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Lentigo maligna melanoma(LMM)

MedGen UID:
439437
Concept ID:
C2739810
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Hutchison melanotic freckle; LMM
SNOMED CT: Malignant melanoma in Hutchinson melanotic freckle (44474009); LMM - Lentigo maligna melanoma (302837001); Lentigo maligna melanoma (302837001); Malignant melanoma in Hutchinson's melanotic freckle (44474009); Lentigo maligna melanoma (44474009)
 
HPO: HP:0012059
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0023619

Definition

A subtype of melanoma in situ that typically develops on sun-damaged skin. The lesion is typically a large, irregularly pigmented macule that has developed from an ordinary lentigo (a small pigmented spot on the skin with a clearly-defined edge). Change to a malignant lentigo typically takes place over 20 years or more, and many patients accept the change as a consequence of aging. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Noonan syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
462320
Concept ID:
C3150970
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Neumann I, Patalay R, Kaushik M, Timlin H, Daniel C
Eye (Lond) 2023 Feb;37(3):408-414. Epub 2022 Jul 14 doi: 10.1038/s41433-022-02165-5. PMID: 35835989Free PMC Article
Robinson M, Primiero C, Guitera P, Hong A, Scolyer RA, Stretch JR, Strutton G, Thompson JF, Soyer HP
Dermatology 2020;236(2):111-116. Epub 2019 Oct 22 doi: 10.1159/000502470. PMID: 31639788
Gaspar ZS, Dawber RP
Australas J Dermatol 1997 Feb;38(1):1-6; quiz 7-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-0960.1997.tb01089.x. PMID: 9046644

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Elshot YS, Tio DCKS, van Haersma-de With ASE, Ouwerkerk W, Zupan-Kajcovski B, Crijns MB, Limpens CEJM, Klop WMC, Bekkenk MW, Balm AJM, de Rie MA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2023 May;37(5):871-883. Epub 2023 Jan 31 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18880. PMID: 36652277
Faraj Y, Beltrani VP
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2022 May;34(2):213-220. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2021.11.007. PMID: 35491078
Hendrickx A, Cozzio A, Plasswilm L, Panje CM
Radiat Oncol 2020 Jul 14;15(1):174. doi: 10.1186/s13014-020-01615-2. PMID: 32664998Free PMC Article
Mancera N, Smalley KSM, Margo CE
Surv Ophthalmol 2019 May-Jun;64(3):272-288. Epub 2018 Dec 20 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2018.12.002. PMID: 30578807
Samaniego E, Redondo P
Actas Dermosifiliogr 2013 Nov;104(9):757-75. Epub 2012 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ad.2012.05.006. PMID: 22857817

Diagnosis

Bunnell AM, Nedrud SM, Fernandes RP
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2022 May;34(2):221-234. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2021.12.001. PMID: 35491079
Sina N, Saeed-Kamil Z, Ghazarian D
J Clin Pathol 2021 Jan;74(1):7-9. Epub 2020 Oct 13 doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2020-207051. PMID: 33051287
DeWane ME, Kelsey A, Oliviero M, Rabinovitz H, Grant-Kels JM
J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Sep;81(3):823-833. Epub 2019 Mar 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2019.03.066. PMID: 30930085
Samaniego E, Redondo P
Actas Dermosifiliogr 2013 Nov;104(9):757-75. Epub 2012 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ad.2012.05.006. PMID: 22857817
Situm M, Bolanca Z, Buljan M
Coll Antropol 2010 Apr;34 Suppl 2:299-301. PMID: 21305747

Therapy

Elshot YS, Tio DCKS, van Haersma-de With ASE, Ouwerkerk W, Zupan-Kajcovski B, Crijns MB, Limpens CEJM, Klop WMC, Bekkenk MW, Balm AJM, de Rie MA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2023 May;37(5):871-883. Epub 2023 Jan 31 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18880. PMID: 36652277
Neumann I, Patalay R, Kaushik M, Timlin H, Daniel C
Eye (Lond) 2023 Feb;37(3):408-414. Epub 2022 Jul 14 doi: 10.1038/s41433-022-02165-5. PMID: 35835989Free PMC Article
DeWane ME, Kelsey A, Oliviero M, Rabinovitz H, Grant-Kels JM
J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Sep;81(3):823-833. Epub 2019 Mar 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2019.03.066. PMID: 30930085
Tio D, van der Woude J, Prinsen CAC, Jansma EP, Hoekzema R, van Montfrans C
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Apr;31(4):616-624. Epub 2017 Jan 23 doi: 10.1111/jdv.14085. PMID: 27987308
Samaniego E, Redondo P
Actas Dermosifiliogr 2013 Nov;104(9):757-75. Epub 2012 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ad.2012.05.006. PMID: 22857817

