by moderate to severe developmental delay and intellectual disability and mild physical abnormalities (dysmorphic features). Early symptoms of the condition include weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and delayed development of motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking. After learning to walk, many affected individuals continue to have difficulty with this activity; their walking style (gait) is often unbalanced and wide-based. Speech is also delayed, and some people with this condition never learn to talk. Most people with HIVEP2-related intellectual disability also have unusual physical features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a broad nasal bridge, or fingers with tapered ends, although there is no characteristic pattern of such features among affected individuals. Many people with the condition exhibit neurodevelopmental disorders, such as hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, aggression, anxiety, and autism spectrum disorder, which is a group of developmental disorders characterized by impaired communication and social interaction.\n\nOther features of HIVEP2-related intellectual disability include mild abnormalities in the structure of the brain and an abnormally small brain and head size (microcephaly). Less common health problems include seizures; recurrent ear infections; and eye disorders, such as eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus), "lazy eye" (amblyopia), and farsightedness (hyperopia). Some people with HIVEP2-related intellectual disability have gastrointestinal problems, which can include backflow of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux) and constipation.
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Immunodeficiency 47
MedGen UID:
934786
Concept ID:
C4310819
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-47 (IMD47) is an X-linked recessive complex syndrome characterized by liver dysfunction, recurrent bacterial infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and defective glycosylation of serum proteins. Some patients also have neurologic abnormalities (summary by Jansen et al., 2016).
Autosomal dominant Kenny-Caffey syndrome
MedGen UID:
1373312
Concept ID:
C4316787
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, primary bone dysplasia characterized by severe growth retardation, short stature, cortical thickening and medullary stenosis of long bones, delayed closure of the anterior fontanelle, absent diploic space in the skull bones, prominent forehead, macrocephaly, dental anomalies, eye problems (hypermetropia and pseudopapilledema), and hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism, sometimes resulting in convulsions. Intelligence is normal.
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35
MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 1
MedGen UID:
1379805
Concept ID:
C4478716
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair is characterized by facial features similar to those observed in Noonan syndrome (163950), including hypertelorism, ptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, low-set posteriorly angulated ears, and overfolded pinnae. In addition, patients display short stature, frequently with growth hormone (GH; see 139250) deficiency; cognitive deficits; relative macrocephaly; small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation; hypernasal voice; cardiac defects, especially dysplasia of the mitral valve and septal defects; and ectodermal abnormalities, in which the most characteristic feature is the hair anomaly, including easily pluckable, sparse, thin, slow-growing hair (summary by Bertola et al., 2017). Reviews Komatsuzaki et al. (2010) reviewed the clinical manifestations of patients with Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome (218040), and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC; see 115150) compared to patients with mutations in the SHOC2 gene. They noted that although there is phenotypic overlap among the disorders, loose anagen/easily pluckable hair had not been reported in mutation-positive patients with Noonan, CFC, or Costello syndrome, and appeared to be a distinctive feature of SHOC2 mutation-positive patients. Genetic Heterogeneity of Noonan Syndrome-Like Disorder with Loose Anagen Hair NSLH2 (617506) is caused by mutation in the PPP1CB gene (600590) on chromosome 2p23.
Intellectual developmental disorder with gastrointestinal difficulties and high pain threshold
MedGen UID:
1385744
Concept ID:
C4479517
Disease or Syndrome
Jansen-de Vries syndrome (JDVS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have variable additional features, including feeding and gastrointestinal difficulties, high pain threshold and/or hypersensitivity to sound, and dysmorphic features, including mild facial abnormalities, strabismus, and small hands and feet (summary by Jansen et al., 2017).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 11
MedGen UID:
1627627
Concept ID:
C4540164
Congenital Abnormality
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 11 (PCH11) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired intellectual development and poor speech, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and pontocerebellar hypoplasia on brain imaging. Additional features are more variable (summary by Marin-Valencia et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 52
MedGen UID:
1615839
Concept ID:
C4540478
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxic gait, absent speech, and decreased cortical white matter
MedGen UID:
1621102
Concept ID:
C4540498
Disease or Syndrome
NDAGSCW is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have delayed and difficulty walking, intellectual disability, absent speech, and variable additional features, including hip dysplasia, tapering fingers, and seizures. Brain imaging shows decreased cortical white matter, often with decreased cerebellar white matter, thin corpus callosum, and thin brainstem (summary by Lamers et al., 2017).
