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Edema

MedGen UID:
4451
Concept ID:
C0013604
Pathologic Function
Synonyms: Dropsy; Hydrops
SNOMED CT: Edematous (79654002); Edema - lesion (79654002); Edema (79654002); Hydrops (20741006); Dropsy (20741006); Interstitial edema (267038008); Edema (267038008)
 
HPO: HP:0000969

Definition

An abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin, or in one or more cavities of the body. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Glycogen storage disease, type IV
MedGen UID:
6642
Concept ID:
C0017923
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical manifestations of glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) discussed in this entry span a continuum of different subtypes with variable ages of onset, severity, and clinical features. Clinical findings vary extensively both within and between families. The fatal perinatal neuromuscular subtype presents in utero with fetal akinesia deformation sequence, including decreased fetal movements, polyhydramnios, and fetal hydrops. Death usually occurs in the neonatal period. The congenital neuromuscular subtype presents in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, respiratory distress, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Death usually occurs in early infancy. Infants with the classic (progressive) hepatic subtype may appear normal at birth, but rapidly develop failure to thrive; hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and progressive liver cirrhosis; hypotonia; and cardiomyopathy. Without liver transplantation, death from liver failure usually occurs by age five years. Children with the non-progressive hepatic subtype tend to present with hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, myopathy, and hypotonia; however, they are likely to survive without progression of the liver disease and may not show cardiac, skeletal muscle, or neurologic involvement. The childhood neuromuscular subtype is rare and the course is variable, ranging from onset in the second decade with a mild disease course to a more severe, progressive course resulting in death in the third decade.
Wilson disease
MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body.
Cystoid macular edema
MedGen UID:
7435
Concept ID:
C0024440
Disease or Syndrome
Dominant cystoid macular dystrophy (DCMD) is a progressive retinal dystrophy characterized primarily by early-onset cystoid fluid collections in the neuroretina (summary by Saksens et al., 2015).
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Protein-losing enteropathy
MedGen UID:
19522
Concept ID:
C0033680
Disease or Syndrome
Complement hyperactivation, angiopathic thrombosis, and protein-losing enteropathy (CHAPLE) is characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea, primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, hypoproteinemic edema, and malabsorption. Some patients also exhibit bowel inflammation, recurrent infections associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, and/or angiopathic thromboembolic disease. Patient T lymphocytes show increased complement activation, causing surface deposition of complement and generating soluble C5a (Ozen et al., 2017).
Achondrogenesis type II
MedGen UID:
66315
Concept ID:
C0220685
Congenital Abnormality
Achondrogenesis type II (ACG2) is characterized by severe micromelic dwarfism with small chest and prominent abdomen, incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies, and disorganization of the costochondral junction. ACG2 is an autosomal dominant trait occurring mostly as new mutations. However, somatic and germline mosaicism have been reported (summary by Comstock et al., 2010).
Pituitary dependent hypercortisolism
MedGen UID:
66381
Concept ID:
C0221406
Disease or Syndrome
AIP familial isolated pituitary adenoma (AIP-FIPA) is defined as the presence of an AIP germline pathogenic variant in an individual with a pituitary adenoma (regardless of family history). The most commonly occurring pituitary adenomas in this disorder are growth hormone-secreting adenomas (somatotropinoma), followed by prolactin-secreting adenomas (prolactinoma), growth hormone and prolactin co-secreting adenomas (somatomammotropinoma), and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). Rarely TSH-secreting adenomas (thyrotropinomas) are observed. Clinical findings result from excess hormone secretion, lack of hormone secretion, and/or mass effects (e.g., headaches, visual field loss). Within the same family, pituitary adenomas can be of the same or different type. Age of onset in AIP-FIPA is usually in the second or third decade.
Achondrogenesis, type IB
MedGen UID:
78547
Concept ID:
C0265274
Congenital Abnormality
Clinical features of achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG1B) include extremely short limbs with short fingers and toes, hypoplasia of the thorax, protuberant abdomen, and hydropic fetal appearance caused by the abundance of soft tissue relative to the short skeleton. The face is flat, the neck is short, and the soft tissue of the neck may be thickened. Death occurs prenatally or shortly after birth.
Familial visceral amyloidosis, Ostertag type
MedGen UID:
82799
Concept ID:
C0268389
Disease or Syndrome
A group of rare renal diseases, characterized by amyloid fibril deposition of apolipoprotein A-I or A-II (AApoAI or AApoAII amyloidosis), lysozyme (ALys amyloidosis) or fibrinogen A-alpha chain (AFib amyloidosis) in one or several organs. Renal involvement leading to chronic renal disease and renal failure is a common sign. Additional manifestations depend on the organ involved and the type of amyloid fibrils deposited.
Chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant
MedGen UID:
79381
Concept ID:
C0282102
Disease or Syndrome
The findings in X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2) range from fetal demise with multiple malformations and severe growth retardation to much milder manifestations, including females with no recognizable physical abnormalities. At least 95% of live-born individuals with CDPX2 are female. Characteristic features include growth deficiency; distinctive craniofacial appearance; chondrodysplasia punctata (stippling of the epiphyses of the long bones, vertebrae, trachea, and distal ends of the ribs); often asymmetric rhizomelic shortening of limbs; scoliosis; linear or blotchy scaling ichthyosis in the newborn; later appearance of linear or whorled atrophic patches involving hair follicles (follicular atrophoderma); coarse hair with scarring alopecia; and cataracts.
Pulmonary hypertension due to chronic exposure to high altitude
MedGen UID:
83314
Concept ID:
C0340552
Disease or Syndrome
PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased.
Lipedema
MedGen UID:
451048
Concept ID:
C0398370
Disease or Syndrome
Excess deposit and expansion of adipose tissue in an unusual pattern which cannot be lost through diet and exercise .