Prognosis

Bunnell AM, Nedrud SM, Fernandes RP
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2022 May;34(2):221-234. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2021.12.001. PMID: 35491079
Sina N, Saeed-Kamil Z, Ghazarian D
J Clin Pathol 2021 Jan;74(1):7-9. Epub 2020 Oct 13 doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2020-207051. PMID: 33051287
Chapireau D, Bashir SJ, Fan K
Prim Dent J 2020 Mar;9(1):37-42. doi: 10.1177/2050168420911028. PMID: 32519610
Mancera N, Smalley KSM, Margo CE
Surv Ophthalmol 2019 May-Jun;64(3):272-288. Epub 2018 Dec 20 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2018.12.002. PMID: 30578807
Situm M, Bolanca Z, Buljan M
Coll Antropol 2010 Apr;34 Suppl 2:299-301. PMID: 21305747

Clinical prediction guides

Elshot YS, Tio DCKS, van Haersma-de With ASE, Ouwerkerk W, Zupan-Kajcovski B, Crijns MB, Limpens CEJM, Klop WMC, Bekkenk MW, Balm AJM, de Rie MA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2023 May;37(5):871-883. Epub 2023 Jan 31 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18880. PMID: 36652277
Pizzichetta MA, Polesel J, Perrot JL, Rubegni P, Fiorani D, Rizzo A, Stanganelli I, Magi S, Mazzoni L, Medri M, Dominici MM, Toffolutti F, Farnetani F, Lippolis N, Pedroni G, Ciardo S, Condorelli AG, Conforti C, Pellacani G, Zalaudek I, Puglisi F, Cinotti E; Italian Melanoma Intergroup (IMI), Società Italiana di Dermatologia Chirurgica, Oncologica, Correttiva ed Estetica (SIDCO), and Groupe d'imagerie cutanée non invasive de la Société Française de Dermatologie
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2023 Feb;37(2):303-310. Epub 2022 Oct 17 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18636. PMID: 36196781Free PMC Article
Bunnell AM, Nedrud SM, Fernandes RP
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2022 May;34(2):221-234. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2021.12.001. PMID: 35491079
Mancera N, Smalley KSM, Margo CE
Surv Ophthalmol 2019 May-Jun;64(3):272-288. Epub 2018 Dec 20 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2018.12.002. PMID: 30578807
Martínez-Leboráns L, Garcías-Ladaria J, Oliver-Martínez V, Alegre de Miquel V
Actas Dermosifiliogr 2016 Oct;107(8):e57-63. Epub 2016 May 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ad.2015.10.018. PMID: 27180003

Recent systematic reviews

Elshot YS, Tio DCKS, van Haersma-de With ASE, Ouwerkerk W, Zupan-Kajcovski B, Crijns MB, Limpens CEJM, Klop WMC, Bekkenk MW, Balm AJM, de Rie MA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2023 May;37(5):871-883. Epub 2023 Jan 31 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18880. PMID: 36652277
Shao SC, Lai CC, Chen YH, Lai EC, Hung MJ, Chi CC
BMC Med 2022 Jul 7;20(1):228. doi: 10.1186/s12916-022-02419-9. PMID: 35794547Free PMC Article
Hendrickx A, Cozzio A, Plasswilm L, Panje CM
Radiat Oncol 2020 Jul 14;15(1):174. doi: 10.1186/s13014-020-01615-2. PMID: 32664998Free PMC Article
Tio D, van der Woude J, Prinsen CAC, Jansma EP, Hoekzema R, van Montfrans C
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Apr;31(4):616-624. Epub 2017 Jan 23 doi: 10.1111/jdv.14085. PMID: 27987308
Read T, Noonan C, David M, Wagels M, Foote M, Schaider H, Soyer HP, Smithers BM
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 May;30(5):748-53. Epub 2015 Aug 24 doi: 10.1111/jdv.13252. PMID: 26299846

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