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Brain fog

MedGen UID:
5131
Concept ID:
C0015676
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: Brain Fog; Cognitive Exhaustion; Cognitive Exhaustions; Cognitive Weariness; Cognitive Wearinesses; Exhaustion, Cognitive; Fatigue, Mental; Fog, Brain; Fog, Mental; Mental Fatigue; Mental Fog; Weariness, Cognitive
 
HPO: HP:0033630

Definition

Brain fog is a type of transient cognitive dysfunction that comprises a constellation of symptoms that impair intellectual functioning to a level that interferes with daily activities, commonly including forgetfulness, mental slowness, difficulty thinking or focusing, a perceived slowing of mental processing speed, inability to find the right words, a sensation that the mind went blank or is "cloudy". Brain fog tends to recur and may be triggered by factors such as physical fatigue, lack of sleep, and prolonged standing or may appear to occur spontaneously. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBrain fog

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Erkilic B, Dalgic GS
Nutr Health 2023 Jun;29(2):223-229. Epub 2023 Jan 2 doi: 10.1177/02601060221144801. PMID: 36591895
Jarrott B, Head R, Pringle KG, Lumbers ER, Martin JH
Pharmacol Res Perspect 2022 Feb;10(1):e00911. doi: 10.1002/prp2.911. PMID: 35029046Free PMC Article
Fedorowski A
J Intern Med 2019 Apr;285(4):352-366. Epub 2018 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/joim.12852. PMID: 30372565