Finnish congenital nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
98011
Concept ID:
C0403399
Disease or Syndrome
The nephrotic syndrome is characterized clinically by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Kidney biopsies show nonspecific histologic changes such as minimal change, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and diffuse mesangial proliferation. Approximately 20% of affected individuals have an inherited steroid-resistant form and progress to end-stage renal failure (summary by Fuchshuber et al., 1996). Nephrotic syndrome type 1 (NPHS1) is characterized by prenatal onset of massive proteinuria followed by severe steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome apparent at birth with rapid progression to end-stage renal failure (Kestila et al., 1998). Because of confusion in the literature regarding use of the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis' (see NOMENCLATURE section), these disorders in OMIM are classified as NPHS or FSGS according to how they were first designated in the literature. Genetic Heterogeneity of Nephrotic Syndrome and Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Nephrotic syndrome and FSGS are genetically heterogeneous disorders representing a spectrum of hereditary renal diseases. See also NPHS2 (600995), caused by mutation in the podocin gene (604766); NPHS3 (610725), caused by mutation in the PLCE1 gene (608414); NPHS4 (256370), caused by mutation in the WT1 gene (607102); NPHS5 (614199), caused by mutation in the LAMB2 gene (150325); NPHS6 (614196), caused by mutation in the PTPRO gene (600579); NPHS7 (615008), caused by mutation in the DGKE gene (601440); NPHS8 (615244), caused by mutation in the ARHGDIA gene (601925); NPHS9 (615573), caused by mutation in the COQ8B gene (615567); NPHS10 (615861), caused by mutation in the EMP2 gene (602334); NPHS11 (616730), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617); NPHS12 (616892), caused by mutation in the NUP93 gene (614351); NPHS13 (616893), caused by mutation in the NUP205 gene (614352); NPHS14 (617575), caused by mutation in the SGPL1 gene (603729); NPHS15 (617609), caused by mutation in the MAGI2 gene (606382); NPHS16 (617783), caused by mutation in the KANK2 gene (614610), NPHS17 (618176), caused by mutation in the NUP85 gene (170285); NPHS18 (618177), caused by mutation in the NUP133 gene (607613); NPHS19 (618178), caused by mutation in the NUP160 gene (607614); NPHS20 (301028), caused by mutation in the TBC1D8B gene (301027); NPHS21 (618594) caused by mutation in the AVIL gene (613397); NPHS22 (619155), caused by mutation in the NOS1AP gene (605551); NPHS23 (619201), caused by mutation in the KIRREL1 gene (607428); NPHS24 (619263), caused by mutation in the DAAM2 gene (606627); and NPHS26 (620049), caused by mutation in the LAMA5 gene (601033). The symbol NPHS25 has been used as an alternative designation for NPHS21. See also FSGS1 (603278), caused by mutation in the ACTN4 gene (604638); FSGS2 (603965), caused by mutation in the TRPC6 gene (603652); FSGS3 (607832), associated with variation in the CD2AP gene (604241); FSGS4 (612551), mapped to chromosome 22q12; FSGS5 (613237), caused by mutation in the INF2 gene (610982); FSGS6 (614131), caused by mutation in the MYO1E gene (601479); FSGS7 (616002), caused by mutation in the PAX2 gene (167409); FSGS8 (616032), caused by mutation in the ANLN gene (616027); and FSGS9 (616220), caused by mutation in the CRB2 gene (609720).
Type IV short rib polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
96578
Concept ID:
C0432198
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Beemer-Langer syndrome have been found to carry mutations in the IFT80 gene (611177); see SRTD2, 611263. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Opsismodysplasia
MedGen UID:
140927
Concept ID:
C0432219
Disease or Syndrome
Opsismodysplasia (OPSMD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia involving delayed bone maturation. Clinical signs observed at birth include short limbs, small hands and feet, relative macrocephaly with a large anterior fontanel, and characteristic craniofacial abnormalities including a prominent brow, depressed nasal bridge, a small anteverted nose, and a relatively long philtrum. Death in utero or secondary to respiratory failure during the first few years of life has been reported, but there can be long-term survival. Typical radiographic findings include shortened long bones with delayed epiphyseal ossification, severe platyspondyly, metaphyseal cupping, and characteristic abnormalities of the metacarpals and phalanges (summary by Below et al., 2013 and Fradet and Fitzgerald, 2017).
Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome
MedGen UID:
155629
Concept ID:
C0751779
Disease or Syndrome
The action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome, also known as progressive myclonic epilepsy-4 with or without renal failure (EPM4), is an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonic epilepsy associated with renal failure. Cognitive function is preserved (Badhwar et al., 2004). Some patients do not develop renal failure (Dibbens et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Perlman syndrome
MedGen UID:
162909
Concept ID:
C0796113
Disease or Syndrome
Perlman syndrome (PRLMNS) is an autosomal recessive congenital overgrowth syndrome with similarities to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS; 130650). Affected children are large at birth, are hypotonic, and show organomegaly, characteristic facial dysmorphisms (inverted V-shaped upper lip, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, broad and flat nasal bridge, and low-set ears), renal anomalies (nephromegaly and hydronephrosis), frequent neurodevelopmental delay, and high neonatal mortality. Perlman syndrome is associated with a high risk of Wilms tumor, with a 64% incidence in infants surviving beyond the neonatal period. The tumor is diagnosed at an earlier age in these individuals compared with sporadic cases (less than 2 years and 3-4 years of age, respectively), and there is a high frequency of bilateral tumors (55%). Histologic examination of the kidneys in children with Perlman syndrome shows frequent nephroblastomatosis, which is a precursor lesion for Wilms tumor (summary by Astuti et al., 2012).
Analbuminemia
MedGen UID:
164210
Concept ID:
C0878666
Finding
Analbuminemia (ANALBA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the presence of a very low amount of circulating serum albumin. Affected individuals have few clinical symptoms other than mild edema, hypotension, fatigue, and occasionally a peculiar lower body lipodystrophy (mainly in adult females). The most common biochemical finding is a gross hyperlipidemia, with a significant increase in the total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, but normal concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Analbuminemia often leads to fetal or neonatal death in sibs in families of analbuminemic individuals, which may explain the rarity of the trait (summary by Caridi et al., 2014).