Brain small vessel disease 1 with or without ocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
1647320
Concept ID:
C4551998
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 1
MedGen UID:
1646889
Concept ID:
C4552003
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 1 (EDSSPD1) is characterized by short stature, developmental anomalies of the forearm bones and elbow, and bowing of extremities, in addition to the classic stigmata of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, including joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, and poor wound healing. Significant developmental delay is not a consistent feature (Guo et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Spondylodysplastic Type See EDSSPD2 (615349), caused by mutation in the B3GALT6 gene (615291), and EDSSPD3 (612350), caused by mutation in the SLC39A13 gene (608735).
Alkuraya-Kucinskas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1634304
Concept ID:
C4693347
Disease or Syndrome
ALKKUCS is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arthrogryposis, brain abnormalities associated with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, and global developmental delay. Most affected individuals die in utero or soon after birth. Additional abnormalities may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and involvement of other organ systems, such as cardiac or renal. The few patients who survive have variable intellectual disability and may have seizures (summary by Gueneau et al., 2018).
Chromosome 1p35 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
1632676
Concept ID:
C4693669
Disease or Syndrome
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 15
MedGen UID:
1633653
Concept ID:
C4693733
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-15 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of motor and cognitive impairment in the first or second decade of life. Features include dystonia, ataxia, spasticity, and dysphagia. Most patients develop severe optic atrophy, and some have hearing loss. Brain imaging shows hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with thin corpus callosum. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Mendes et al., 2018) For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
PHIP-related behavioral problems-intellectual disability-obesity-dysmorphic features syndrome
MedGen UID:
1641154
Concept ID:
C4693860
Disease or Syndrome
Chung-Jansen syndrome (CHUJANS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and obesity. The severity of the phenotype and additional features are variable (summary by Jansen et al., 2018).
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 3
MedGen UID:
1642888
Concept ID:
C4693934
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE93) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, and impaired intellectual development. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: some patients may be nonverbal and nonambulatory with spastic quadriparesis and poor eye contact, whereas others have moderate intellectual disability (summary by Fassio et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1648281
Concept ID:
C4747954
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Intellectual developmental disorder with or without epilepsy or cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
1648354
Concept ID:
C4748041
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 66
MedGen UID:
1648486
Concept ID:
C4748070
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-66 (DEE66) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Most seizures have focal origins; secondary generalization is common. Seizure control is difficult at first, but may become easier with time. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features or ophthalmologic defects. Brain imaging often shows cerebellar dysgenesis. A subset of patients have extraneurologic manifestations, including hematologic and distal limb abnormalities (summary by Olson et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth
MedGen UID:
1648309
Concept ID:
C4748081
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth (NEDSG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly (Nahorski et al., 2018).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 42, early-onset, severe, with neurodevelopmental deficits
MedGen UID:
1648308
Concept ID:
C4748120
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648498
Concept ID:
C4748135
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, dysmorphic facies, and t-cell abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648327
Concept ID:
C4748152
Disease or Syndrome
Any BAFopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BCL11B gene.
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648495
Concept ID:
C4748701
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome (SNIBCPS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and delayed speech acquisition. Affected individuals tend to have expressive language deficits, with speech apraxia and dysarthria. Other features include macrocephaly and characteristic facial features, such as prominent forehead and hypertelorism, hypotonia, and joint laxity. The severity of the neurologic deficits and presence of nonneurologic features is variable (summary by Snijders Blok et al., 2018).
Trichohepatoneurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648322
Concept ID:
C4748898
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoneurodevelopmental syndrome is a complex multisystem disorder characterized by woolly or coarse hair, liver dysfunction, pruritus, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and severe global developmental delay (Morimoto et al., 2018).
Visual impairment and progressive phthisis bulbi
MedGen UID:
1648430
Concept ID:
C4748978
Disease or Syndrome
Visual impairment and progressive phthisis bulbi is characterized by poor vision at birth, with development of bilateral phthisis by adulthood (Ansar et al., 2018).
