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Microcephaly and chorioretinopathy 1(MCCRP1)

MedGen UID:
480111
Concept ID:
C3278481
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Microcephaly and chorioretinopathy, autosomal recessive, 1
 
Gene (location): TUBGCP6 (22q13.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009624
OMIM®: 251270

Definition

Microcephaly and chorioretinopathy is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and visual impairment, often accompanied by short stature (summary by Martin et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Microcephaly and Chorioretinopathy See also MCCRP2 (616171), caused by mutation in the PLK4 gene (605031) on chromosome 4q27, and MCCRP3 (616335), caused by mutation in the TUBGCP4 gene (609610) on chromosome 15q15. An autosomal dominant form of microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or mental retardation is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KIF11 gene (148760) on chromosome 10q23. See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive pigmentary retinopathy and mental retardation; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Simplified gyral pattern
MedGen UID:
413664
Concept ID:
C2749675
Finding
An abnormality of the cerebral cortex with fewer gyri but with normal cortical thickness. This pattern is usually often associated with congenital microcephaly.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70.
Pachygyria
MedGen UID:
504794
Concept ID:
CN001193
Finding
Pachygyria is a malformation of cortical development with abnormally wide gyri with sulci 1,5-3 cm apart and abnormally thick cortex measuring more than 5 mm (radiological definition). See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Abnormality of skin pigmentation
MedGen UID:
224697
Concept ID:
C1260926
Finding
An abnormality of the pigmentation of the skin.
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Retinal detachment
MedGen UID:
19759
Concept ID:
C0035305
Disease or Syndrome
Primary or spontaneous detachment of the retina occurs due to underlying ocular disease and often involves the vitreous as well as the retina. The precipitating event is formation of a retinal tear or hole, which permits fluid to accumulate under the sensory layers of the retina and creates an intraretinal cleavage that destroys the neurosensory process of visual reception. Vitreoretinal degeneration and tear formation are painless phenomena, and in most cases, significant vitreoretinal pathology is found only after detachment of the retina starts to cause loss of vision or visual field. Without surgical intervention, retinal detachment will almost inevitably lead to total blindness (summary by McNiel and McPherson, 1971).
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Retinal fold
MedGen UID:
115826
Concept ID:
C0229197
Finding
A wrinkle of retinal tissue projecting outward from the surface of the retina and visible as a line on fundoscopy.
Optic disc pallor
MedGen UID:
108218
Concept ID:
C0554970
Finding
A pale yellow discoloration of the optic disk (the area of the optic nerve head in the retina). The optic disc normally has a pinkish hue with a central yellowish depression.
Retinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
208903
Concept ID:
C0854723
Finding
Retinal dystrophy is an abnormality of the retina associated with a hereditary process. Retinal dystrophies are defined by their predominantly monogenic inheritance and they are frequently associated with loss or dysfunction of photoreceptor cells as a primary or secondary event.
Abnormality of retinal pigmentation
MedGen UID:
350681
Concept ID:
C1862475
Finding
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.
Chorioretinal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
870365
Concept ID:
C4024809
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal development of the choroid and retina.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Atchaneeyasakul LO, Linck L, Weleber RG
Ophthalmic Genet 1998 Mar;19(1):39-48. doi: 10.1076/opge.19.1.39.2178. PMID: 9587928

Diagnosis

Thomas-Wilson A, Schacht JP, Chitayat D, Blaser S, Santos FJR, Glaser K, Caffo A, Wentzensen IM, Henderson LB, Zhang F, Zhu Y, Di Corleto E, da Silva Costa F, Vink R, Alkhunaizi E, Russell L, Buckley MF, Roscioli T, Pereira EM, Ganapathi M
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Jul;191(7):1935-1941. Epub 2023 Apr 9 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63203. PMID: 37031378
Kashimada A, Hasegawa S, Nomura T, Shiraku H, Moriyama K, Suzuki T, Nakajima K, Mizuno T, Imai K, Sugawara Y, Morio T, Kumada S, Takagi M
Brain Dev 2019 Feb;41(2):150-157. Epub 2018 Oct 6 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.09.007. PMID: 30301590
Balikova I, Robson AG, Holder GE, Ostergaard P, Mansour S, Moore AT
Acta Ophthalmol 2016 Feb;94(1):92-8. Epub 2015 May 21 doi: 10.1111/aos.12759. PMID: 25996076
Robitaille JM, Gillett RM, LeBlanc MA, Gaston D, Nightingale M, Mackley MP, Parkash S, Hathaway J, Thomas A, Ells A, Traboulsi EI, Héon E, Roy M, Shalev S, Fernandez CV, MacGillivray C, Wallace K, Fahiminiya S, Majewski J, McMaster CR, Bedard K
JAMA Ophthalmol 2014 Dec;132(12):1393-9. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.2814. PMID: 25124931
Atchaneeyasakul LO, Linck L, Weleber RG
Ophthalmic Genet 1998 Mar;19(1):39-48. doi: 10.1076/opge.19.1.39.2178. PMID: 9587928

Prognosis

Robitaille JM, Gillett RM, LeBlanc MA, Gaston D, Nightingale M, Mackley MP, Parkash S, Hathaway J, Thomas A, Ells A, Traboulsi EI, Héon E, Roy M, Shalev S, Fernandez CV, MacGillivray C, Wallace K, Fahiminiya S, Majewski J, McMaster CR, Bedard K
JAMA Ophthalmol 2014 Dec;132(12):1393-9. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.2814. PMID: 25124931

Clinical prediction guides

Chang H, Zhang X, Xu K, Li N, Xie Y, Yan W, Li Y
Genes (Basel) 2023 Jan 13;14(1) doi: 10.3390/genes14010212. PMID: 36672954Free PMC Article
Schweizer N, Haren L, Dutto I, Viais R, Lacasa C, Merdes A, Lüders J
Nat Commun 2021 Oct 15;12(1):6042. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-26252-5. PMID: 34654813Free PMC Article
Trzupek KM, Falk RE, Demer JL, Weleber RG
Am J Med Genet A 2007 Jun 1;143A(11):1218-22. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31717. PMID: 17486591

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