McKusick-Kaufman syndrome
MedGen UID:
184924
Concept ID:
C0948368
Disease or Syndrome
McKusick-Kaufman syndrome (MKS) is characterized by the combination of postaxial polydactyly (PAP), congenital heart disease (CHD), and hydrometrocolpos (HMC) in females and genital malformations in males (most commonly hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and chordee). HMC in infants usually presents as a large cystic abdominal mass arising out of the pelvis, caused by dilatation of the vagina and uterus as a result of the accumulation of cervical secretions from maternal estrogen stimulation. HMC can be caused by failure of the distal third of the vagina to develop (vaginal agenesis), a transverse vaginal membrane, or an imperforate hymen. PAP is the presence of additional digits on the ulnar side of the hand and the fibular side of the foot. A variety of congenital heart defects have been reported including atrioventricular canal, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, or a complex congenital heart malformation.
Cutaneous mastocytosis
MedGen UID:
210143
Concept ID:
C1136033
Finding
Mastocytosis, or mast cell disease, is a heterogeneous group of clinical disorders characterized by the abnormal accumulation of mast cells in various tissues, especially in the skin and hematopoietic organs. Mastocytosis usually appears in infancy or early adulthood. In most pediatric cases, the disease is limited to the skin, but it can be associated with systemic symptoms due to the release of mediators from mast cells, even when there is no systemic infiltration. It usually has a good prognosis, with substantial improvement or spontaneous resolution before puberty. In rare cases, the disease may remain active through adolescence as a systemic adult mastocytosis. Cutaneous mastocytosis is characterized by macules, papules, nodules, or diffuse infiltration of the skin, often associated with localized hyperpigmentation. Gentle rubbing of the lesions induces histamine release from mechanically activated mast cells, causing local wheals, erythema, and often pruritus, a phenomenon termed the 'Darier sign.' In contrast to childhood-onset mastocytosis, adult-onset mastocytosis often persists for the lifetime of the patient and is also more likely to be a severe and systemic disease involving numerous organs. In some cases, it is associated with a clonal hematologic non-mast-cell lineage disease, such as a myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative disorder. Adult-onset mastocytosis can also lead to the rare mast cell leukemia, which carries a high risk of mortality (summary by Bodemer et al., 2010 and Kambe et al., 2010).
Pierson syndrome
MedGen UID:
373199
Concept ID:
C1836876
Disease or Syndrome
Pierson syndrome (PIERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct ocular abnormalities, including microcoria and hypoplasia of the ciliary and pupillary muscles, as well as other anomalies. Many patients die early, and those who survive tend to show neurodevelopmental delay and visual loss (summary by Zenker et al., 2004). Mutations in the LAMB2 gene also cause nephrotic syndrome type 5 with or without mild ocular anomalies (NPHS5; 614199).
X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
374225
Concept ID:
C1839440
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare, genetic, developmental defect during embryogenesis characterized by the typical lethal multiple pterygium syndrome presentation (comprising of multiple pterygia, severe arthrogryposis, cleft palate, cystic hygromata and/or fetal hydrops, skeletal abnormalities and fetal death in the 2nd or 3rd trimester) with an X-linked pattern of inheritance.
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334413
Concept ID:
C1843478
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome-2 (LCCS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe multiple congenital contractures with muscle wasting and atrophy. Micrognathia and other craniofacial anomalies, including cleft palate, as well as cardiac defects and enlarged urinary bladder at birth have also been reported. Hydrops fetalis and multiple pterygia are absent. Most patients have died in the neonatal period, although 2 survived to early adolescence (Landau et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of LCCS, see LCCS1 (253310).
Enhanced S-cone syndrome
MedGen UID:
341446
Concept ID:
C1849394
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive retinopathy in which patients have increased sensitivity to blue light; perception of blue light is mediated by what is normally the least populous cone photoreceptor subtype, the S (short wavelength, blue) cones. Characteristics include visual loss, with night blindness occurring from early in life, varying degrees of L (long, red)- and M (middle, green)-cone vision, and retinal degeneration.
Saldino-Mainzer syndrome
MedGen UID:
341455
Concept ID:
C1849437
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia
MedGen UID:
340355
Concept ID:
C1849554
Congenital Abnormality
Pulmonary lymphangiectasia is a rare congenital vascular dysplasia characterized by an increased number of dilated pulmonary lymphatics in the subpleural, peribronchial, and interlobular septa. Respiratory distress is usually noted immediately after birth (summary by Stevenson et al., 2006).
PEHO syndrome
MedGen UID:
342404
Concept ID:
C1850055
Disease or Syndrome
PEHO is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by extreme cerebellar atrophy due to almost total loss of granule neurons. Affected individuals present in early infancy with hypotonia, profoundly delayed psychomotor development, optic atrophy, progressive atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem, and dysmyelination. Most patients also develop infantile seizures that are often associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, and many have peripheral edema (summary by Anttonen et al., 2017).
PEHO-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
337956
Concept ID:
C1850056
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disease characterized by progressive encephalopathy, early-onset seizures with a hypsarrhythmic pattern, facial and limb edema, severe hypotonia, early arrest of psychomotor development and craniofacial dysmorphism (evolving microcephaly, narrow forehead, short nose, prominent auricles, open mouth, micrognathia), in the absence of neuro-ophthalmic or neuroradiologic findings. Poor visual responsiveness, growth failure and tapering fingers are also associated. There is evidence the disease is caused by homozygous mutation in the CCDC88A gene on chromosome 2p16.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
342008
Concept ID:
C1851443
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome is a severe, progressive neurologic disorder characterized by prenatal onset of arthrogryposis, microcephaly, and growth failure. Postnatal features include severe developmental delay, congenital cataracts (in some), and marked UV sensitivity of the skin. Survival beyond 6 years of age is rare. COFS represents the severe end of the spectrum of disorders caused by mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes, with Cockayne syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum being milder NER-related phenotypes (summary by Drury et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome, see COFS1 (214150).
