U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

California encephalitis virus infection neuroinvasive disease

MedGen UID:
4931
Concept ID:
C0014053
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: California Encephalitis; California Encephalitis Virus Infection; California Viral Encephalitis; Encephalitis, California; Encephalitis, California Viral; Encephalitis, California, Viral; Viral Encephalitis, California
SNOMED CT: California encephalitis virus infection (416442006); California encephalitis virus infection neuroinvasive disease (417075004); CE - California encephalitis (417075004); California encephalitis (417075004); California meningoencephalitis virus disease (417075004); California viral encephalitis (417075004); Neuroinvasive California encephalitis virus infection (417075004); California serogroup virus neuroinvasive disease (418531007)

Definition

A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13) [from MeSH]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVCalifornia encephalitis virus infection neuroinvasive disease
Follow this link to review classifications for California encephalitis virus infection neuroinvasive disease in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Banwell B, Bennett JL, Marignier R, Kim HJ, Brilot F, Flanagan EP, Ramanathan S, Waters P, Tenembaum S, Graves JS, Chitnis T, Brandt AU, Hemingway C, Neuteboom R, Pandit L, Reindl M, Saiz A, Sato DK, Rostasy K, Paul F, Pittock SJ, Fujihara K, Palace J
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):268-282. Epub 2023 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00431-8. PMID: 36706773
Nosadini M, Eyre M, Molteni E, Thomas T, Irani SR, Dalmau J, Dale RC, Lim M; International NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis Consensus Group, Anlar B, Armangue T, Benseler S, Cellucci T, Deiva K, Gallentine W, Gombolay G, Gorman MP, Hacohen Y, Jiang Y, Lim BC, Muscal E, Ndondo A, Neuteboom R, Rostásy K, Sakuma H, Sartori S, Sharma S, Tenembaum SN, Van Mater HA, Wells E, Wickstrom R, Yeshokumar AK
JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1333-1344. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3188. PMID: 34542573Free PMC Article
Varadkar S, Bien CG, Kruse CA, Jensen FE, Bauer J, Pardo CA, Vincent A, Mathern GW, Cross JH
Lancet Neurol 2014 Feb;13(2):195-205. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70260-6. PMID: 24457189Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Bloch KC, Glaser C, Gaston D, Venkatesan A
Clin Infect Dis 2023 Sep 11;77(5):e14-e33. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad306. PMID: 37485952
Flanagan EP, Geschwind MD, Lopez-Chiriboga AS, Blackburn KM, Turaga S, Binks S, Zitser J, Gelfand JM, Day GS, Dunham SR, Rodenbeck SJ, Clardy SL, Solomon AJ, Pittock SJ, McKeon A, Dubey D, Zekeridou A, Toledano M, Turner LE, Vernino S, Irani SR
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jan 1;80(1):30-39. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.4251. PMID: 36441519Free PMC Article
Richie MB
Neurol Clin 2022 Feb;40(1):93-112. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.08.007. PMID: 34798977
Richie MB, Josephson SA
Semin Neurol 2015 Dec;35(6):611-20. Epub 2015 Nov 23 doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1564686. PMID: 26595861
Lynch JP 3rd, Fishbein M, Echavarria M
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2011 Aug;32(4):494-511. Epub 2011 Aug 19 doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1283287. PMID: 21858752