Severe feeding difficulties-failure to thrive-microcephaly due to ASXL3 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1656239
Concept ID:
C4750837
Disease or Syndrome
ASXL3-related disorder is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability, typically in the moderate to severe range, with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be issues with feeding. While dysmorphic facial features have been described, they are typically nonspecific. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia that can transition to spasticity resulting in unusual posture with flexion contractions of the elbows, wrists, and fingers. Other findings may include poor postnatal growth, strabismus, seizures, sleep disturbance, and dental anomalies.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10
MedGen UID:
1676575
Concept ID:
C5190575
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including brain atrophy and delayed myelination. Some patients have dysmorphic features and an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (summary by Karaca et al., 2014 and Schaffer et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
MedGen UID:
1675672
Concept ID:
C5193040
Disease or Syndrome
Polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Although all patients have polymicrogyria and other variable structural brain anomalies on imaging, only some show developmental delay and/or seizures. Similarly, only some patients have connective tissue defects that particularly affect the vascular system and can result in early death (summary by Vandervore et al., 2017).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 3, myogenic type
MedGen UID:
1680655
Concept ID:
C5193121
Disease or Syndrome
Myogenic-type arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-3 (AMC3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by decreased fetal movements, hypotonia, variable skeletal defects, including clubfoot and scoliosis, and delayed motor milestones with difficulty walking (summary by Baumann et al., 2017).
Hypotonia, hypoventilation, impaired intellectual development, dysautonomia, epilepsy, and eye abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1672905
Concept ID:
C5193124
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotonia, hypoventilation, impaired intellectual development, dysautonomia, epilepsy, and eye abnormalities (HIDEA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by global developmental delay, poor or absent speech, hypotonia, variable ocular movement and visual abnormalities, and respiratory difficulties, including hypoventilation, and sleep apnea. Patients may have significant breathing problems during respiratory infections that may lead to early death (summary by Rahikkala et al., 2019).
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 21
MedGen UID:
1684749
Concept ID:
C5231419
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with brain anomalies, seizures, and scoliosis (NEDBSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired psychomotor development, hypotonia, seizures, and structural brain anomalies, including thin corpus callosum and cerebellar atrophy. Other features include scoliosis, dysmorphic facies, and visual impairment. Affected individuals are usually unable to walk or speak and may require tube feeding in severe cases. The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis (summary by Knaus et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Noonan syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1684730
Concept ID:
C5231432
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Intellectual developmental disorder with impaired language and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684804
Concept ID:
C5231444
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with impaired language and dysmorphic facies (IDDILF) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired language development, and dysmorphic facial features, including hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, and abnormal palpebral fissures. Some patients may have additional findings, including feeding difficulties, mild cardiac or genitourinary defects, and distal skeletal anomalies (summary by Balak et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684848
Concept ID:
C5231456
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature and microcephaly with genital anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684791
Concept ID:
C5231467
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature and microcephaly with genital anomalies (SSMGA) is characterized by severe growth failure, with extreme short stature, microcephaly, and delayed and dissociated bone age. Global psychomotor developmental delay may be present, although the brain appears structurally normal. Pubertal delay and genital anomalies have been observed (Hung et al., 2017).
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
1715791
Concept ID:
C5393303
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWFFR) is an X-linked dominant syndromic form of neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. Affected individuals have decreased fetal movements causing the development of contractures in utero and resulting in AMC and diffuse contractures involving the large and small joints apparent at birth. There is global developmental delay with difficulty walking or inability to walk, hypotonia that often evolves to spasticity, and variably impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language. Dysmorphic facial features, including hypotonic facies, ptosis, microretrognathia, and small mouth, are seen in most patients. Seizures are uncommon; some patients have evidence of a peripheral motor neuropathy with distal muscle weakness. The level of X inactivation in lymphocytes and fibroblasts is often skewed, but may not predict the severity of the phenotype. Most cases occur sporadically; rare X-linked dominant inheritance has been reported in families (summary by Frints et al., 2019).
