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Joubert syndrome 14(JBTS14)

MedGen UID:
482396
Concept ID:
C3280766
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: JBTS14; TMEM237-Related Joubert Syndrome
 
Gene (location): TMEM237 (2q33.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013745
OMIM®: 614424

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Joubert Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Melissa Parisi  |  Ian Glass   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
Joubert syndrome-14 (JBTS14) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis and molar tooth sign (MTS) on brain imaging, hypotonia, abnormal breathing pattern in infancy, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional findings can include renal cysts, abnormal eye movements, and postaxial polydactyly (summary by Boycott et al., 2007 and Huang et al., 2011). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see 213300.  http://www.omim.org/entry/614424

Clinical features

From HPO
Renal cyst
MedGen UID:
854361
Concept ID:
C3887499
Disease or Syndrome
A fluid filled sac in the kidney.
Postaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
67394
Concept ID:
C0220697
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Hypertensive disorder
MedGen UID:
6969
Concept ID:
C0020538
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of chronic increased pressure in the systemic arterial system.
Intracranial hemorrhage
MedGen UID:
101799
Concept ID:
C0151699
Pathologic Function
Hemorrhage occurring within the skull.
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Meningocele
MedGen UID:
44356
Concept ID:
C0025299
Disease or Syndrome
Protrusion of the meninges through a defect of the skull or vertebral column.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Molar tooth sign on MRI
MedGen UID:
400670
Concept ID:
C1865060
Finding
An abnormal appearance of the midbrain in axial magnetic resonance imaging in which the elongated superior cerebellar peduncles give the midbrain an appearance reminiscent of a molar or wisdom tooth.
Irritability
MedGen UID:
397841
Concept ID:
C2700617
Mental Process
A proneness to anger, i.e., a tendency to become easily bothered or annoyed.
Encephalocele
MedGen UID:
1646412
Concept ID:
C4551722
Congenital Abnormality
A neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull.
Agenesis of cerebellar vermis
MedGen UID:
1768774
Concept ID:
C5437781
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital absence of the vermis of cerebellum.
Dandy-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985).
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Finding
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Tented upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326574
Concept ID:
C1839767
Finding
Triangular appearance of the oral aperture with the apex in the midpoint of the upper vermilion and the lower vermilion forming the base.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Congenital ocular coloboma
MedGen UID:
1046
Concept ID:
C0009363
Congenital Abnormality
Coloboma is an eye abnormality that occurs before birth. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in one of several parts of the eye, including the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nColobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision. Colobomas affecting the iris, which result in a "keyhole" appearance of the pupil, generally do not lead to vision loss. Colobomas involving the retina result in vision loss in specific parts of the visual field. Large retinal colobomas or those affecting the optic nerve can cause low vision, which means vision loss that cannot be completely corrected with glasses or contact lenses.\n\nSome people with coloboma also have a condition called microphthalmia. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with coloboma may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract), increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma) that can damage the optic nerve, vision problems such as nearsightedness (myopia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), or separation of the retina from the back of the eye (retinal detachment).\n\nColobomas involving the eyeball should be distinguished from gaps that occur in the eyelids. While these eyelid gaps are also called colobomas, they arise from abnormalities in different structures during early development.\n\nSome individuals have coloboma as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When coloboma occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Morning glory syndrome
MedGen UID:
767635
Concept ID:
C3554721
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the optic nerve in which the optic nerve is large and funneled and displays a conical excavation of the optic disc. The optic disc appears dysplastic.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Barroso-Gil M, Olinger E, Ramsbottom SA, Molinari E, Miles CG, Sayer JA
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Dec;9(12):e1603. Epub 2021 Jan 24 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1603. PMID: 33486889Free PMC Article
Mougou-Zerelli S, Thomas S, Szenker E, Audollent S, Elkhartoufi N, Babarit C, Romano S, Salomon R, Amiel J, Esculpavit C, Gonzales M, Escudier E, Leheup B, Loget P, Odent S, Roume J, Gérard M, Delezoide AL, Khung S, Patrier S, Cordier MP, Bouvier R, Martinovic J, Gubler MC, Boddaert N, Munnich A, Encha-Razavi F, Valente EM, Saad A, Saunier S, Vekemans M, Attié-Bitach T
Hum Mutat 2009 Nov;30(11):1574-82. doi: 10.1002/humu.21116. PMID: 19777577Free PMC Article
Maria BL, Boltshauser E, Palmer SC, Tran TX
J Child Neurol 1999 Sep;14(9):583-90; discussion 590-1. doi: 10.1177/088307389901400906. PMID: 10488903

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gafner M, Garel C, Leibovitz Z, Valence S, Krajden Haratz K, Oegema R, Mancini GMS, Heron D, Bueltmann E, Burglen L, Rodriguez D, Huisman TAGM, Lequin MH, Arad A, Kidron D, Muqary M, Gindes L, Lev D, Boltshauser E, Lerman-Sagie T
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2023 Mar;44(3):334-340. Epub 2023 Feb 23 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7805. PMID: 36822823Free PMC Article
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article
Mougou-Zerelli S, Thomas S, Szenker E, Audollent S, Elkhartoufi N, Babarit C, Romano S, Salomon R, Amiel J, Esculpavit C, Gonzales M, Escudier E, Leheup B, Loget P, Odent S, Roume J, Gérard M, Delezoide AL, Khung S, Patrier S, Cordier MP, Bouvier R, Martinovic J, Gubler MC, Boddaert N, Munnich A, Encha-Razavi F, Valente EM, Saad A, Saunier S, Vekemans M, Attié-Bitach T
Hum Mutat 2009 Nov;30(11):1574-82. doi: 10.1002/humu.21116. PMID: 19777577Free PMC Article
Brancati F, Iannicelli M, Travaglini L, Mazzotta A, Bertini E, Boltshauser E, D'Arrigo S, Emma F, Fazzi E, Gallizzi R, Gentile M, Loncarevic D, Mejaski-Bosnjak V, Pantaleoni C, Rigoli L, Salpietro CD, Signorini S, Stringini GR, Verloes A, Zabloka D, Dallapiccola B, Gleeson JG, Valente EM; International JSRD Study Group
Hum Mutat 2009 Feb;30(2):E432-42. doi: 10.1002/humu.20924. PMID: 19058225Free PMC Article
Hodgkins PR, Harris CM, Shawkat FS, Thompson DA, Chong K, Timms C, Russell-Eggitt I, Taylor DS, Kriss A
Dev Med Child Neurol 2004 Oct;46(10):694-9. doi: 10.1017/s0012162204001161. PMID: 15473174