Edema, familial idiopathic, prepubertal
MedGen UID:
377535
Concept ID:
C1851847
Disease or Syndrome
Renal coloboma syndrome
MedGen UID:
339002
Concept ID:
C1852759
Disease or Syndrome
PAX2-related disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with renal and eye abnormalities. The disorder was originally referred to as renal coloboma syndrome and characterized by renal hypodysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve; with improved access to molecular testing, a wider range of phenotypes has been recognized in association with pathogenic variants in PAX2. Abnormal renal structure or function is noted in 92% of affected individuals and ophthalmologic abnormalities in 77% of affected individuals. Renal abnormalities can be clinically silent in rare individuals. In most individuals, clinically significant renal insufficiency / renal failure is reported. End-stage renal disease requiring renal transplant is not uncommon. Uric acid nephrolithiasis has been reported. Ophthalmologic abnormalities are typically described as optic nerve coloboma or dysplasia. Iris colobomas have not been reported in any individual with PAX2–related disorder. Ophthalmologic abnormalities may significantly impair vision in some individuals, while others have subtle changes only noted after detailed ophthalmologic examination. Additional clinical findings include high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, soft skin, and ligamentous laxity. PAX2 pathogenic variants have been identified in multiple sporadic and familial cases of nonsyndromic renal disease including renal hypodysplasia and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 3
MedGen UID:
377831
Concept ID:
C1853124
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome, a malfunction of the glomerular filter, is characterized clinically by proteinuria, edema, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Renal histopathology may show diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (Hinkes et al., 2006). Most patients with NPHS3 show diffuse mesangial sclerosis on renal biopsy, which is a pathologic entity characterized by mesangial matrix expansion with no mesangial hypercellularity, hypertrophy of the podocytes, vacuolized podocytes, thickened basement membranes, and diminished patency of the capillary lumen (Gbadegesin et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy with wooly hair and keratoderma
MedGen UID:
340124
Concept ID:
C1854063
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair and keratoderma (DCWHK) is characterized by the presence of woolly or sparse hair from birth. Some patients exhibit fragile skin with blisters/erosions after minor mechanical trauma, with hyperkeratosis and epidermolytic keratoderma developing in early childhood. Cardiomyopathy may become apparent in the first decade of life, and early death due to heart failure has been reported, but patients may remain asymptomatic into the fourth decade of life. Some patients exhibit an arrhythmogenic form of cardiomyopathy, with sudden death in early adulthood (Carvajal-Huerta, 1998; Whittock et al., 2002; Alcalai et al., 2003; Uzumcu et al., 2006). Another syndrome involving cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and keratoderma (Naxos disease; 601214) is caused by mutation in the plakoglobin gene (JUP; 173325). Also see 610476 for a similar disorder caused by homozygous mutation in the DSC2 gene (125645). Dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair, keratoderma, and tooth agenesis (DCWHKTA; 615821) is caused by heterozygous mutation in DSP. An isolated form of striated PPK (PPKS2; 612908) is also caused by heterozygous mutation in DSP. Reviews In a review of cardiocutaneous syndromes and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, Sen-Chowdhry and McKenna (2014) stated that although the cardiac component of Carvajal syndrome was originally considered dilated cardiomyopathy, many of its features resemble those of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (see 607450). In addition, they noted that different disease subtypes have been found to coexist within the same kindred, suggesting a role for modifier genes and/or environmental influences.
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
344338
Concept ID:
C1854664
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) is the most severe, neonatally lethal, form of arthrogryposis (see 108120), a disorder characterized by congenital nonprogressive joint contractures. The contractures can involve the upper or lower limbs and/or the vertebral column, leading to various degrees of flexion or extension limitations evident at birth (summary by Markus et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Lethal Congenital Contracture Syndrome See also lethal congenital contracture syndrome-2 (LCCS2; 607598), caused by mutation in the ERBB3 gene (190151); LCCS3 (611369), caused by mutation in the PIP5K1C gene (606102); LCCS4 (614915), caused by mutation in the MYBPC1 gene (160794); LCCS5 (615368), caused by mutation in the DNM2 gene (602378); LCCS6 (616248), caused by mutation in the ZBTB42 gene (613915); LCCS7 (616286), caused by mutation in the CNTNAP1 gene (602346); LCCS8 (616287), caused by mutation in the ADCY6 gene (600294); LCCS9 (616503), caused by mutation in the ADGRG6 gene (612243); LCCS10 (617022), caused by mutation in the NEK9 gene (609798); and LCCS11 (617194), caused by mutation in the GLDN gene (608603).
Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
381473
Concept ID:
C1854678
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome has many of the same signs and symptoms as the Escobar type. In addition, affected fetuses may develop a buildup of excess fluid in the body (hydrops fetalis) or a fluid-filled sac typically found on the back of the neck (cystic hygroma). Individuals with this type have severe arthrogryposis. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is associated with abnormalities such as underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the heart, lung, or brain; twisting of the intestines (intestinal malrotation); kidney abnormalities; an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate); and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Affected individuals may also develop a hole in the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity (the diaphragm), a condition called a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is typically fatal in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.\n\nIn people with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type, the webbing typically affects the skin of the neck, fingers, forearms, inner thighs, and backs of the knee. People with this type may also have arthrogryposis. A side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) is sometimes seen. Affected individuals may also have respiratory distress at birth due to underdeveloped lungs (lung hypoplasia). People with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type usually have distinctive facial features including droopy eyelids (ptosis), outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), a small jaw, and low-set ears. Males with this condition can have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). This condition does not worsen after birth, and affected individuals typically do not have muscle weakness later in life.\n\nThe two forms of multiple pterygium syndrome are differentiated by the severity of their symptoms. Multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type (sometimes referred to as Escobar syndrome) is the milder of the two types. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is fatal before birth or very soon after birth.\n\nMultiple pterygium syndrome is a condition that is evident before birth with webbing of the skin (pterygium) at the joints and a lack of muscle movement (akinesia) before birth. Akinesia frequently results in muscle weakness and joint deformities called contractures that restrict the movement of joints (arthrogryposis). As a result, multiple pterygium syndrome can lead to further problems with movement such as arms and legs that cannot fully extend.