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Thaweethai T, Jolley SE, Karlson EW, Levitan EB, Levy B, McComsey GA, McCorkell L, Nadkarni GN, Parthasarathy S, Singh U, Walker TA, Selvaggi CA, Shinnick DJ, Schulte CCM, Atchley-Challenner R, Alba GA, Alicic R, Altman N, Anglin K, Argueta U, Ashktorab H, Baslet G, Bassett IV, Bateman L, Bedi B, Bhattacharyya S, Bind MA, Blomkalns AL, Bonilla H, Bush PA, Castro M, Chan J, Charney AW, Chen P, Chibnik LB, Chu HY, Clifton RG, Costantine MM, Cribbs SK, Davila Nieves SI, Deeks SG, Duven A, Emery IF, Erdmann N, Erlandson KM, Ernst KC, Farah-Abraham R, Farner CE, Feuerriegel EM, Fleurimont J, Fonseca V, Franko N, Gainer V, Gander JC, Gardner EM, Geng LN, Gibson KS, Go M, Goldman JD, Grebe H, Greenway FL, Habli M, Hafner J, Han JE, Hanson KA, Heath J, Hernandez C, Hess R, Hodder SL, Hoffman MK, Hoover SE, Huang B, Hughes BL, Jagannathan P, John J, Jordan MR, Katz SD, Kaufman ES, Kelly JD, Kelly SW, Kemp MM, Kirwan JP, Klein JD, Knox KS, Krishnan JA, Kumar A, Laiyemo AO, Lambert AA, Lanca M, Lee-Iannotti JK, Logarbo BP, Longo MT, Luciano CA, Lutrick K, Maley JH, Marathe JG, Marconi V, Marshall GD, Martin CF, Matusov Y, Mehari A, Mendez-Figueroa H, Mermelstein R, Metz TD, Morse R, Mosier J, Mouchati C, Mullington J, Murphy SN, Neuman RB, Nikolich JZ, Ofotokun I, Ojemakinde E, Palatnik A, Palomares K, Parimon T, Parry S, Patterson JE, Patterson TF, Patzer RE, Peluso MJ, Pemu P, Pettker CM, Plunkett BA, Pogreba-Brown K, Poppas A, Quigley JG, Reddy U, Reece R, Reeder H, Reeves WB, Reiman EM, Rischard F, Rosand J, Rouse DJ, Ruff A, Saade G, Sandoval GJ, Schlater SM, Shepherd F, Sherif ZA, Simhan H, Singer NG, Skupski DW, Sowles A, Sparks JA, Sukhera FI, Taylor BS, Teunis L, Thomas RJ, Thorp JM, Thuluvath P, Ticotsky A, Tita AT, Tuttle KR, Urdaneta AE, Valdivieso D, VanWagoner TM, Vasey A, Verduzco-Gutierrez M, Wallace ZS, Ward HD, Warren DE, Weiner SJ, Welch S, Whiteheart SW, Wiley Z, Wisnivesky JP, Yee LM, Zisis S, Horwitz LI, Foulkes AS; RECOVER Consortium
JAMA 2023 Jun 13;329(22):1934-1946. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.8823. PMID: 37278994Free PMC Article
Maki PM, Jaff NG
Climacteric 2022 Dec;25(6):570-578. Epub 2022 Sep 30 doi: 10.1080/13697137.2022.2122792. PMID: 36178170
Ahmad SJ, Feigen CM, Vazquez JP, Kobets AJ, Altschul DJ
J Integr Neurosci 2022 Apr 6;21(3):77. doi: 10.31083/j.jin2103077. PMID: 35633158
Ceban F, Ling S, Lui LMW, Lee Y, Gill H, Teopiz KM, Rodrigues NB, Subramaniapillai M, Di Vincenzo JD, Cao B, Lin K, Mansur RB, Ho RC, Rosenblat JD, Miskowiak KW, Vinberg M, Maletic V, McIntyre RS
Brain Behav Immun 2022 Mar;101:93-135. Epub 2021 Dec 29 doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.12.020. PMID: 34973396Free PMC Article
Asadi-Pooya AA, Akbari A, Emami A, Lotfi M, Rostamihosseinkhani M, Nemati H, Barzegar Z, Kabiri M, Zeraatpisheh Z, Farjoud-Kouhanjani M, Jafari A, Sasannia S, Ashrafi S, Nazeri M, Nasiri S, Shahisavandi M
J Med Virol 2022 Mar;94(3):979-984. Epub 2021 Oct 24 doi: 10.1002/jmv.27404. PMID: 34672377Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Lippi G, Sanchis-Gomar F, Henry BM
Pol Arch Intern Med 2023 Apr 19;133(4) Epub 2023 Jan 9 doi: 10.20452/pamw.16402. PMID: 36626183
Sebastian SA, Co EL, Panthangi V, Jain E, Ishak A, Shah Y, Vasavada A, Padda I
Curr Probl Cardiol 2022 Dec;47(12):101384. Epub 2022 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101384. PMID: 36055438
Premraj L, Kannapadi NV, Briggs J, Seal SM, Battaglini D, Fanning J, Suen J, Robba C, Fraser J, Cho SM
J Neurol Sci 2022 Mar 15;434:120162. Epub 2022 Jan 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120162. PMID: 35121209Free PMC Article
Ceban F, Ling S, Lui LMW, Lee Y, Gill H, Teopiz KM, Rodrigues NB, Subramaniapillai M, Di Vincenzo JD, Cao B, Lin K, Mansur RB, Ho RC, Rosenblat JD, Miskowiak KW, Vinberg M, Maletic V, McIntyre RS
Brain Behav Immun 2022 Mar;101:93-135. Epub 2021 Dec 29 doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.12.020. PMID: 34973396Free PMC Article
Asadi-Pooya AA, Akbari A, Emami A, Lotfi M, Rostamihosseinkhani M, Nemati H, Barzegar Z, Kabiri M, Zeraatpisheh Z, Farjoud-Kouhanjani M, Jafari A, Sasannia S, Ashrafi S, Nazeri M, Nasiri S, Shahisavandi M
J Med Virol 2022 Mar;94(3):979-984. Epub 2021 Oct 24 doi: 10.1002/jmv.27404. PMID: 34672377Free PMC Article