Diagnosis

Gafner M, Garel C, Leibovitz Z, Valence S, Krajden Haratz K, Oegema R, Mancini GMS, Heron D, Bueltmann E, Burglen L, Rodriguez D, Huisman TAGM, Lequin MH, Arad A, Kidron D, Muqary M, Gindes L, Lev D, Boltshauser E, Lerman-Sagie T
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2023 Mar;44(3):334-340. Epub 2023 Feb 23 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7805. PMID: 36822823Free PMC Article
Jain D, Ravishankar V
Nepal J Ophthalmol 2022 Jan;14(27):173-177. doi: 10.3126/nepjoph.v14i1.35163. PMID: 35996916
Abdel Razek AA, Castillo M
J Comput Assist Tomogr 2016 Jan-Feb;40(1):14-25. doi: 10.1097/RCT.0000000000000340. PMID: 26599961
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article
Chance PF, Cavalier L, Satran D, Pellegrino JE, Koenig M, Dobyns WB
J Child Neurol 1999 Oct;14(10):660-6; discussion 669-72. doi: 10.1177/088307389901401007. PMID: 10511339

Therapy

Chen L, Uchida H, Komine R, Kodama T, Nakao T, Okada N, Yanagi Y, Shimizu S, Abbas S, Fukuda A, Sakamoto S, Kasahara M
Pediatr Transplant 2024 Feb;28(1):e14640. Epub 2023 Nov 15 doi: 10.1111/petr.14640. PMID: 37965976
Barroso-Gil M, Olinger E, Ramsbottom SA, Molinari E, Miles CG, Sayer JA
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Dec;9(12):e1603. Epub 2021 Jan 24 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1603. PMID: 33486889Free PMC Article
Bennett CL, Parisi MA, Eckert ML, Huynh HM, Chance PF, Glass IA
Am J Med Genet A 2004 Mar 1;125A(2):117-24; discussion 117. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.20438. PMID: 14981711
Maria BL, Quisling RG, Rosainz LC, Yachnis AT, Gitten J, Dede D, Fennell E
J Child Neurol 1999 Jun;14(6):368-76. doi: 10.1177/088307389901400605. PMID: 10385844

Prognosis

Best S, Lord J, Roche M, Watson CM, Poulter JA, Bevers RPJ, Stuckey A, Szymanska K, Ellingford JM, Carmichael J, Brittain H, Toomes C, Inglehearn C, Johnson CA, Wheway G; Genomics England Research Consortium
J Med Genet 2022 Aug;59(8):737-747. Epub 2021 Oct 29 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2021-108065. PMID: 34716235Free PMC Article
Ma DJ, Lee HS, Kim K, Choi S, Jang I, Cho SH, Yoon CK, Lee EK, Yu HG
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Mar 10;14(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-00874-6. PMID: 33691693Free PMC Article
Kroes HY, Monroe GR, van der Zwaag B, Duran KJ, de Kovel CG, van Roosmalen MJ, Harakalova M, Nijman IJ, Kloosterman WP, Giles RH, Knoers NV, van Haaften G
Eur J Hum Genet 2016 Feb;24(2):214-20. Epub 2015 Apr 29 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2015.84. PMID: 25920555Free PMC Article
Hodgkins PR, Harris CM, Shawkat FS, Thompson DA, Chong K, Timms C, Russell-Eggitt I, Taylor DS, Kriss A
Dev Med Child Neurol 2004 Oct;46(10):694-9. doi: 10.1017/s0012162204001161. PMID: 15473174
Raynes HR, Shanske A, Goldberg S, Burde R, Rapin I
J Child Neurol 1999 Oct;14(10):649-54; discussion 669-72 discussio. doi: 10.1177/088307389901401005. PMID: 10511337

Clinical prediction guides

Ma DJ, Lee HS, Kim K, Choi S, Jang I, Cho SH, Yoon CK, Lee EK, Yu HG
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Mar 10;14(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-00874-6. PMID: 33691693Free PMC Article
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article
Kamdar BB, Nandkumar P, Krishnan V, Gamaldo CE, Collop NA
Pediatr Neurol 2011 Dec;45(6):395-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2011.09.005. PMID: 22115003
Chance PF, Cavalier L, Satran D, Pellegrino JE, Koenig M, Dobyns WB
J Child Neurol 1999 Oct;14(10):660-6; discussion 669-72. doi: 10.1177/088307389901401007. PMID: 10511339
Maria BL, Boltshauser E, Palmer SC, Tran TX
J Child Neurol 1999 Sep;14(9):583-90; discussion 590-1. doi: 10.1177/088307389901400906. PMID: 10488903

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