Diagnosis

Banwell B, Bennett JL, Marignier R, Kim HJ, Brilot F, Flanagan EP, Ramanathan S, Waters P, Tenembaum S, Graves JS, Chitnis T, Brandt AU, Hemingway C, Neuteboom R, Pandit L, Reindl M, Saiz A, Sato DK, Rostasy K, Paul F, Pittock SJ, Fujihara K, Palace J
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):268-282. Epub 2023 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00431-8. PMID: 36706773
Flanagan EP, Geschwind MD, Lopez-Chiriboga AS, Blackburn KM, Turaga S, Binks S, Zitser J, Gelfand JM, Day GS, Dunham SR, Rodenbeck SJ, Clardy SL, Solomon AJ, Pittock SJ, McKeon A, Dubey D, Zekeridou A, Toledano M, Turner LE, Vernino S, Irani SR
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jan 1;80(1):30-39. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.4251. PMID: 36441519Free PMC Article
Richie MB
Neurol Clin 2022 Feb;40(1):93-112. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.08.007. PMID: 34798977
Bystritsky RJ, Chow FC
Neurol Clin 2022 Feb;40(1):77-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.08.006. PMID: 34798976
Graus F, Titulaer MJ, Balu R, Benseler S, Bien CG, Cellucci T, Cortese I, Dale RC, Gelfand JM, Geschwind M, Glaser CA, Honnorat J, Höftberger R, Iizuka T, Irani SR, Lancaster E, Leypoldt F, Prüss H, Rae-Grant A, Reindl M, Rosenfeld MR, Rostásy K, Saiz A, Venkatesan A, Vincent A, Wandinger KP, Waters P, Dalmau J
Lancet Neurol 2016 Apr;15(4):391-404. Epub 2016 Feb 20 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00401-9. PMID: 26906964Free PMC Article

Therapy

Bloch KC, Glaser C, Gaston D, Venkatesan A
Clin Infect Dis 2023 Sep 11;77(5):e14-e33. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad306. PMID: 37485952
Foy SP, Jacoby K, Bota DA, Hunter T, Pan Z, Stawiski E, Ma Y, Lu W, Peng S, Wang CL, Yuen B, Dalmas O, Heeringa K, Sennino B, Conroy A, Bethune MT, Mende I, White W, Kukreja M, Gunturu S, Humphrey E, Hussaini A, An D, Litterman AJ, Quach BB, Ng AHC, Lu Y, Smith C, Campbell KM, Anaya D, Skrdlant L, Huang EY, Mendoza V, Mathur J, Dengler L, Purandare B, Moot R, Yi MC, Funke R, Sibley A, Stallings-Schmitt T, Oh DY, Chmielowski B, Abedi M, Yuan Y, Sosman JA, Lee SM, Schoenfeld AJ, Baltimore D, Heath JR, Franzusoff A, Ribas A, Rao AV, Mandl SJ
Nature 2023 Mar;615(7953):687-696. Epub 2022 Nov 10 doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05531-1. PMID: 36356599Free PMC Article
Nosadini M, Eyre M, Molteni E, Thomas T, Irani SR, Dalmau J, Dale RC, Lim M; International NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis Consensus Group, Anlar B, Armangue T, Benseler S, Cellucci T, Deiva K, Gallentine W, Gombolay G, Gorman MP, Hacohen Y, Jiang Y, Lim BC, Muscal E, Ndondo A, Neuteboom R, Rostásy K, Sakuma H, Sartori S, Sharma S, Tenembaum SN, Van Mater HA, Wells E, Wickstrom R, Yeshokumar AK
JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1333-1344. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3188. PMID: 34542573Free PMC Article
Moussa C, Hebron M, Huang X, Ahn J, Rissman RA, Aisen PS, Turner RS
J Neuroinflammation 2017 Jan 3;14(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s12974-016-0779-0. PMID: 28086917Free PMC Article
Lynch JP 3rd, Fishbein M, Echavarria M
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2011 Aug;32(4):494-511. Epub 2011 Aug 19 doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1283287. PMID: 21858752

