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Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10(MODY10)

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young Type10
SNOMED CT: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 10 (609577006); MODY10 (maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10) (609577006)
Gene (location): INS (11p15.5)
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013240
OMIM®: 613370


GCK-MODY is a very mild type of the condition. People with this type have slightly elevated blood glucose levels, particularly in the morning before eating (fasting blood glucose). However, affected individuals often have no symptoms related to the disorder, and diabetes-related complications are extremely rare.

RCAD is associated with a combination of diabetes and kidney or urinary tract abnormalities (unrelated to the elevated blood glucose), most commonly fluid-filled sacs (cysts) in the kidneys. However, the signs and symptoms are variable, even within families, and not everyone with RCAD has both features. Affected individuals may have other features unrelated to diabetes, such as abnormalities of the pancreas or liver or a form of arthritis called gout.

HNF1A-MODY and HNF4A-MODY have similar signs and symptoms that develop slowly over time. Early signs and symptoms in these types are caused by high blood glucose and may include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, weight loss, and recurrent skin infections. Over time uncontrolled high blood glucose can damage small blood vessels in the eyes and kidneys. Damage to the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina) causes a condition known as diabetic retinopathy that can lead to vision loss and eventual blindness. Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) can lead to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While these two types of MODY are very similar, certain features are particular to each type. For example, babies with HNF4A-MODY tend to weigh more than average or have abnormally low blood glucose at birth, even though other signs of the condition do not occur until childhood or young adulthood. People with HNF1A-MODY have a higher-than-average risk of developing noncancerous (benign) liver tumors known as hepatocellular adenomas.

The different types of MODY are distinguished by their genetic causes. The most common types are HNF1A-MODY (also known as MODY3), accounting for 50 to 70 percent of cases, and GCK-MODY (MODY2), accounting for 30 to 50 percent of cases. Less frequent types include HNF4A-MODY (MODY1) and renal cysts and diabetes (RCAD) syndrome (also known as HNF1B-MODY or MODY5), which each account for 5 to 10 percent of cases. At least ten other types have been identified, and these are very rare.

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of several conditions characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar. These forms of diabetes typically begin before age 30, although they can occur later in life. In MODY, elevated blood glucose arises from reduced production of insulin, which is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood glucose levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Clinical features

From HPO
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance.
Diabetic ketoacidosis
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A type of diabetic metabolic abnormality with an accumulation of ketone bodies.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
An increased concentration of glucose in the blood.
Maturity onset diabetes mellitus in young
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young is an autosomal dominant form of diabetes typically occurring before 25 years of age and caused by primary insulin secretion defects. Despite its low prevalence, MODY is not a single entity but represents genetic, metabolic, and clinical heterogeneity (Vaxillaire and Froguel, 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of MODY MODY1 (125850) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4-alpha gene (HNF4A; 600281) on chromosome 20. MODY2 (125851) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the glucokinase gene (GCK; 138079) on chromosome 7. MODY3 (600496) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene (HNF1A; 142410) on chromosome 12q24. MODY4 (606392) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein-1 gene (PDX1; 600733) on chromosome 13q12. MODY5 (137920) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding hepatic transcription factor-2 (TCF2; 189907) on chromosome 17q12. MODY6 (606394) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the NEUROD1 gene (601724) on chromosome 2q31. MODY7 (610508) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KLF11 gene (603301) on chromosome 2p25. MODY8 (609812), or diabetes-pancreatic exocrine dysfunction syndrome, is caused by heterozygous mutation in the CEL gene (114840) on chromosome 9q34. MODY9 (612225) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the PAX4 gene (167413) on chromosome 7q32. MODY10 (613370) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the insulin gene (INS; 176730) on chromosome 11p15. MODY11 (613375) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the BLK gene (191305) on chromosome 8p23. MODY13 (616329) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KCNJ11 gene (600937) on chromosome 11p15. MODY14 (616511) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the APPL1 gene (604299) on chromosome 3p14.

Professional guidelines


Shepherd M, Brook AJ, Chakera AJ, Hattersley AT
Diabet Med 2017 Oct;34(10):1332-1339. Epub 2017 Jun 13 doi: 10.1111/dme.13388. PMID: 28556992Free PMC Article
Chakera AJ, Steele AM, Gloyn AL, Shepherd MH, Shields B, Ellard S, Hattersley AT
Diabetes Care 2015 Jul;38(7):1383-92. doi: 10.2337/dc14-2769. PMID: 26106223
Kavvoura FK, Owen KR
Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2012 Dec-2013 Jan;10(2):234-42. PMID: 23539835

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