Therapy

Sebastian SA, Co EL, Panthangi V, Jain E, Ishak A, Shah Y, Vasavada A, Padda I
Curr Probl Cardiol 2022 Dec;47(12):101384. Epub 2022 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101384. PMID: 36055438
Premraj L, Kannapadi NV, Briggs J, Seal SM, Battaglini D, Fanning J, Suen J, Robba C, Fraser J, Cho SM
J Neurol Sci 2022 Mar 15;434:120162. Epub 2022 Jan 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120162. PMID: 35121209Free PMC Article
Ceban F, Ling S, Lui LMW, Lee Y, Gill H, Teopiz KM, Rodrigues NB, Subramaniapillai M, Di Vincenzo JD, Cao B, Lin K, Mansur RB, Ho RC, Rosenblat JD, Miskowiak KW, Vinberg M, Maletic V, McIntyre RS
Brain Behav Immun 2022 Mar;101:93-135. Epub 2021 Dec 29 doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.12.020. PMID: 34973396Free PMC Article
Theoharides TC, Cholevas C, Polyzoidis K, Politis A
Biofactors 2021 Mar;47(2):232-241. Epub 2021 Apr 12 doi: 10.1002/biof.1726. PMID: 33847020Free PMC Article
Fedorowski A
J Intern Med 2019 Apr;285(4):352-366. Epub 2018 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/joim.12852. PMID: 30372565

Prognosis

Lippi G, Sanchis-Gomar F, Henry BM
Pol Arch Intern Med 2023 Apr 19;133(4) Epub 2023 Jan 9 doi: 10.20452/pamw.16402. PMID: 36626183
Bai F, Tomasoni D, Falcinella C, Barbanotti D, Castoldi R, Mulè G, Augello M, Mondatore D, Allegrini M, Cona A, Tesoro D, Tagliaferri G, Viganò O, Suardi E, Tincati C, Beringheli T, Varisco B, Battistini CL, Piscopo K, Vegni E, Tavelli A, Terzoni S, Marchetti G, Monforte AD
Clin Microbiol Infect 2022 Apr;28(4):611.e9-611.e16. Epub 2021 Nov 9 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.11.002. PMID: 34763058Free PMC Article
Kverno K
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2021 Nov;59(11):9-13. Epub 2021 Nov 1 doi: 10.3928/02793695-20211013-01. PMID: 34714198
Fedorowski A
J Intern Med 2019 Apr;285(4):352-366. Epub 2018 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/joim.12852. PMID: 30372565
Wells R, Spurrier AJ, Linz D, Gallagher C, Mahajan R, Sanders P, Page A, Lau DH
Vasc Health Risk Manag 2018;14:1-11. Epub 2017 Dec 29 doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S127393. PMID: 29343965Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Hampshire A, Azor A, Atchison C, Trender W, Hellyer PJ, Giunchiglia V, Husain M, Cooke GS, Cooper E, Lound A, Donnelly CA, Chadeau-Hyam M, Ward H, Elliott P
N Engl J Med 2024 Feb 29;390(9):806-818. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2311330. PMID: 38416429Free PMC Article
Thaweethai T, Jolley SE, Karlson EW, Levitan EB, Levy B, McComsey GA, McCorkell L, Nadkarni GN, Parthasarathy S, Singh U, Walker TA, Selvaggi CA, Shinnick DJ, Schulte CCM, Atchley-Challenner R, Alba GA, Alicic R, Altman N, Anglin K, Argueta U, Ashktorab H, Baslet G, Bassett IV, Bateman L, Bedi B, Bhattacharyya S, Bind MA, Blomkalns AL, Bonilla H, Bush PA, Castro M, Chan J, Charney AW, Chen P, Chibnik LB, Chu HY, Clifton RG, Costantine MM, Cribbs SK, Davila Nieves SI, Deeks SG, Duven A, Emery IF, Erdmann N, Erlandson KM, Ernst KC, Farah-Abraham R, Farner CE, Feuerriegel EM, Fleurimont J, Fonseca V, Franko N, Gainer V, Gander JC, Gardner EM, Geng LN, Gibson KS, Go M, Goldman JD, Grebe H, Greenway FL, Habli M, Hafner J, Han JE, Hanson KA, Heath J, Hernandez C, Hess R, Hodder SL, Hoffman MK, Hoover SE, Huang B, Hughes BL, Jagannathan P, John J, Jordan MR, Katz SD, Kaufman ES, Kelly JD, Kelly SW, Kemp MM, Kirwan JP, Klein JD, Knox KS, Krishnan JA, Kumar A, Laiyemo AO, Lambert AA, Lanca M, Lee-Iannotti JK, Logarbo BP, Longo MT, Luciano CA, Lutrick K, Maley JH, Marathe JG, Marconi V, Marshall GD, Martin CF, Matusov Y, Mehari A, Mendez-Figueroa H, Mermelstein R, Metz TD, Morse R, Mosier J, Mouchati C, Mullington J, Murphy SN, Neuman RB, Nikolich JZ, Ofotokun I, Ojemakinde E, Palatnik A, Palomares K, Parimon T, Parry S, Patterson JE, Patterson TF, Patzer RE, Peluso MJ, Pemu P, Pettker CM, Plunkett BA, Pogreba-Brown K, Poppas A, Quigley JG, Reddy U, Reece R, Reeder H, Reeves WB, Reiman EM, Rischard F, Rosand J, Rouse DJ, Ruff A, Saade G, Sandoval GJ, Schlater SM, Shepherd F, Sherif ZA, Simhan H, Singer NG, Skupski DW, Sowles A, Sparks JA, Sukhera FI, Taylor BS, Teunis L, Thomas RJ, Thorp JM, Thuluvath P, Ticotsky A, Tita AT, Tuttle KR, Urdaneta AE, Valdivieso D, VanWagoner TM, Vasey A, Verduzco-Gutierrez M, Wallace ZS, Ward HD, Warren DE, Weiner SJ, Welch S, Whiteheart SW, Wiley Z, Wisnivesky JP, Yee LM, Zisis S, Horwitz LI, Foulkes AS; RECOVER Consortium
JAMA 2023 Jun 13;329(22):1934-1946. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.8823. PMID: 37278994Free PMC Article
Lippi G, Sanchis-Gomar F, Henry BM
Pol Arch Intern Med 2023 Apr 19;133(4) Epub 2023 Jan 9 doi: 10.20452/pamw.16402. PMID: 36626183
Bai F, Tomasoni D, Falcinella C, Barbanotti D, Castoldi R, Mulè G, Augello M, Mondatore D, Allegrini M, Cona A, Tesoro D, Tagliaferri G, Viganò O, Suardi E, Tincati C, Beringheli T, Varisco B, Battistini CL, Piscopo K, Vegni E, Tavelli A, Terzoni S, Marchetti G, Monforte AD
Clin Microbiol Infect 2022 Apr;28(4):611.e9-611.e16. Epub 2021 Nov 9 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.11.002. PMID: 34763058Free PMC Article
Graham EL, Clark JR, Orban ZS, Lim PH, Szymanski AL, Taylor C, DiBiase RM, Jia DT, Balabanov R, Ho SU, Batra A, Liotta EM, Koralnik IJ
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 May;8(5):1073-1085. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1002/acn3.51350. PMID: 33755344Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

