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Occipital encephalocele

MedGen UID:
4935
Concept ID:
C0014067
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Encephalocele, Occipital; Encephaloceles, Occipital; Notoencephalocele; Notoencephaloceles; Occipital Encephalocele; Occipital Encephaloceles
SNOMED CT: Occipital encephalocele (42376006)
 
HPO: HP:0002085
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0017080
Orphanet: ORPHA268823

Definition

A type of encephalocele (that is, a a protrusion of part of the cranial contents including brain tissue through a congenital opening in the cranium, typically covered with skin or mucous membrane) in the occipital region of the skull. Occipital encephalocele presents as a midline swelling over the occipital bone. It is usually covered with normal full-thickness scalp. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Occipital encephalocele
Follow this link to review classifications for Occipital encephalocele in Orphanet.

Conditions with this feature

Hamartoma of hypothalamus
MedGen UID:
137970
Concept ID:
C0342418
Finding
Pallister-Hall-like syndrome (PHLS) is a pleiotropic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by phenotypic variability. Patients exhibit postaxial polydactyly as well as hypothalamic hamartoma, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphisms. Hirschsprung disease has also been observed (Rubino et al., 2018; Le et al., 2020). Pallister-Hall syndrome (146510) is an autosomal dominant disorder with features overlapping those of PHLS, caused by mutation in the GLI3 gene (165240).
Meckel syndrome, type 3
MedGen UID:
335402
Concept ID:
C1846357
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive pre- or perinatal lethal malformation syndrome characterized by renal cystic dysplasia and variably associated features including developmental anomalies of the central nervous system (typically occipital encephalocele), hepatic ductal dysplasia and cysts, and postaxial polydactyly (summary by Smith et al., 2006). For a more complete phenotypic description and information on genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome, see MKS1 (249000).
Lethal Kniest-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
347372
Concept ID:
C1857100
Disease or Syndrome
Silverman-Handmaker dyssegmental dysplasia (DDSH) is a lethal autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia with anisospondyly and micromelia. Individuals with DDSH also have a flat face, micrognathia, cleft palate and reduced joint mobility, and frequently have an encephalocele. The endochondral growth plate is short, the calcospherites (spherical calcium-phosphorus crystals produced by hypertrophic chondrocytes) are unfused, and there is mucoid degeneration of the resting cartilage (summary by Arikawa-Hirasawa et al., 2001).
Joubert syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
347545
Concept ID:
C1857780
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Hepatic fibrosis-renal cysts-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
347120
Concept ID:
C1859300
Disease or Syndrome
Hepatic fibrosis-renal cysts-intellectual disability syndrome is a rare, syndromic intellectual disability characterized by early developmental delay with failure to thrive, intellectual disability, congenital hepatic fibrosis, renal cystic dysplasia, and dysmorphic facial features (bilateral ptosis, anteverted nostrils, high arched palate, and micrognathia). Variable additional features have been reported, including cerebellar anomalies, postaxial polydactyly, syndactyly, genital anomalies, tachypnea. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1987.
Meckel syndrome, type 5
MedGen UID:
409740
Concept ID:
C1969052
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome is a disorder with severe signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body. The most common features are enlarged kidneys with numerous fluid-filled cysts; an occipital encephalocele, which is a sac-like protrusion of the brain through an opening at the back of the skull; and the presence of extra fingers and toes (polydactyly). Most affected individuals also have a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the liver.\n\nOther signs and symptoms of Meckel syndrome vary widely among affected individuals. Numerous abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) have been reported in people with Meckel syndrome, including a group of birth defects known as neural tube defects. These defects occur when a structure called the neural tube, a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord, fails to close completely during the first few weeks of embryonic development. Meckel syndrome can also cause problems with development of the eyes and other facial features, heart, bones, urinary system, and genitalia.\n\nBecause of their serious health problems, most individuals with Meckel syndrome die before or shortly after birth. Most often, affected infants die of respiratory problems or kidney failure.
Joubert syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
436772
Concept ID:
C2676771
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Meckel syndrome, type 6
MedGen UID:
382942
Concept ID:
C2676790
Disease or Syndrome