Corneal dystrophy, fuchs endothelial, 2
MedGen UID:
347552
Concept ID:
C1857800
Disease or Syndrome
Late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a degenerative disorder affecting roughly 4% of the population older than 40 years. It is distinguished from other corneal disorders by the progressive formation of guttae, which are microscopic refractile excrescences of the Descemet membrane, a collagen-rich basal lamina secreted by the corneal endothelium. From onset, it usually takes 2 decades for FECD to impair endothelial cell function seriously, leading to stromal edema and impaired vision (Sundin et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, see FECD1 (136800).
Poikiloderma with neutropenia
MedGen UID:
388129
Concept ID:
C1858723
Disease or Syndrome
Poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) is characterized by an inflammatory eczematous rash (ages 6-12 months) followed by post-inflammatory poikiloderma (age >2 years) and chronic noncyclic neutropenia typically associated with recurrent sinopulmonary infections in the first two years of life and (often) bronchiectasis. There is increased risk for myelodysplastic syndrome and, rarely, acute myelogenous leukemia. Other ectodermal findings include nail dystrophy and palmar/plantar hyperkeratosis. Most affected individuals also have reactive airway disease and some have short stature, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, midfacial retrusion, calcinosis cutis, and non-healing skin ulcers.
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations
MedGen UID:
348124
Concept ID:
C1860518
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is a small-vessel disease that affects highly vascularized tissues including the retina, brain, liver, and kidneys. Age of onset is often between 35 and 50 years. The most common presenting finding is decreased visual acuity and/or visual field defects. Neurologic manifestations may include hemiparesis, facial weakness, aphasia, and hemianopsia. Migraines and seizures are less frequently described. Renal manifestations may include mild-to-moderate increase in serum creatinine and mild proteinuria; progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is uncommon. Hepatic manifestations frequently include mildly elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Less common findings include psychiatric disorders, hypertension, mild-to-moderate anemia, and Raynaud phenomenon.
Cluster headache, familial
MedGen UID:
350040
Concept ID:
C1861513
Disease or Syndrome
The Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (1988) listed the following criteria for cluster headache (CH): at least 5 attacks of severe unilateral orbital, supraorbital, and/or temporal pain, lasting 15 to 180 minutes, associated with at least 1 of 8 local autonomic signs, and occurring once every other day to 8 per day. Approximately 85% of CH patients have the episodic subtype, in which the headaches occur in cluster periods lasting from 7 days to 1 year and separated by attack-free intervals of 1 month or more. The remainder of patients have the chronic subtype, in which attacks recur for greater than 1 year without remission or with remissions lasting less than 1 month (Lipton et al., 2004).
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2
MedGen UID:
400366
Concept ID:
C1863727
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2 (FHL2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized clinically by fever, edema, hepatosplenomegaly, and liver dysfunction. Neurologic impairment, seizures, and ataxia are frequent. Laboratory studies show pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. There is increased production of cytokines, such as gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570) and TNF-alpha (191160), by hyperactivation and proliferation of T cells and macrophages. Activity of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells is reduced, consistent with a defect in cellular cytotoxicity. Bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver show features of hemophagocytosis. Chemotherapy and/or immunosuppressant therapy may result in symptomatic remission, but the disorder is fatal without bone marrow transplantation (summary by Dufourcq-Lagelouse et al., 1999, Stepp et al., 1999, and Molleran Lee et al., 2004). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FHL, see 267700.
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 4
MedGen UID:
350245
Concept ID:
C1863728
Disease or Syndrome
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a hyperinflammatory disorder clinically diagnosed based on the fulfillment of 5 of 8 criteria, including fever, splenomegaly, bicytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and/or hypofibrinogenemia, hemophagocytosis, low or absent natural killer (NK) cell activity, hyperferritinemia, and high soluble IL2 receptor levels (IL2R; 147730). The disorder typically presents in infancy or early childhood. Persistent remission is rarely achieved with chemo- or immunotherapy; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only cure (summary by Muller et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), see 267700.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 2
MedGen UID:
400626
Concept ID:
C1864843
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial disorder due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal limb edema and redundant skin on the neck (hydrops), developmental brain defects (corpus callosum agenesis, ventriculomegaly), brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features with low set ears, severe intractable neonatal lactic acidosis with lethargy, hypotonia, absent spontaneous movements and fatal outcome. Markedly decreased activity of complex I, II + III and IV in muscle and liver have been determined.
MPI-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
400692
Concept ID:
C1865145
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). CDG Ib is clinically distinct from most other CDGs by the lack of significant central nervous system involvement. The predominant symptoms are chronic diarrhea with failure to thrive and protein-losing enteropathy with coagulopathy. Some patients develop hepatic fibrosis. CDG Ib is also different from other CDGs in that it can be treated effectively with oral mannose supplementation, but can be fatal if untreated (Marquardt and Denecke, 2003). Thus, CDG Ib should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained hypoglycemia, chronic diarrhea, liver disease, or coagulopathy in order to allow early diagnosis and effective therapy (Vuillaumier-Barrot et al., 2002) Freeze and Aebi (1999) reviewed CDG Ib and CDG Ic (603147). Marques-da-Silva et al. (2017) systematically reviewed the literature concerning liver involvement in CDG.