Prognosis

Banwell B, Bennett JL, Marignier R, Kim HJ, Brilot F, Flanagan EP, Ramanathan S, Waters P, Tenembaum S, Graves JS, Chitnis T, Brandt AU, Hemingway C, Neuteboom R, Pandit L, Reindl M, Saiz A, Sato DK, Rostasy K, Paul F, Pittock SJ, Fujihara K, Palace J
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):268-282. Epub 2023 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00431-8. PMID: 36706773
Foy SP, Jacoby K, Bota DA, Hunter T, Pan Z, Stawiski E, Ma Y, Lu W, Peng S, Wang CL, Yuen B, Dalmas O, Heeringa K, Sennino B, Conroy A, Bethune MT, Mende I, White W, Kukreja M, Gunturu S, Humphrey E, Hussaini A, An D, Litterman AJ, Quach BB, Ng AHC, Lu Y, Smith C, Campbell KM, Anaya D, Skrdlant L, Huang EY, Mendoza V, Mathur J, Dengler L, Purandare B, Moot R, Yi MC, Funke R, Sibley A, Stallings-Schmitt T, Oh DY, Chmielowski B, Abedi M, Yuan Y, Sosman JA, Lee SM, Schoenfeld AJ, Baltimore D, Heath JR, Franzusoff A, Ribas A, Rao AV, Mandl SJ
Nature 2023 Mar;615(7953):687-696. Epub 2022 Nov 10 doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05531-1. PMID: 36356599Free PMC Article
Nosadini M, Eyre M, Molteni E, Thomas T, Irani SR, Dalmau J, Dale RC, Lim M; International NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis Consensus Group, Anlar B, Armangue T, Benseler S, Cellucci T, Deiva K, Gallentine W, Gombolay G, Gorman MP, Hacohen Y, Jiang Y, Lim BC, Muscal E, Ndondo A, Neuteboom R, Rostásy K, Sakuma H, Sartori S, Sharma S, Tenembaum SN, Van Mater HA, Wells E, Wickstrom R, Yeshokumar AK
JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1333-1344. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3188. PMID: 34542573Free PMC Article
Dubey D, Wilson MR, Clarkson B, Giannini C, Gandhi M, Cheville J, Lennon VA, Eggers S, Devine MF, Mandel-Brehm C, Kryzer T, Hinson SR, Khazaie K, Hales C, Kattah J, Pavelko KD, Andrews P, Eaton JE, Jitprapaikulsan J, Mills JR, Flanagan EP, Zekeridou A, Leibovich B, Fryer J, Torre M, Kaufman C, Thoreson JB, Sagen J, Linnoila JJ, DeRisi JL, Howe CL, McKeon A, Pittock SJ
JAMA Neurol 2020 Nov 1;77(11):1420-1429. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2231. PMID: 32744608Free PMC Article
Moussa C, Hebron M, Huang X, Ahn J, Rissman RA, Aisen PS, Turner RS
J Neuroinflammation 2017 Jan 3;14(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s12974-016-0779-0. PMID: 28086917Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Banwell B, Bennett JL, Marignier R, Kim HJ, Brilot F, Flanagan EP, Ramanathan S, Waters P, Tenembaum S, Graves JS, Chitnis T, Brandt AU, Hemingway C, Neuteboom R, Pandit L, Reindl M, Saiz A, Sato DK, Rostasy K, Paul F, Pittock SJ, Fujihara K, Palace J
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):268-282. Epub 2023 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00431-8. PMID: 36706773
Foy SP, Jacoby K, Bota DA, Hunter T, Pan Z, Stawiski E, Ma Y, Lu W, Peng S, Wang CL, Yuen B, Dalmas O, Heeringa K, Sennino B, Conroy A, Bethune MT, Mende I, White W, Kukreja M, Gunturu S, Humphrey E, Hussaini A, An D, Litterman AJ, Quach BB, Ng AHC, Lu Y, Smith C, Campbell KM, Anaya D, Skrdlant L, Huang EY, Mendoza V, Mathur J, Dengler L, Purandare B, Moot R, Yi MC, Funke R, Sibley A, Stallings-Schmitt T, Oh DY, Chmielowski B, Abedi M, Yuan Y, Sosman JA, Lee SM, Schoenfeld AJ, Baltimore D, Heath JR, Franzusoff A, Ribas A, Rao AV, Mandl SJ