Because of their serious health problems, most individuals with Meckel syndrome die before or shortly after birth. Most often, affected infants die of respiratory problems or kidney failure.\n\nOther signs and symptoms of Meckel syndrome vary widely among affected individuals. Numerous abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) have been reported in people with Meckel syndrome, including a group of birth defects known as neural tube defects. These defects occur when a structure called the neural tube, a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord, fails to close completely during the first few weeks of embryonic development. Meckel syndrome can also cause problems with development of the eyes and other facial features, heart, bones, urinary system, and genitalia.\n\nMeckel syndrome is a disorder with severe signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body. The most common features are enlarged kidneys with numerous fluid-filled cysts; an occipital encephalocele, which is a sac-like protrusion of the brain through an opening at the back of the skull; and the presence of extra fingers and toes (polydactyly). Most affected individuals also have a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the liver.
Meckel syndrome, type 10
MedGen UID:
481666
Concept ID:
C3280036
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome is a disorder with severe signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body. The most common features are enlarged kidneys with numerous fluid-filled cysts; an occipital encephalocele, which is a sac-like protrusion of the brain through an opening at the back of the skull; and the presence of extra fingers and toes (polydactyly). Most affected individuals also have a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the liver.\n\nOther signs and symptoms of Meckel syndrome vary widely among affected individuals. Numerous abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) have been reported in people with Meckel syndrome, including a group of birth defects known as neural tube defects. These defects occur when a structure called the neural tube, a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord, fails to close completely during the first few weeks of embryonic development. Meckel syndrome can also cause problems with development of the eyes and other facial features, heart, bones, urinary system, and genitalia.\n\nBecause of their serious health problems, most individuals with Meckel syndrome die before or shortly after birth. Most often, affected infants die of respiratory problems or kidney failure.
Meckel syndrome, type 9
MedGen UID:
481785
Concept ID:
C3280155
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive ciliopathy classically defined by the triad of encephalocele, polydactyly, and renal and biliary ductal dysplasia (summary by Hopp et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome, see MKS1 (249000).
Lethal occipital encephalocele-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
482359
Concept ID:
C3280729
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal occipital encephalocele-skeletal dysplasia syndrome is a rare, genetic, bone development disorder characterized by occipital and parietal bone hypoplasia leading to occipital encephalocele, calvarial mineralization defects, craniosynostosis, radiohumeral fusions, oligodactyly and other skeletal anomalies (arachnodactyly, terminal phalangeal aplasia of the thumbs, bilateral absence of the great toes, pronounced bilateral angulation of femora, shortened limbs, advanced osseous maturation). Fetal death in utero is associated.
Goldenhar syndrome
MedGen UID:
501171
Concept ID:
C3495417
Congenital Abnormality
Craniofacial microsomia-1 (CFM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mandibular hypoplasia, microtia, facial and preauricular skin tags, epibulbar dermoids, and lateral oral clefts, in addition to skeletal and cardiac abnormalities. Inter- and intrafamilial variability has been observed (Timberlake et al., 2021). Hemifacial microsomia is a common birth defect involving the first and second branchial arch derivatives. It typically affects the external ear, middle ear, mandible and temporomandibular joint, muscles of mastication and facial muscles, and other facial soft tissues on the affected side. In some cases, other facial structures, such as the orbit, eye, nose, cranium, or neck, may be involved. Involvement is usually limited to one side, but bilateral involvement is known. In addition to craniofacial anomalies, there may be cardiac, vertebral, and central nervous system defects. The phenotype is highly variable. Most cases are sporadic, but there are rare familial cases that exhibit autosomal dominant inheritance (summary by Poole, 1989 and Hennekam et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniofacial Microsomia CFM2 (620444) is caused by mutation in the FOXI3 gene (612351) on chromosome 2p11. See also hemifacial microsomia with radial defects (141400) and oculoauriculofrontonasal dysplasia (OAFNS; 601452), which may be part of the OAV spectrum. Another disorder that overlaps clinically with CFM is Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS; 107480). Reviews Ronde et al. (2023) reviewed the international classification and clinical management strategies for craniofacial microsomia and microtia, and tabulated survey responses from 57 professionals involved in management of CFM patients. The authors noted that although the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) criteria for CFM exclude isolated microtia from the phenotypic spectrum of CFM, the question of whether isolated microtia can be considered the mildest form of CFM is debated in the literature. No consensus was reached in their survey, as a majority of respondents agreed with the ICHOM criteria but also considered isolated microtia to be a mild form of CFM. In addition, the authors noted that although vertebral, cardiac, and renal anomalies have been reported in CFM patients, there was no consensus on screening for such extracraniofacial anomalies.