Genitourinary and/or brain malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
1720440
Concept ID:
C5394158
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with PPP1R12A-related urogenital and/or brain malformation syndrome (UBMS) usually present with multiple congenital anomalies, commonly including brain and/or urogenital malformations. The brain abnormalities are variable, with the most severe belonging to the holoprosencephaly spectrum and associated with moderate-to-profound intellectual disability, seizures, and feeding difficulties. In individuals without brain involvement, variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability may be present, although normal intelligence has been seen in a minority of affected individuals. Eye abnormalities and skeletal issues (kyphoscoliosis, joint contractures) can also be present in individuals of either sex. Regardless of the presence of a brain malformation, affected individuals with a 46,XY chromosome complement may have a disorder of sex development (DSD) with gonadal abnormalities (dysgenetic gonads or streak gonads). Individuals with a 46,XX chromosome complement may have varying degrees of virilization (clitoral hypertrophy, posterior labial fusion, urogenital sinus).
Skeletal dysplasia, mild, with joint laxity and advanced bone age
MedGen UID:
1711043
Concept ID:
C5394341
Disease or Syndrome
CSGALNACT1 deficiency is characterized by mild skeletal dysplasia, joint hypermobility, and advanced bone age. Shortness of long bones is evident prenatally, and patients exhibit short stature and relative macrocephaly. Advanced carpotarsal bone age and monkey-wrench appearance of the femur observed in infancy may disappear with age (Mizumoto et al., 2020).
Nizon-Isidor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1715748
Concept ID:
C5394350
Disease or Syndrome
Nizon-Isidor syndrome (NIZIDS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mildly delayed walking, poor speech and language, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some patients may have additional features, including nonspecific facial dysmorphism, gastrointestinal difficulties, distal hand anomalies, and thin corpus callosum on brain imaging (summary by Nizon et al., 2019).
Suleiman-El-Hattab syndrome
MedGen UID:
1738652
Concept ID:
C5436458
Disease or Syndrome
Suleiman-El-Hattab syndrome (SULEHS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem developmental disorder characterized by hypotonia and feeding difficulties soon after birth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor expressive speech, and a general happy demeanor. There is a distinctive facial appearance with microcephaly, thick arched eyebrows with synophrys, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, low-set ears, broad nasal bridge, and thin upper lip. Additional more variable features include recurrent respiratory infections, cardiovascular malformations, cryptorchidism, seizures, and distal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Suleiman et al., 2019).
Li-Ghorbani-Weisz-Hubshman syndrome
MedGen UID:
1763263
Concept ID:
C5436525
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Ghorbani-Weisz-Hubshman syndrome (LIGOWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with language delay, and mild dysmorphic features. Affected individuals may have behavioral abnormalities and difficulties with numbers and understanding certain concepts, such as money. Some patients have seizures. Brain imaging often shows enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and gray matter nodular heterotopia, suggesting abnormal cortical brain development. More variable additional features may be present (summary by Li et al., 2020).
Deeah syndrome
MedGen UID:
1756624
Concept ID:
C5436579
Disease or Syndrome
DEEAH syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with onset in early infancy. Affected individuals usually present in the perinatal period with respiratory insufficiency, apneic episodes, and generalized hypotonia. The patients have failure to thrive and severely impaired global development with poor acquisition of motor, cognitive, and language skills. Other common features include endocrine, pancreatic exocrine, and autonomic dysfunction, as well as hematologic disturbances, mainly low hemoglobin. Patients also have dysmorphic and myopathic facial features. Additional more variable features include seizures, undescended testes, and distal skeletal anomalies. Death in early childhood may occur (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1777442
Concept ID:
C5436821
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities (NEDFASB) is a syndromic disorder with multisystemic involvement. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent language, behavioral abnormalities, seizures, and sleep disturbances. Craniofacial dysmorphisms, while variable, include round face, prognathism, depressed nasal bridge, and cleft or high-arched palate. Brain imaging shows dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Additional features may include genitourinary tract anomalies, hearing loss, and mild distal skeletal defects (summary by Humbert et al., 2020).
Chromosome 13q33-q34 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
1744234
Concept ID:
C5436890
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 13q33-q34 deletion syndrome is associated with developmental delay and/or impaired intellectual development, facial dysmorphism, and an increased risk for epilepsy, cardiac defects and additional anatomic anomalies (summary by Sagi-Dain et al., 2019).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1782096
Concept ID:
C5444111
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-12 (CSS12) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autism or hyperactivity. Affected individuals may have hypotonia and poor feeding in infancy. There are variable dysmorphic facial features, although most patients do not have the classic hypoplastic fifth digit/nail abnormalities that are often observed in other forms of CSS (Barish et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1788942
Concept ID:
C5542341
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade. Pathogenetically, the disorder results from disrupted gene expression and signaling during embryogenesis, thus affecting multiple systems (summary by Tripolszki et al., 2021 and Beck et al., 2021). Beck et al. (2021) referred to the disorder as LINKED syndrome (LINKage-specific deubiquitylation deficiency-induced Embryonic Defects).