Nature 2023 Mar;615(7953):687-696. Epub 2022 Nov 10 doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05531-1. PMID: 36356599Free PMC Article
Nosadini M, Eyre M, Molteni E, Thomas T, Irani SR, Dalmau J, Dale RC, Lim M; International NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis Consensus Group, Anlar B, Armangue T, Benseler S, Cellucci T, Deiva K, Gallentine W, Gombolay G, Gorman MP, Hacohen Y, Jiang Y, Lim BC, Muscal E, Ndondo A, Neuteboom R, Rostásy K, Sakuma H, Sartori S, Sharma S, Tenembaum SN, Van Mater HA, Wells E, Wickstrom R, Yeshokumar AK
JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1333-1344. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3188. PMID: 34542573Free PMC Article
Dubey D, Wilson MR, Clarkson B, Giannini C, Gandhi M, Cheville J, Lennon VA, Eggers S, Devine MF, Mandel-Brehm C, Kryzer T, Hinson SR, Khazaie K, Hales C, Kattah J, Pavelko KD, Andrews P, Eaton JE, Jitprapaikulsan J, Mills JR, Flanagan EP, Zekeridou A, Leibovich B, Fryer J, Torre M, Kaufman C, Thoreson JB, Sagen J, Linnoila JJ, DeRisi JL, Howe CL, McKeon A, Pittock SJ
JAMA Neurol 2020 Nov 1;77(11):1420-1429. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2231. PMID: 32744608Free PMC Article
Leber AL, Everhart K, Balada-Llasat JM, Cullison J, Daly J, Holt S, Lephart P, Salimnia H, Schreckenberger PC, DesJarlais S, Reed SL, Chapin KC, LeBlanc L, Johnson JK, Soliven NL, Carroll KC, Miller JA, Dien Bard J, Mestas J, Bankowski M, Enomoto T, Hemmert AC, Bourzac KM
J Clin Microbiol 2016 Sep;54(9):2251-61. Epub 2016 Jun 22 doi: 10.1128/JCM.00730-16. PMID: 27335149Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Nguyen L, Yang JH, Goyal S, Irani N, Graves JS
J Affect Disord 2022 Jul 1;308:449-457. Epub 2022 Apr 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.04.027. PMID: 35429531
GBD 2017 US Neurological Disorders Collaborators, Feigin VL, Vos T, Alahdab F, Amit AML, Bärnighausen TW, Beghi E, Beheshti M, Chavan PP, Criqui MH, Desai R, Dhamminda Dharmaratne S, Dorsey ER, Wilder Eagan A, Elgendy IY, Filip I, Giampaoli S, Giussani G, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hole MK, Ikeda T, Owens Johnson C, Kalani R, Khatab K, Khubchandani J, Kim D, Koroshetz WJ, Krishnamoorthy V, Krishnamurthi RV, Liu X, Lo WD, Logroscino G, Mensah GA, Miller TR, Mohammed S, Mokdad AH, Moradi-Lakeh M, Morrison SD, Shivamurthy VKN, Naghavi M, Nichols E, Norrving B, Odell CM, Pupillo E, Radfar A, Roth GA, Shafieesabet A, Sheikh A, Sheikhbahaei S, Shin JI, Singh JA, Steiner TJ, Stovner LJ, Wallin MT, Weiss J, Wu C, Zunt JR, Adelson JD, Murray CJL
JAMA Neurol 2021 Feb 1;78(2):165-176. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.4152. PMID: 33136137Free PMC Article
Guo CY, Gelfand JM, Geschwind MD
Curr Opin Neurol 2020 Jun;33(3):372-380. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000814. PMID: 32374573
Wilson AL, Dhiman RC, Kitron U, Scott TW, van den Berg H, Lindsay SW
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Oct;8(10):e3228. Epub 2014 Oct 9 doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003228. PMID: 25299481Free PMC Article
Aragón TJ, Ulrich S, Fernyak S, Rutherford GW
BMC Public Health 2003 Aug 11;3:26. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-3-26. PMID: 12911836Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...