Joubert syndrome 18
MedGen UID:
766672
Concept ID:
C3553758
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Cobblestone lissencephaly without muscular or ocular involvement
MedGen UID:
767571
Concept ID:
C3554657
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-5 (LIS5) is an autosomal recessive brain malformation characterized by cobblestone changes in the cortex, more severe in the posterior region, and subcortical band heterotopia. Affected individuals have hydrocephalus, seizures, and severely delayed psychomotor development (Radmanesh et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Meckel syndrome, type 1
MedGen UID:
811346
Concept ID:
C3714506
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome, also known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome, is a severe pleiotropic autosomal recessive developmental disorder caused by dysfunction of primary cilia during early embryogenesis. There is extensive clinical variability and controversy as to the minimum diagnostic criteria. Early reports, including that of Opitz and Howe (1969) and Wright et al. (1994), stated that the classic triad of Meckel syndrome comprises (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system malformation, most commonly occipital encephalocele; and (3) polydactyly, most often postaxial. However, based on a study of 67 patients, Salonen (1984) concluded that the minimum diagnostic criteria are (1) cystic renal disease; (2) CNS malformation, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, including portal fibrosis or ductal proliferation. In a review of Meckel syndrome, Logan et al. (2011) stated that the classic triad first described by Meckel (1822) included occipital encephalocele, cystic kidneys, and fibrotic changes to the liver. Genetic Heterogeneity of Meckel Syndrome See also MKS2 (603194), caused by mutation in the TMEM216 gene (613277) on chromosome 11q12; MKS3 (607361), caused by mutation in the TMEM67 gene (609884) on chromosome 8q; MKS4 (611134), caused by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on chromosome 12q; MKS5 (611561), caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1L gene (610937) on chromosome 16q12; MKS6 (612284), caused by mutation in the CC2D2A gene (612013) on chromosome 4p15; MKS7 (267010), caused by mutation in the NPHP3 (608002) gene on chromosome 3q22; MKS8 (613885), caused by mutation in the TCTN2 gene (613846) on chromosome 12q24; MKS9 (614209), caused by mutation in the B9D1 gene (614144) on chromosome 17p11; MKS10 (614175), caused by mutation in the B9D2 gene (611951) on chromosome 19q13; MKS11 (615397), caused by mutation in the TMEM231 gene (614949) on chromosome 16q23; MKS12 (616258), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on chromosome 1q32; MKS13 (617562), caused by mutation in the TMEM107 gene (616183) on chromosome 17p13; and MKS14 (619879), caused by mutation in the TXNDC15 gene (617778) on chromosome 5q31.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A13
MedGen UID:
815372
Concept ID:
C3809042
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is a autosomal recessive disorder associated with severe neurologic defects and resulting in early infantile death. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designations Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB). The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as dystroglycanopathies (summary by Buysse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Meckel syndrome, type 11
MedGen UID:
815682
Concept ID:
C3809352
Disease or Syndrome
Any Meckel syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TMEM231 gene.
Joubert syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
816542
Concept ID:
C3810212
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Meckel syndrome, type 8
MedGen UID:
854220
Concept ID:
C3836857
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive ciliopathy classically defined by the triad of encephalocele, polydactyly, and renal and biliary ductal dysplasia. Clinical heterogeneity exists even within families (summary by Shaheen et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome, see MKS1 (249000).
VATER association
MedGen UID:
902479
Concept ID:
C4225671
Disease or Syndrome
VATER is a mnemonically useful acronym for the nonrandom association of vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia (TE), and radial or renal dysplasia (R). This combination of associated defects was pointed out by Quan and Smith (1972). Nearly all cases have been sporadic. VACTERL is an acronym for an expanded definition of the association that includes cardiac malformations (C) and limb anomalies (L). The VACTERL association is a spectrum of various combinations of its 6 components, which can be a manifestation of several recognized disorders rather than a distinct anatomic or etiologic entity (Khoury et al., 1983). Also see VATER/VACTERL association with hydrocephalus (VACTERL-H; 276950) and VACTERL with or without hydrocephalus (VACTERLX; 314390).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A1
MedGen UID:
924974
Concept ID:
C4284790