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like
MedGen UID:
1781649
Concept ID:
C5543202
Disease or Syndrome
Den Hoed-de Boer-Voisin syndrome (DHDBV) is characterized by global developmental delay with moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor skills. Although the severity of the disorder varies, many patients are nonverbal and have hypotonia with inability to sit or walk. Early-onset epilepsy is common and may be refractory to treatment, leading to epileptic encephalopathy and further interruption of developmental progress. Most patients have feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features, as well as significant dental anomalies resembling amelogenesis imperfecta. The phenotype is reminiscent of Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS; 226750). More variable features of DHDBV include visual defects, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific involvement of other organ systems (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 22
MedGen UID:
1787833
Concept ID:
C5543406
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-22 (HLD22) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with mildly impaired intellectual development and marked motor impairment with limited or no ability to walk and dysarthria. Affected individuals have limb spasticity with pyramidal signs, as well as nystagmus, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. Brain imaging shows hypomyelination and a delay in myelination, although serial imaging shows some progress in both the central and peripheral white matter regions (Riedhammer et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Neuroocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
1790414
Concept ID:
C5551362
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroocular syndrome (NOC) encompasses a broad spectrum of overlapping anomalies, with developmental delay or impaired intellectual development as a consistent finding. Eye abnormalities show marked variability in the type and severity of defects, and include anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and coloboma. Other common systemic features include congenital heart and kidney defects, hypotonia, failure to thrive, and microcephaly (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2021).
Joubert syndrome 38
MedGen UID:
1794168
Concept ID:
C5561958
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-38 (JBTS38) is characterized by hypotonia, global developmental delay, oculomotor apraxia, and breathing abnormalities, with a 'molar tooth sign' on brain MRI. Patients also exhibit pituitary abnormalities with growth hormone deficiency (Stephen et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794187
Concept ID:
C5561977
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities (NEDHYBA) is characterized by impaired development of motor skills, cognitive function, and speech acquisition beginning in infancy or early childhood. Some affected individuals may have feeding difficulties, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including corpus callosum defects, cerebellar defects, and decreased white matter volume. There is significant phenotypic variability (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental-craniofacial syndrome with variable renal and cardiac abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794194
Concept ID:
C5561984
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental-craniofacial syndrome with variable renal and cardiac abnormalities (NECRC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic craniofacial features associated with mild developmental delay, mildly impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients have congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and/or congenital cardiac defects, including septal defects (Connaughton et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired speech, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794207
Concept ID:
C5561997
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired speech, and dysmorphic facies (IDDHISD) is characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, hypotonia, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. Some affected individuals have seizures, and a few have involvement of other organ systems (Goodman et al., 2021).
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794214
Concept ID:
C5562004
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities (DDIB) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a nonspecific phenotype of developmental delay. Additional features may include neonatal feeding problems, hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features (Dulovic-Mahlow et al., 2019; van Woerden et al., 2021).
Developmental delay, hypotonia, musculoskeletal defects, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794222
Concept ID:
C5562012
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, hypotonia, musculoskeletal defects, and behavioral abnormalities (DEHMBA) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by these features. Affected individuals also have nonspecific and variable dysmorphic facial features that do not constitute a recognizable gestalt. Although the disorder is caused by truncating mutations in the SRCAP gene as is FLHS, the DEHMBA phenotype is clinically distinguishable from FLHS by the lack of short stature, brachydactyly, and delayed bone age, as well as absence of a specific facial appearance. There are some overlapping features between the 2 disorders, mainly impaired intellectual development and speech delay (summary by Rots et al., 2021).