Bartter disease type 4A
MedGen UID:
355430
Concept ID:
C1865270
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 2
MedGen UID:
358380
Concept ID:
C1868672
Disease or Syndrome
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome type 2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by childhood onset of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Kidney biopsies show nonspecific histologic changes such as minimal change, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and diffuse mesangial proliferation. The disorder is resistant to steroid treatment and progresses to end-stage renal failure in the first or second decades (summary by Fuchshuber et al., 1996). Some patients show later onset of the disorder (Tsukaguchi et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Mevalonic aciduria
MedGen UID:
368373
Concept ID:
C1959626
Disease or Syndrome
Mevalonic aciduria (MEVA), the first recognized defect in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids, is a consequence of a deficiency of mevalonate kinase (ATP:mevalonate 5-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.36). Mevalonic acid accumulates because of failure of conversion to 5-phosphomevalonic acid, which is catalyzed by mevalonate kinase. Mevalonic acid is synthesized from 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA, a reaction catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase (142910). Mevalonic aciduria is characterized by dysmorphology, psychomotor retardation, progressive cerebellar ataxia, and recurrent febrile crises, usually manifesting in early infancy, accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and skin rash. The febrile crises are similar to those observed in hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and to periodic fever syndrome (HIDS; 260920), which is also caused by mutation in the MVK gene (summary by Prietsch et al., 2003).
Respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants
MedGen UID:
368840
Concept ID:
C1968593
Disease or Syndrome
The main cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants is a developmental deficiency of pulmonary surfactant. The frequency of RDS is inversely proportional to gestational age. However, not all infants born prematurely develop RDS, suggesting that there may be susceptibility factors. Because multiple factors can contribute to the pathogenesis of RDS specifically in premature infants, the etiology is considered to be multifactorial (summaries by Ramet et al., 2000; Clark and Clark, 2005). Pathogenic germline mutations in several genes involved in surfactant metabolism, including SFTPB (178640) and SFTPC (178620), can cause clinical features of respiratory distress syndrome in term neonates, children, and adults, disorders referred to as 'surfactant metabolism dysfunction' (see, e.g., SMDP1, 265120). Susceptibility to the development of RDS in premature infants may be associated with polymorphisms in surfactant genes, such as surfactant protein A1 (SFTPA1; 178630), SFTPB, and SFTPC (see MOLECULAR GENETICS).
Hypotonia with lactic acidemia and hyperammonemia
MedGen UID:
435972
Concept ID:
C2673642
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by severe hypotonia, lactic acidemia and congenital hyperammonemia. It has been described in three newborns born to consanguineous parents. Ultrasound examination during the 36th week of pregnancy revealed generalized edema. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and tubulopathy developed within the first week of life and the infants died within the first month. The activities of enzymes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain were reduced in the muscles of the patients. Mutations were identified in the MRPS22 gene on chromosome 3q23, encoding a mitochondrial ribosomal protein
Deafness, unilateral, with delayed endolymphatic hydrops
MedGen UID:
393762
Concept ID:
C2677512
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
413028
Concept ID:
C2750732
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
ALG8 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419692
Concept ID:
C2931002
Disease or Syndrome
CDGs, previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes, grew from hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). CDG1H is a severe form of CDG. The majority of patients have brain involvement, liver pathology, gastrointestinal symptoms, dysmorphism (including brachydactyly), eye involvement (especially cataract), and skin symptoms. Most patients die within the first year of life (summary by Marques-da-Silva et al., 2017).
Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia
MedGen UID:
444009
Concept ID:
C2931241
Disease or Syndrome
A rare intestinal disease characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals which cause lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen. Clinical manifestations include edema related to hypoalbuminemia (protein-losing gastro-enteropathy), asthenia, moderate diarrhea, lymphedema, serous effusion and failure to thrive in children.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 6
MedGen UID:
481535
Concept ID:
C3279905
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-6 is an autosomal recessive childhood-onset kidney disorder manifest clinically by the nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, hypoalbuminemia, and progressive renal failure. It is a disease of the glomerular podocyte (summary by Mele et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 6
MedGen UID:
481730
Concept ID:
C3280100
Disease or Syndrome
The nephrotic syndrome refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema, resulting in end-stage kidney disease if untreated. Inherited defects in podocyte structure and function have been observed in some children with the steroid-resistant subtype of nephrotic syndrome (summary by Ozaltin et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Kaposi sarcoma, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
761233
Concept ID:
C3538945
Finding
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 3
MedGen UID:
766272
Concept ID:
C3553358
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 8
MedGen UID:
815283
Concept ID:
C3808953
Disease or Syndrome
Any nephrotic syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ARHGDIA gene.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 9
MedGen UID:
816295
Concept ID:
C3809965
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 9 (NPHS9) is an autosomal recessive chronic kidney disorder characterized by significant proteinuria resulting in hypoalbuminemia and edema. Onset is in the first or second decade of life. The disorder is steroid treatment-resistant and usually progresses to end-stage renal disease requiring transplantation. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or collapsing FSGS (summary by Ashraf et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
White sponge nevus 2
MedGen UID:
862758
Concept ID:
C4014321
Disease or Syndrome
White sponge nevus can be present from birth but usually first appears during early childhood. The size and location of the nevi can change over time. In the oral mucosa, both sides of the mouth are usually affected. The nevi are generally painless, but the folds of extra tissue can promote bacterial growth, which can lead to infection that may cause discomfort. The altered texture and appearance of the affected tissue, especially the oral mucosa, can be bothersome for some affected individuals.\n\nWhite sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation of white patches of tissue called nevi (singular: nevus) that appear as thickened, velvety, sponge-like tissue. The nevi are most commonly found on the moist lining of the mouth (oral mucosa), especially on the inside of the cheeks (buccal mucosa). Affected individuals usually develop multiple nevi. Rarely, white sponge nevi also occur on the mucosae (singular: mucosa) of the nose, esophagus, genitals, or anus. The nevi are caused by a noncancerous (benign) overgrowth of cells.
Neu-Laxova syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
863456
Concept ID:
C4015019
Disease or Syndrome
Neu-Laxova syndrome-2 (NLS2) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of severe congenital malformations leading to prenatal or early postnatal lethality. Affected individuals have abnormal craniofacial features, microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, ichthyosis, flexion deformities, limb malformations, and edema of the hands and feet. Some patients have malformations of the central nervous system, such as abnormal gyration (summary by Acuna-Hidalgo et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Neu-Laxova syndrome, see NLS1 (256520).