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and early death. The phenotype commonly includes cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly, cerebellar malformations, and retinal malformations. More variable features include macrocephaly or microcephaly, hypoplasia of midline brain structures, ventricular dilatation, microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and congenital contractures (Dobyns et al., 1989). Those with a more severe phenotype characterized as Walker-Warburg syndrome often die within the first year of life, whereas those characterized as having muscle-eye-brain disease may rarely acquire the ability to walk and to speak a few words. These are part of a group of disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with Brain and Eye Anomalies (Type A) Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutation in other genes involved in DAG1 glycosylation: see MDDGA2 (613150), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGA3 (253280), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGA4 (253800), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGA5 (613153), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGA6 (613154), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGA7 (614643), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGA8 (614830) caused by mutation in the GTDC2 gene (POMGNT2; 614828); MDDGA9 (616538), caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGA10 (615041), caused by mutation in the TMEM5 gene (RXYLT1; 605862); MDDGA11 (615181), caused by mutation in the B3GALNT2 gene (610194); MDDGA12 (615249), caused by mutation in the SGK196 gene (POMK; 615247); MDDGA13 (615287), caused by mutation in the B3GNT1 gene (B4GAT1; 605517); and MDDGA14 (615350), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320).
Lissencephaly 8
MedGen UID:
934613
Concept ID:
C4310646
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-8 (LIS8) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, early-onset refractory seizures, and hypotonia. Brain imaging shows variable features, including cortical gyral abnormalities and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, brainstem, and cerebellum (Jerber et al., 2016). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Meckel syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
1627793
Concept ID:
C4539714
Disease or Syndrome
Knobloch syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1642123
Concept ID:
C4551775
Disease or Syndrome
Knobloch syndrome-1 (KNO1) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder primarily characterized by typical eye abnormalities, including high myopia, cataracts, dislocated lens, vitreoretinal degeneration, and retinal detachment, with occipital skull defects, which can range from occipital encephalocele to occult cutis aplasia (summary by Aldahmesh et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Knobloch Syndrome KNO2 (618458) is caused by mutation in the PAK2 gene (605022) on chromosome 3q29.
Orofaciodigital syndrome type 14
MedGen UID:
1635470
Concept ID:
C4706604
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of orofaciodigital syndrome, with autosomal recessive inheritance and C2CD3 mutations. The disease has characteristics of severe microcephaly, trigonocephaly, severe intellectual disability and micropenis, in addition to oral, facial and digital malformations (gingival frenulum, lingual hamartomas, cleft/lobulated tongue, cleft palate, telecanthus, up-slanting palpebral fissures, microretrognathia, postaxial polydactyly of hands and duplication of hallux). Corpus callosum agenesis and vermis hypoplasia with molar tooth sign on brain imaging are also associated.
COACH syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1769861
Concept ID:
C5435651
Disease or Syndrome
Any COACH syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the TMEM67 gene.
Joubert syndrome 39
MedGen UID:
1794210
Concept ID:
C5562000
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-39 (JBTS39) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with variable manifestations. Most affected individuals have developmental delay with poor speech and retinal dystrophy with abnormal eye movements. Brain imaging shows the pathognomonic 'molar tooth sign,' which reflects abnormal cerebellar formation (Van De Weghe et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Meckel syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1809650
Concept ID:
C5676989
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome-14 (MKS14) is a lethal disorder characterized by occipital encephalocele, postaxial polydactyly of the hands and feet, and polycystic kidneys. Stillbirth has been reported, as well as death within hours in a live-born affected individual (Shaheen et al., 2016; Ridnoi et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome, see MKS1 (249000).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Geis T, Rödl T, Topaloğlu H, Balci-Hayta B, Hinreiner S, Müller-Felber W, Schoser B, Mehraein Y, Hübner A, Zirn B, Hoopmann M, Reutter H, Mowat D, Schuierer G, Schara U, Hehr U, Kölbel H
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Jul 16;14(1):179. doi: 10.1186/s13023-019-1119-0. PMID: 31311558Free PMC Article
Chen CP
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2007 Mar;46(1):9-14. doi: 10.1016/S1028-4559(08)60100-X. PMID: 17389183
Alexiev BA, Lin X, Sun CC, Brenner DS
Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006 Aug;130(8):1236-8. doi: 10.5858/2006-130-1236-MS. PMID: 16879033