Developmental delay with variable neurologic and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794270
Concept ID:
C5562060
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable neurologic and brain abnormalities (DENBA) is characterized most often by motor and speech delay apparent from early childhood. Most patients have delayed walking and variably impaired intellectual development. Additional neurologic features may include seizures, spasticity, and ocular abnormalities. Brain imaging often shows thin corpus callosum and may show white matter atrophy, myelination abnormalities, or enlarged ventricles. The severity of the disorder and clinical manifestations are highly variable (summary by Malhotra et al., 2021).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 40
MedGen UID:
1810363
Concept ID:
C5676894
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired language, and dysmorphic features (NEDHILD) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired intellectual development, speech and language impairment, microcephaly, seizures, hypotonia, ophthalmologic issues, constipation/gastroesophageal reflux, and behavioral problems, including autism and sleep disturbances (summary by Garrity et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 68
MedGen UID:
1802176
Concept ID:
C5677008
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-68 (MRD68) is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, microcephaly, poor growth, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic features. Some patients may have autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Cif et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with gait disturbance, dysmorphic facies, and behavioral abnormalities, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1823953
Concept ID:
C5774179
Disease or Syndrome
Hijazi-Reis syndrome (HIJRS) is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, motor delay, impaired intellectual development, and speech and language delay. Affected individuals also have dysmorphic facial features, gastrointestinal issues, and ocular anomalies. Rare patients have seizures (Hijazi et al., 2022).
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders
MedGen UID:
1823997
Concept ID:
C5774224
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders (DEDBANP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild global developmental delay and normal or variably impaired intellectual development. Most individuals have behavioral or neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and executive functioning deficits. Additional features may include speech delay, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, sleep disturbances, and seizures (Vitobello et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824004
Concept ID:
C5774231
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities (NEDDFSB) is a multisystemic developmental disorder characterized by feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and global developmental delay with moderate to severely impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facial features and skeletal defects, mainly affecting the distal extremities. More variable additional findings include hypotonia, seizures, and ocular defects. Brain imaging tends to show structural defects of the corpus callosum and cerebellar hypoplasia (Duijkers et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824058
Concept ID:
C5774285
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities (NEDHFS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facies, including large abnormally shaped ears and strabismus, hypotonia, and dry skin with keratosis pilaris. Some patients develop seizures. Metabolic studies are unremarkable (Morava et al., 2021).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined or isolated, 8
MedGen UID:
1841011
Concept ID:
C5830375
Disease or Syndrome
Combined pituitary hormone deficiency-8 (CPHD8) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by deficiency of one or more of the pituitary hormones. Affected individuals have short stature due to growth hormone (GH; 139250) deficiency with variable deficiencies of other pituitary hormones, including TSH (see 188540), ACTH, and LH/FSH (see 118850). Posterior pituitary deficiency leading to central diabetes insipidus is rare (Bashamboo et al., 2017). Many patients are diagnosed with 'pituitary stalk interruption syndrome' (PSIS), which is characterized by a thin or absent pituitary stalk, absent or ectopic posterior pituitary, and hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary demonstrated on brain imaging, although this classic triad may be incomplete. Brauner et al. (2020) noted the complex phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of PSIS, and concluded that it is a feature of genetic disorders or syndromes rather than a specific clinical entity. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined pituitary hormone deficiency, see CPHD1 (613038).
Neurooculorenal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1841013
Concept ID:
C5830377
Disease or Syndrome
Neurooculorenal syndrome (NORS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder with highly variable clinical manifestations involving several organ systems. Some affected individuals present in utero with renal agenesis and structural brain abnormalities incompatible with life, whereas others present in infancy with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and dysmorphic facial features that may be associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Additional more variable features may include ocular anomalies, most commonly strabismus, congenital heart defects, and pituitary hormone deficiency. Brain imaging usually shows structural midline defects, including dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and hindbrain. There is variation in the severity, manifestations, and expressivity of the phenotype, even within families (Rasmussen et al., 2018; Munch et al., 2022).