Lymphatic malformation 6
MedGen UID:
908120
Concept ID:
C4225184
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphatic malformation-6 is a form of generalized lymphatic dysplasia (GLD), which is characterized by a uniform, widespread lymphedema affecting all segments of the body, with systemic involvement such as intestinal and/or pulmonary lymphangiectasia, pleural effusions, chylothoraces and/or pericardial effusions. In LMPHM6, there is a high incidence of nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) with either death or complete resolution of the neonatal edema, but childhood onset of lymphedema with or without systemic involvement also occurs. Mild facial edema is often present. Patients have normal intelligence and no seizures (summary by Fotiou et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see 153100.
Lymphatic malformation 7
MedGen UID:
934596
Concept ID:
C4310629
Disease or Syndrome
LMPHM7 is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expressivity. Some patients may develop severe nonimmune lymphatic-related hydrops fetalis (LRHF) in utero, resulting in early death, whereas others may have milder manifestations, such as atrial septal defect (ASD) or varicose veins as adults. The hydrops and/or swelling improves spontaneously in those who survive the neonatal period (summary by Martin-Almedina et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see 153100.
Bartter disease type 4B
MedGen UID:
934772
Concept ID:
C4310805
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome (e.g., BARTS1, 601678) typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1380260
Concept ID:
C4479631
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies (NDMSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile onset of progressive microcephaly and spasticity and severe global developmental delay resulting in profoundly impaired intellectual development and severely impaired or absent motor function. More variable features include seizures and optic atrophy. Brain imaging may show myelinating abnormalities and white matter lesions consistent with a leukoencephalopathy, as well as structural anomalies, including thin corpus callosum, gyral abnormalities, and cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. Some patients die in early childhood (summary by Falik Zaccai et al., 2017 and Hall et al., 2017).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1627611
Concept ID:
C4540266
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities of the brain, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
1617227
Concept ID:
C4540274
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism and ear abnormalities. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual or hearing impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Nephrotic syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1617660
Concept ID:
C4540559
Disease or Syndrome
Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is characterized by varying combinations of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ranging from nonimmune fetal hydrops to adolescent onset), primary adrenal insufficiency (with or without mineralocorticoid deficiency), testicular insufficiency, hypothyroidism, ichthyosis, lymphopenia/immunodeficiency, and neurologic abnormalities that can include developmental delay, regression / progressive neurologic involvement, cranial nerve deficits, and peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 1
MedGen UID:
1636833
Concept ID:
C4551527
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic finding in several renal disorders that manifest clinically as proteinuria and progressive decline in renal function. Some patients with FSGS develop the clinical entity called 'nephrotic syndrome' (see NPHS1; 256300), which includes massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. However, patients with FSGS may have proteinuria in the nephrotic range without other features of the nephrotic syndrome (summary by D'Agati et al., 2004; Mathis et al., 1998). D'Agati et al. (2011) provided a detailed review of FSGS, emphasizing that the disorder results from defects of the podocyte. Because of confusion in the literature regarding use of the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis' (see NOMENCLATURE section), these disorders in OMIM are classified as NPHS or FSGS according to how they were first designated in the literature. Genetic Heterogeneity of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Nephrotic Syndrome Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome are genetically heterogeneous disorders representing a spectrum of hereditary renal diseases. See also FSGS2 (603965), caused by mutation in the TRPC6 gene (603652); FSGS3 (607832), associated with variation in the CD2AP gene (604241); FSGS4 (612551), mapped to chromosome 22q12; FSGS5 (613237), caused by mutation in the INF2 gene (610982); FSGS6 (614131), caused by mutation in the MYO1E gene (601479); FSGS7 (616002), caused by mutation in the PAX2 gene (167409); FSGS8 (616032), caused by mutation in the ANLN gene (616027); FSGS9 (616220), caused by mutation in the CRB2 gene (609720); and FSGS10 (256020), caused by mutation in the LMX1B gene (602575). See also NPHS1 (256300), caused by mutation in the NPHS1 gene (602716); NPHS2 (600995), caused by mutation in the podocin gene (604766); NPHS3 (610725), caused by mutation in the PLCE1 gene (608414); NPHS4 (256370), caused by mutation in the WT1 gene (607102); NPHS5 (614199), caused by mutation in the LAMB2 gene (150325); NPHS6 (614196), caused by mutation in the PTPRO gene (600579); NPHS7 (615008), caused by mutation in the DGKE gene (601440); NPHS8 (615244), caused by mutation in the ARHGDIA gene (601925); NPHS9 (615573), caused by mutation in the COQ8B gene (615567); NPHS10 (615861), caused by mutation in the EMP2 gene (602334); NPHS11 (616730), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617); NPHS12 (616892), caused by mutation in the NUP93 gene (614351); NPHS13 (616893), caused by mutation in the NUP205 gene (614352); NPHS14 (617575), caused by mutation in the SGPL1 gene (603729); NPHS15 (617609), caused by mutation in the MAGI2 gene (606382); NPHS16 (617783), caused by mutation in the KANK2 gene (614610), NPHS17 (618176), caused by mutation in the NUP85 gene (170285); NPHS18 (618177), caused by mutation in the NUP133 gene (607613); NPHS19 (618178), caused by mutation in the NUP160 gene (607614); NPHS20 (301028), caused by mutation in the TBC1D8B gene (301027); and NPHS21 (618594) caused by mutation in the AVIL gene (613397).
