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Chromosome 16p12.1 deletion syndrome, 520kb

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: 16p12.2 Microdeletion; Chromosome 16p12.1 deletion syndrome; Chromosome 16p12.1 deletion syndrome, 520-kb
Gene (location): FRA16E
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0007631
OMIM®: 136570

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: 16p12.2 Recurrent Deletion
16p12.2 recurrent deletion is characterized by variable clinical findings that do not constitute a recognizable syndrome. Of note, the significant bias in ascertainment of individuals undergoing clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (i.e., children with intellectual disability and developmental delay; individuals with schizophrenia) makes it difficult to accurately associate specific phenotypes with the 16p12.2 recurrent deletion. Findings commonly observed in children (probands) with this deletion include: developmental delay, cognitive impairment (ranging from mild to profound), growth impairment (including short stature), cardiac malformations, epilepsy, and psychiatric and/or behavioral issues. Other findings can include: hearing loss, dental abnormalities, renal and genital anomalies (the latter in males), and cleft palate ± cleft lip. [from GeneReviews]
Santhosh Girirajan  |  Lucilla Pizzo  |  John Moeschler, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

There are several phenotypes associated with variation in pericentric region of chromosome 16: see the 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome (613604); see 611913 for a deletion or duplication at 16p11.2 associated with autism (AUTS14); and see 613444 for a 220-kb deletion at 16p11.2 associated with isolated severe early-onset obesity and obesity with developmental delay.  http://www.omim.org/entry/136570
From MedlinePlus Genetics
16p12.2 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small amount of genetic material on chromosome 16 is deleted. The deletion occurs on the short (p) arm of the chromosome at a location designated p12.2. Common characteristics that have been described in people with a 16p12.2 microdeletion include developmental delay, delayed speech, intellectual disability that ranges from mild to profound, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), slow growth resulting in short stature, an usually small head (microcephaly), malformations of the heart, recurrent seizures (epilepsy), and psychiatric and behavioral problems.

Less common features that can occur in people with a 16p12.2 microdeletion can include hearing loss, an opening in the lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), dental abnormalities, malformed kidneys, and genital abnormalities in males. However, there is no particular pattern of physical abnormalities that characterizes individuals with a 16p12.2 microdeletion. Signs and symptoms related to the chromosomal change vary even among affected members of the same family, and some people with the deletion have no identified physical or behavioral abnormalities.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/16p122-microdeletion

Clinical features

From HPO
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.\n\nAlthough babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.\n\nSome people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.\n\nEach of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.\n\nPeople with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Atypical behavior
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Atypical behavior is an abnormality in a person's actions, which can be controlled or modulated by the will of the individual. While abnormal behaviors can be difficult to control, they are distinct from other abnormal actions that cannot be affected by the individual's will.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Abnormal facial shape
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
An abnormal morphology (form) of the face or its components.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVChromosome 16p12.1 deletion syndrome, 520kb

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