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 12
MedGen UID:
1841043
Concept ID:
C5830407
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-12 (CDCBM12) is an autosomal recessive disorder of developmental neuronal migration characterized by severe to profound neurodevelopmental delay with absent speech, central hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, cortical visual impairment, and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Affected individuals usually have feeding difficulties and show minimal developmental progress of motor or cognitive skills. Most have microcephaly and develop early-onset refractory seizures. Brain imaging shows cortical abnormalities, such as lissencephaly and pachygyria, as well as other brain malformations, including thin or absent corpus callosum, dysplastic basal ganglia, and mild cerebellar hypoplasia. Due to the function of CAMSAP1 in microtubule stability and maintenance, this disorder can be classified as a 'tubulinopathy' (Khalaf-Nazzal et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 72
MedGen UID:
1841248
Concept ID:
C5830612
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-72 (MRD72) is characterized by developmental delay, predominant speech delay, autistic or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder features, overfriendliness, generalized hypotonia, overweight/obesity, and dysmorphic features (Cuinat et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Chen X, Zou C
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2024 Apr;12(4):e2433. doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2433. PMID: 38591167Free PMC Article
Sefi-Yurdakul N
Int Ophthalmol 2023 Feb;43(2):567-574. Epub 2022 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s10792-022-02458-4. PMID: 35994189
Jain NS, Ruan CW, Dhanji SR, Symes RJ
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):283-289. Epub 2021 Feb 19 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00790-w. PMID: 33604881

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Tenorio-Castano J, Gómez ÁS, Coronado M, Rodríguez-Martín P, Parra A, Pascual P, Cazalla M, Gallego N, Arias P, Morales AV, Nevado J, Lapunzina P
Clin Genet 2023 Dec;104(6):637-647. Epub 2023 Sep 13 doi: 10.1111/cge.14423. PMID: 37702321
Li M, Huang C, Yang W, Lee PMY, Liu Y, Lin R, Qin G, Yu Y, Zhou X, Li J
JAMA Netw Open 2023 Apr 3;6(4):e238694. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.8694. PMID: 37071425Free PMC Article
Bellato A, Perna J, Ganapathy PS, Solmi M, Zampieri A, Cortese S, Faraone SV
Mol Psychiatry 2023 Jan;28(1):410-422. Epub 2022 Aug 5 doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01699-0. PMID: 35931758Free PMC Article
Yulek F, Yuzbasioglu S, Eyidogan D
Arq Bras Oftalmol 2021 Mar-Apr;84(2):128-132. doi: 10.5935/0004-2749.20210020. PMID: 33567009
Niyaz L, Yücel OE, Arıtürk N, Terzi O
Strabismus 2017 Jun;25(2):56-59. Epub 2017 May 2 doi: 10.1080/09273972.2017.1318152. PMID: 28463529

Diagnosis

Tenorio-Castano J, Gómez ÁS, Coronado M, Rodríguez-Martín P, Parra A, Pascual P, Cazalla M, Gallego N, Arias P, Morales AV, Nevado J, Lapunzina P
Clin Genet 2023 Dec;104(6):637-647. Epub 2023 Sep 13 doi: 10.1111/cge.14423. PMID: 37702321
Li M, Huang C, Yang W, Lee PMY, Liu Y, Lin R, Qin G, Yu Y, Zhou X, Li J
JAMA Netw Open 2023 Apr 3;6(4):e238694. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.8694. PMID: 37071425Free PMC Article
Anajekwu CC, Kizor-Akaraiwe N
Niger J Clin Pract 2022 Mar;25(3):361-367. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_1603_21. PMID: 35295061
Yulek F, Yuzbasioglu S, Eyidogan D
Arq Bras Oftalmol 2021 Mar-Apr;84(2):128-132. doi: 10.5935/0004-2749.20210020. PMID: 33567009
Elagouz M, Stanescu-Segall D, Jackson TL
Surv Ophthalmol 2010 Mar-Apr;55(2):134-45. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2009.05.003. PMID: 20159229

Therapy

Bellato A, Perna J, Ganapathy PS, Solmi M, Zampieri A, Cortese S, Faraone SV