van der Feltz-Cornelis C, Turk F, Sweetman J, Khunti K, Gabbay M, Shepherd J, Montgomery H, Strain WD, Lip GYH, Wootton D, Watkins CL, Cuthbertson DJ, Williams N, Banerjee A
Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2024 May-Jun;88:10-22. Epub 2024 Feb 27 doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2024.02.009. PMID: 38447388
Velichkovsky BB, Razvaliaeva AY, Khlebnikova AA, Manukyan PA, Kasatkin VN, Barmin AV
Behav Neurol 2023;2023:1094267. Epub 2023 Feb 9 doi: 10.1155/2023/1094267. PMID: 36815864Free PMC Article
Chari DA, Madhani A, Sharon JD, Lewis RF
J Neurol 2022 Nov;269(11):5831-5842. Epub 2022 Aug 5 doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11289-3. PMID: 35930032
Wu REY, Khan FM, Hockin BCD, Lobban TCA, Sanatani S, Claydon VE
Clin Auton Res 2022 Jun;32(3):185-203. Epub 2022 Jun 10 doi: 10.1007/s10286-022-00868-z. PMID: 35689118Free PMC Article
Ceban F, Ling S, Lui LMW, Lee Y, Gill H, Teopiz KM, Rodrigues NB, Subramaniapillai M, Di Vincenzo JD, Cao B, Lin K, Mansur RB, Ho RC, Rosenblat JD, Miskowiak KW, Vinberg M, Maletic V, McIntyre RS
Brain Behav Immun 2022 Mar;101:93-135. Epub 2021 Dec 29 doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.12.020. PMID: 34973396Free PMC Article

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