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Huljev Frković S, Vičić A, Crkvenac Gornik K, Kulišić D, Stipoljev F
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Jun;188(6):1826-1830. Epub 2022 Feb 15 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62684. PMID: 35170189
Cavalheiro S, Silva da Costa MD, Nicácio JM, Dastoli PA, Capraro Suriano I, Barbosa MM, Milani HJ, Pereira Sarmento SG, Carbonari de Faria TC, Moron AF
J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Sep 11;26(6):605-612. doi: 10.3171/2020.3.PEDS19613. PMID: 32916650
Azahraa Haddad F, Qaisi I, Joudeh N, Dajani H, Jumah F, Elmashala A, Adeeb N, Chern JJ, Tubbs RS
Clin Anat 2018 Apr;31(3):314-322. Epub 2018 Feb 20 doi: 10.1002/ca.23051. PMID: 29344999
Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, Bachmann-Gagescu R, Glass IA, Tully HM, Doherty D
Am J Med Genet A 2017 May;173(5):1237-1242. Epub 2017 Mar 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38158. PMID: 28371402
Chen CP
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2007 Mar;46(1):9-14. doi: 10.1016/S1028-4559(08)60100-X. PMID: 17389183

Diagnosis

Cavalheiro S, da Costa MDS, Barbosa MM, Suriano IC, Ottaiano AC, de Andrade Lourenção Freddi T, Ferreira NPFD, Kusano CU, Dastoli PA, Nicácio JM, Sarmento SGP, Moron AF
Childs Nerv Syst 2023 Oct;39(10):2899-2927. Epub 2023 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s00381-023-06109-6. PMID: 37606832
Goulart LC, Ferreira-Filho LA, da Silva MM, Carneiro ISB, Carneiro SS, Vilela-Filho O
Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Oct;37(10):3257-3260. Epub 2021 Jan 6 doi: 10.1007/s00381-020-04989-6. PMID: 33404715
Markovic I, Bosnjakovic P, Milenkovic Z
Curr Pediatr Rev 2020;16(3):200-205. doi: 10.2174/1573396315666191018161535. PMID: 31656152Free PMC Article
Chen CP
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2007 Mar;46(1):9-14. doi: 10.1016/S1028-4559(08)60100-X. PMID: 17389183
Gazioğlu N, Vural M, Seçkin MS, Tüysüz B, Akpir E, Kuday C, Ilikkan B, Erginel A, Cenani A
Childs Nerv Syst 1998 Mar;14(3):142-5. doi: 10.1007/s003810050198. PMID: 9579873