Mol Psychiatry 2023 Jan;28(1):410-422. Epub 2022 Aug 5 doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01699-0. PMID: 35931758Free PMC Article
Jain NS, Ruan CW, Dhanji SR, Symes RJ
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):283-289. Epub 2021 Feb 19 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00790-w. PMID: 33604881
Dunn HP, Kim LN, Popat H, Walker K, Lock J, Smith J
J Paediatr Child Health 2020 Jun;56(6):884-888. Epub 2020 Jan 9 doi: 10.1111/jpc.14766. PMID: 31916341
Ho JD, Sheu JJ, Kao YW, Shia BC, Lin HC
Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2020 Jun;27(3):194-199. Epub 2019 Dec 26 doi: 10.1080/09286586.2019.1704795. PMID: 31878821
Biscevic A, Pidro A, Pjano MA, Grisevic S, Ziga N, Bohac M
Med Arch 2019 Jun;73(3):191-194. doi: 10.5455/medarh.2019.73.191-194. PMID: 31402804Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Yulek F, Yuzbasioglu S, Eyidogan D
Arq Bras Oftalmol 2021 Mar-Apr;84(2):128-132. doi: 10.5935/0004-2749.20210020. PMID: 33567009
Riedhammer KM, Stockler S, Ploski R, Wenzel M, Adis-Dutschmann B, Ahting U, Alhaddad B, Blaschek A, Haack TB, Kopajtich R, Lee J, Murcia Pienkowski V, Pollak A, Szymanska K, Tarailo-Graovac M, van der Lee R, van Karnebeek CD, Meitinger T, Krägeloh-Mann I, Vill K
Brain 2021 Mar 3;144(2):411-419. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa410. PMID: 33313762Free PMC Article
Nisted I, Maagaard ML, Welinder L
Acta Ophthalmol 2019 Jun;97(4):394-400. Epub 2018 Oct 18 doi: 10.1111/aos.13957. PMID: 30338671
Elagouz M, Stanescu-Segall D, Jackson TL
Surv Ophthalmol 2010 Mar-Apr;55(2):134-45. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2009.05.003. PMID: 20159229
Allen KM, Meyers SM, Zegarra H
Retina 1988;8(2):145-7. doi: 10.1097/00006982-198808020-00012. PMID: 3047825

Clinical prediction guides

Sarıgül Sezenöz A, Oto S, Akça Bayar S, Akkoyun İ, Yılmaz G, Yavuz Çolak M
Int Ophthalmol 2023 Aug;43(8):2947-2956. Epub 2023 Apr 20 doi: 10.1007/s10792-023-02701-6. PMID: 37076654
Li M, Huang C, Yang W, Lee PMY, Liu Y, Lin R, Qin G, Yu Y, Zhou X, Li J
JAMA Netw Open 2023 Apr 3;6(4):e238694. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.8694. PMID: 37071425Free PMC Article
Bellato A, Perna J, Ganapathy PS, Solmi M, Zampieri A, Cortese S, Faraone SV
Mol Psychiatry 2023 Jan;28(1):410-422. Epub 2022 Aug 5 doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01699-0. PMID: 35931758Free PMC Article
Geremias A, Garcia NP, Moreira CAS, Barboza GNC, Barboza MNC
Arq Bras Oftalmol 2023 May-Jun;86(3):232-239. doi: 10.5935/0004-2749.20230030. PMID: 35417522
Riedhammer KM, Stockler S, Ploski R, Wenzel M, Adis-Dutschmann B, Ahting U, Alhaddad B, Blaschek A, Haack TB, Kopajtich R, Lee J, Murcia Pienkowski V, Pollak A, Szymanska K, Tarailo-Graovac M, van der Lee R, van Karnebeek CD, Meitinger T, Krägeloh-Mann I, Vill K
Brain 2021 Mar 3;144(2):411-419. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa410. PMID: 33313762Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Bist J, Kandel H, Paudel N, Kaphle D, Gyawali R, Marasini S, Adhikary R, Paudel P
Clin Exp Optom 2023 Mar;106(2):119-132. Epub 2023 Jan 10 doi: 10.1080/08164622.2022.2153582. PMID: 36628479
Bellato A, Perna J, Ganapathy PS, Solmi M, Zampieri A, Cortese S, Faraone SV
Mol Psychiatry 2023 Jan;28(1):410-422. Epub 2022 Aug 5 doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01699-0. PMID: 35931758Free PMC Article
Merdler-Rabinowicz R, Prat D, Pode-Shakked B, Abel G, Chorin O, Somech R, Raas-Rothschild A
Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jun;64(6):104210. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104210. PMID: 33794347
Settas G, Settas C, Minos E, Yeung IY
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 Jun 13;2012(6):CD007112. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007112.pub3. PMID: 22696365Free PMC Article
Settas G, Settas C, Minos E, Yeung IY
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD007112. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007112.pub2. PMID: 19370672

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