Protoporphyria, erythropoietic, 1
MedGen UID:
1643471
Concept ID:
C4692546
Disease or Syndrome
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity (usually beginning in infancy or childhood) that results in tingling, burning, pain, and itching within 30 minutes after exposure to sun or ultraviolet light and may be accompanied by swelling and redness. Symptoms (which may seem out of proportion to the visible skin lesions) may persist for hours or days after the initial phototoxic reaction. Photosensitivity remains for life. Multiple episodes of acute photosensitivity may lead to chronic changes of sun-exposed skin (lichenification, leathery pseudovesicles, grooving around the lips) and loss of lunulae of the nails. Approximately 20%-30% of individuals with EPP have some degree of liver dysfunction, which is typically mild with slight elevations of the liver enzymes. Up to 5% may develop more advanced liver disease which may be accompanied by motor neuropathy similar to that seen in the acute porphyrias.
Alkuraya-Kucinskas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1634304
Concept ID:
C4693347
Disease or Syndrome
ALKKUCS is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arthrogryposis, brain abnormalities associated with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, and global developmental delay. Most affected individuals die in utero or soon after birth. Additional abnormalities may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and involvement of other organ systems, such as cardiac or renal. The few patients who survive have variable intellectual disability and may have seizures (summary by Gueneau et al., 2018).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1679283
Concept ID:
C5193044
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-7 (GAMOS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, and early-onset nephrotic syndrome (summary by Rosti et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 13
MedGen UID:
1684708
Concept ID:
C5231425
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 13 (PCH13) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with absent speech, microcephaly, and progressive atrophy of the cerebellar vermis and brainstem. Additional features, including seizures and visual impairment, are variable (summary by Uwineza et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1780127
Concept ID:
C5543053
Disease or Syndrome
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome-4 (PRAAS4) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by onset of panniculitis and erythematous skin lesions in early infancy. Additional features include hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, fever, generalized lipodystrophy, myositis, and joint contractures, as well as delayed motor and speech development. Autoimmune features, such as hemolytic anemia, may also occur. Laboratory studies show elevation of acute phase reactants and abnormal activation of the type I interferon response. Treatment with the JAK (see 147795) inhibitor ruxolitinib may result in clinical improvement (summary by de Jesus et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PRAAS, see PRAAS1 (256040).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
1794176
Concept ID:
C5561966
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-9 (AGS9) is a type I interferonopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and progressive neurologic deterioration. Patients present in infancy with irritability and spasticity. Brain imaging shows diffusely abnormal white matter, cerebral atrophy, and intracranial calcification. Premature death has been associated with renal and/or hepatic failure (Uggenti et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, see AGS1 (225750).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, Type 2HH
MedGen UID:
1794213
Concept ID:
C5562003
Disease or Syndrome
Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2HH (CMT2HH) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized predominantly by onset of vocal cord weakness resulting in stridor in infancy or early childhood. The vocal cord paresis remains throughout life and may be severe enough to require tracheostomy. Additional features of the disorder usually include pes cavus and scoliosis. Some patients have mild distal muscle weakness and atrophy primarily affecting the lower limbs, although the upper limbs may also be involved, and distal sensory impairment, often with hyporeflexia (Sullivan et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Immunodeficiency 91 and hyperinflammation
MedGen UID:
1794283
Concept ID:
C5562073
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-91 and hyperinflammation (IMD91) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder characterized by both immunodeficiency and recurrent infections, often to viruses or mycobacteria, as well as by hyperinflammation with systemic involvement. Affected individuals present in infancy with variable features, including fever, infection, thrombocytopenia, renal or hepatic dysfunction, recurrent infections, or seizures. Most patients eventually develop hepatic or renal failure, compromised neurologic function, lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly, and multiorgan failure resulting in death. More variable features may include intermittent monocytosis, features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and serologic evidence of hyperinflammation. The disorder is thought to result from dysregulation of the interferon response to viral stimulation in the innate immune system (summary by Le Voyer et al., 2021; Vavassori et al., 2021).
Preeclampsia/eclampsia 1
MedGen UID:
1807479
Concept ID:
C5574918
Pathologic Function
Preeclampsia, which along with chronic hypertension and gestational hypertension comprise the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, is characterized by new hypertension (blood pressure 140/90 or greater) presenting after 20 weeks' gestation with clinically relevant proteinuria. Preeclampsia is 1 of the top 4 causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide (summary by Payne et al., 2011). Preeclampsia is otherwise known as gestational proteinuric hypertension (Davey and MacGillivray, 1988). A high proportion of patients with preeclampsia have glomerular endotheliosis, the unique histopathologic feature of the condition (Fisher et al., 1981). A distinct form of severe preeclampsia is characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP syndrome) (Brown et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Preeclampsia/Eclampsia Susceptibility loci for preeclampsia/eclampsia include PEE1 on chromosome 2p13, PEE2 (609402) on chromosome 2p25, and PEE3 (609403) on chromosome 9p13. PEE4 (609404) is caused by mutation in the STOX1 gene (609397) on chromosome 10q22. PEE5 (614595) is caused by mutation in the CORIN gene (605236) on chromosome 4p12. An association with PEE has been found with the EPHX1 gene (132810) on chromosome 1q.
Cardiac valvular defect, developmental
MedGen UID:
1823949
Concept ID:
C5774175
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiac valvular dysplasia-1 (CVDP1) is characterized by congenital malformations of the pulmonic, tricuspid, and mitral valves. Structural cardiac defects, including atrial and ventricular septal defects, single left ventricle, and hypoplastic right ventricle have also been observed in affected individuals (Ta-Shma et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cardiac Valvular Dysplasia CVDP2 (620067) is caused by mutation in the ADAMTS19 gene (607513) on chromosome 5q23.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

McGinley MP, Goldschmidt CH, Rae-Grant AD
JAMA 2021 Feb 23;325(8):765-779. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.26858. PMID: 33620411
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hayreh SS
Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 Nov;85:100964. Epub 2021 Mar 11 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2021.100964. PMID: 33713810
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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 Nov;85:100964. Epub 2021 Mar 11 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2021.100964. PMID: 33713810
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Prognosis

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Clinical prediction guides

O'Brien AT, Gil KE, Varghese J, Simonetti OP, Zareba KM
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Recent systematic reviews

Kochman M, Kasprzak M, Kielar A
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