Therapy

Yazawa O, Hirokawa D, Okamoto K, Tanaka M, Shibasaki J, Sato H
Childs Nerv Syst 2022 Jul;38(7):1405-1408. Epub 2021 Nov 5 doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05406-2. PMID: 34739550
Osman B, Roushias S, Hargest R, Narahari K
BMJ Case Rep 2017 Nov 8;2017 doi: 10.1136/bcr-2017-220187. PMID: 29122895Free PMC Article
Dadmehr M, Nejat F, El Khashab M, Ansari S, Baradaran N, Ertiaei A, Bateni F
J Neurosurg Pediatr 2009 Jun;3(6):534-7. doi: 10.3171/2009.2.PEDS08436. PMID: 19485742
Piper JM, Ray WA, Rosa FW
Obstet Gynecol 1992 Sep;80(3 Pt 1):429-32. PMID: 1495700
Fisher NL, Smith DW
Pediatrics 1981 Oct;68(4):480-3. PMID: 7322680

Prognosis

Goulart LC, Ferreira-Filho LA, da Silva MM, Carneiro ISB, Carneiro SS, Vilela-Filho O
Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Oct;37(10):3257-3260. Epub 2021 Jan 6 doi: 10.1007/s00381-020-04989-6. PMID: 33404715
Markovic I, Bosnjakovic P, Milenkovic Z
Curr Pediatr Rev 2020;16(3):200-205. doi: 10.2174/1573396315666191018161535. PMID: 31656152Free PMC Article
Ivashchuk G, Loukas M, Blount JP, Tubbs RS, Oakes WJ
Childs Nerv Syst 2015 Nov;31(11):2035-40. Epub 2015 Aug 9 doi: 10.1007/s00381-015-2853-9. PMID: 26255148
Gazioğlu N, Vural M, Seçkin MS, Tüysüz B, Akpir E, Kuday C, Ilikkan B, Erginel A, Cenani A
Childs Nerv Syst 1998 Mar;14(3):142-5. doi: 10.1007/s003810050198. PMID: 9579873
Lorber J, Schofield JK
Z Kinderchir Grenzgeb 1979 Dec;28(4):347-51. PMID: 551619

Clinical prediction guides

Singh BK, Maria A, Bandyopadhyay T, Choudhary SK
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2022 Dec;35(25):7052-7057. Epub 2021 Jun 13 doi: 10.1080/14767058.2021.1937102. PMID: 34121591
Cavalheiro S, Silva da Costa MD, Nicácio JM, Dastoli PA, Capraro Suriano I, Barbosa MM, Milani HJ, Pereira Sarmento SG, Carbonari de Faria TC, Moron AF
J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Sep 11;26(6):605-612. doi: 10.3171/2020.3.PEDS19613. PMID: 32916650
Geis T, Rödl T, Topaloğlu H, Balci-Hayta B, Hinreiner S, Müller-Felber W, Schoser B, Mehraein Y, Hübner A, Zirn B, Hoopmann M, Reutter H, Mowat D, Schuierer G, Schara U, Hehr U, Kölbel H
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Jul 16;14(1):179. doi: 10.1186/s13023-019-1119-0. PMID: 31311558Free PMC Article
Hofmeister W, Pettersson M, Kurtoglu D, Armenio M, Eisfeldt J, Papadogiannakis N, Gustavsson P, Lindstrand A
Hum Mutat 2018 Apr;39(4):495-505. Epub 2018 Jan 11 doi: 10.1002/humu.23388. PMID: 29285825
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Recent systematic reviews

Yindeedej V, Sungpapan R, Duangprasert G, Noiphithak R
Childs Nerv Syst 2023 Aug;39(8):2161-2167. Epub 2023 Apr 19 doi: 10.1007/s00381-023-05934-z. PMID: 37076587
Young RM, Shafa JS, Myseros JS
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    Clinical resources

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