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FADD-related immunodeficiency(IMD90)

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: FADD DEFICIENCY; Infections, recurrent, with encephalopathy, hepatic dysfunction, and cardiovascular malformations
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Gene (location): FADD (11q13.3)
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013408
OMIM®: 613759
Orphanet: ORPHA306550


Immunodeficiency-90 with encephalopathy, functional hyposplenia, and hepatic dysfunction (IMD90) is a autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder with systemic manifestations in addition to primary immunodeficiency. Affected individuals usually present in infancy or early childhood with recurrent fevers and bacterial or viral infections associated with central nervous system symptoms, including irritability, drowsiness, variable seizures, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. There is also liver involvement and functional hyposplenism, causing increased susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal infection, which may be fatal. Susceptibility to viral infections likely results from impaired interferon immunity, and bacterial infections likely result from splenic dysfunction. A subset of patients have congenital cardiac malformations. Most individuals demonstrate developmental delay and speech delay. Laboratory findings in affected individuals are similar to those seen in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS; 601859), including high-circulating CD4-/CD8-/TCR-alpha-beta+ (double-negative) T-cell (DNT) counts, and elevated IL10 (124092) and FASL (TNFSF6; 134638) levels, but the clinical features are somewhat different from ALPS: massive lymphadenopathy and autoimmune features are not observed in IMD90 (summary by Bolze et al., 2010, Savic et al., 2015 and Kohn et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Pulmonary artery atresia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital anomaly with a narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Left superior vena cava draining directly to the left atrium
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) that drains into the left atrium instead of the right atrium via the coronary sinus, resulting in a right to left sided shunt.
Portal inflammation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
Infiltration of portal fields by inflammatory cells.
Hepatic bridging fibrosis
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hepatic fibrosis that reaches from a portal area to another portal area.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy is a term that means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. In general, encephalopathy is manifested by an altered mental state.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Howell-Jolly bodies
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Acquired Abnormality
Howell-Jolly bodies are small, intra-erythrocytic remnants of erythrocyte nuclei. These inclusions are solitary in each erythrocyte and strongly basophilic. These are often confused with overlying platelets, but can be distinguished by the presence of a halo around overlying platelets.
Recurrent infections
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Increased susceptibility to infections.
Increased circulating interleukin 10 concentration
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
An elevation of the concentration of interleukin 10 in the blood circulation.
Elevated circulating alanine aminotransferase concentration
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
An abnormally high concentration in the circulation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVFADD-related immunodeficiency
Follow this link to review classifications for FADD-related immunodeficiency in Orphanet.

Supplemental Content

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    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

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