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Femur fracture

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Injury or Poisoning
Synonyms: Femoral Fracture; Femoral Fractures; Fracture, Femoral; Fractures, Femoral
SNOMED CT: Fracture of femur (71620000); Fracture of thigh (71620000); Fracture of upper leg (71620000)
HPO: HP:0031846


A break or crush injury of the thigh bone (femur). [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVFemur fracture

Conditions with this feature

Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a life-threatening disease caused by subnormal osteoclast function, with an incidence of 1 in 250,000 births. The disease usually manifests in the first few months of life with macrocephaly and frontal bossing, resulting in a characteristic facial appearance. Defective bone remodeling of the skull results in choanal stenosis with concomitant respiratory problems and feeding difficulties, which are the first clinical manifestation of disease. The expanding bone encroaches on neural foramina, leading to blindness, deafness, and facial palsy. Complete visual loss invariably occurs in all untreated patients, and hearing loss is estimated to affect 78% of patients with OPT. Tooth eruption defects and severe dental caries are common. Calcium feedback hemostasis is impaired, and children with OPT are at risk of developing hypocalcemia with attendant tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most severe complication of OPT, limiting survival, is bone marrow insufficiency. The abnormal expansion of cortical and trabecular bone physically limits the availability of medullary space for hematopoietic activity, leading to life-threatening cytopenia and secondary expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis at sites such as the liver and spleen (summary by Aker et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis Other forms of autosomal recessive infantile malignant osteopetrosis include OPTB4 (611490), which is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13, and OPTB5 (259720), which is caused by mutation in the OSTM1 gene (607649) on chromosome 6q21. A milder, osteoclast-poor form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB2; 259710) is caused by mutation in the TNFSF11 gene (602642) on chromosome 13q14, an intermediate form (OPTB6; 611497) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21, and a severe osteoclast-poor form associated with hypogammaglobulinemia (OPTB7; 612301) is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11A gene (603499) on chromosome 18q22. Another form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB8; 615085) is caused by mutation in the SNX10 gene (614780) on chromosome 7p15. A form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis (OPTB3; 259730) is caused by mutation in the CA2 gene (611492) on chromosome 8q21. OPTB9 (620366) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A2 gene (109280) on chromosome 7q36. Autosomal dominant forms of osteopetrosis are more benign (see OPTA1, 607634).
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 7
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A few individuals have been diagnosed with intermediate autosomal osteopetrosis (IAO), a form of the disorder that can have either an autosomal dominant or an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. The signs and symptoms of this condition become noticeable in childhood and include an increased risk of bone fracture and anemia. People with this form of the disorder typically do not have life-threatening bone marrow abnormalities. However, some affected individuals have had abnormal calcium deposits (calcifications) in the brain, intellectual disability, and a form of kidney disease called renal tubular acidosis.\n\nOther features of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis can include slow growth and short stature, dental abnormalities, and an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly). Depending on the genetic changes involved, people with severe osteopetrosis can also have brain abnormalities, intellectual disability, or recurrent seizures (epilepsy).\n\nAutosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a more severe form of the disorder that becomes apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have a high risk of bone fracture resulting from seemingly minor bumps and falls. Their abnormally dense skull bones pinch nerves in the head and face (cranial nerves), often resulting in vision loss, hearing loss, and paralysis of facial muscles. Dense bones can also impair the function of bone marrow, preventing it from producing new blood cells and immune system cells. As a result, people with severe osteopetrosis are at risk of abnormal bleeding, a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), and recurrent infections. In the most severe cases, these bone marrow abnormalities can be life-threatening in infancy or early childhood.\n\nIn individuals with ADO who develop signs and symptoms, the major features of the condition include multiple bone fractures after minor injury, abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) or other spinal abnormalities, arthritis in the hips, and a bone infection called osteomyelitis. These problems usually become apparent in late childhood or adolescence.\n\nAutosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO), which is also called Albers-Schönberg disease, is typically the mildest type of the disorder. Some affected individuals have no symptoms. In affected people with no symptoms, the unusually dense bones may be discovered by accident when an x-ray is done for another reason. \n\nOsteopetrosis is a bone disease that makes bone tissue abnormally compact and dense and also prone to breakage (fracture). Researchers have described several major types of osteopetrosis, which are usually distinguished by their pattern of inheritance: autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. The different types of the disorder can also be distinguished by the severity of their signs and symptoms.
Spondylo-ocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylo-ocular syndrome is a very rare association of spinal and ocular manifestations that is characterized by dense cataracts, and retinal detachment along with generalized osteoporosis and platyspondyly. Mild craniofacial dysphormism has been reported including short neck, large head and prominent eyebrows.
Spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity-predominant, 2b, prenatal onset, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
SMALED2B is a severe neuromuscular disorder with onset in utero. Affected individuals show decreased fetal movements and are usually born with congenital contractures consistent with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). After birth, they have severe hypotonia and muscle atrophy as well as respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness. Some patients may have dysmorphic facial features and/or abnormalities on brain imaging. Many patients die in early childhood (summary by Storbeck et al., 2017) For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy, see SMALED1 (158600).
Marbach-Rustad progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Marbach-Rustad progeroid syndrome (MARUPS) is characterized by progeroid appearance with little subcutaneous fat and triangular facies, growth retardation with short stature, hypoplastic mandible crowded with unerupted supernumerary teeth, and cerebellar intention tremor. Psychomotor development is normal. Although features are reminiscent of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS; 176670), MARUPS is less severe, with a relatively good prognosis. Two patients have been reported (Marbach et al., 2019).

Professional guidelines


Loggers SAI, Van Lieshout EMM, Joosse P, Verhofstad MHJ, Willems HC
Injury 2020 Nov;51(11):2407-2413. Epub 2020 Aug 23 doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2020.08.027. PMID: 32907702
Starr J, Tay YKD, Shane E
Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):519-529. doi: 10.1007/s11914-018-0464-6. PMID: 29951870Free PMC Article
Gangavalli AK, Nwachuku CO
Orthop Clin North Am 2016 Jan;47(1):85-96. doi: 10.1016/j.ocl.2015.08.011. PMID: 26614924

Recent systematic reviews

Tong YYF, Holmes S, Sefton A
ANZ J Surg 2022 Nov;92(11):2840-2848. Epub 2022 Jun 2 doi: 10.1111/ans.17792. PMID: 35655397Free PMC Article
DeKeyser GJ, Hakim AJ, O'Neill DC, Schlickewei CW, Marchand LS, Haller JM
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2022 Oct;142(10):2597-2609. Epub 2021 Jun 7 doi: 10.1007/s00402-021-03988-9. PMID: 34097123
Deng S, Yu Y
Pharmacology 2021;106(9-10):453-461. Epub 2021 Jun 24 doi: 10.1159/000515788. PMID: 34167123
Loggers SAI, Van Lieshout EMM, Joosse P, Verhofstad MHJ, Willems HC
Injury 2020 Nov;51(11):2407-2413. Epub 2020 Aug 23 doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2020.08.027. PMID: 32907702
Ebraheim NA, Kelley LH, Liu X, Thomas IS, Steiner RB, Liu J
Orthop Surg 2015 Nov;7(4):297-305. doi: 10.1111/os.12199. PMID: 26790831Free PMC Article

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