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Growth Disorders

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
Synonyms: Disorder, Growth; Growth Disorder; Growth, Stunted; Stunted Growth; Stunting; Stuntings


Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth. [from MeSH]

Professional guidelines


Mauras N, Ross J, Mericq V
Endocr Rev 2023 Jan 12;44(1):1-13. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnac014. PMID: 35639981
Zhou E, Hauser BR, Jee YH
Curr Opin Pediatr 2021 Aug 1;33(4):458-463. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001033. PMID: 34101704Free PMC Article
Wolff H, Fischer TW, Blume-Peytavi U
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016 May 27;113(21):377-86. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0377. PMID: 27504707Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies


Pollock NI, Cohen LE
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:745932. Epub 2021 Oct 22 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.745932. PMID: 34745010Free PMC Article
Keppler-Noreuil KM, Parker VE, Darling TN, Martinez-Agosto JA
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2016 Dec;172(4):402-421. Epub 2016 Nov 18 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31531. PMID: 27860216Free PMC Article
de Onis M, Branca F
Matern Child Nutr 2016 May;12 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):12-26. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12231. PMID: 27187907Free PMC Article
Kozin SH, Zlotolow DA
J Hand Surg Am 2015 Oct;40(10):2090-8. Epub 2015 Sep 1 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2015.03.033. PMID: 26341718
Zimmermann MB
Endocr Rev 2009 Jun;30(4):376-408. Epub 2009 May 21 doi: 10.1210/er.2009-0011. PMID: 19460960


Chiarelli F
Minerva Pediatr 2020 Dec;72(6):449-451. Epub 2020 Jul 29 doi: 10.23736/S0026-4946.20.06018-1. PMID: 32731737
Jee YH, Baron J, Nilsson O
Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Aug;30(4):541-547. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000653. PMID: 29787394Free PMC Article
Valdes A, Cervantes J, Delgado Y, Valdes M, Granados H
Pediatr Ann 2018 Jan 1;47(1):e29-e35. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20171215-02. PMID: 29323694
Kiess W, Penke M, Pfäffle R, Körner A, Kratzsch J
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2015 Sep;28(9-10):971-3. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2015-0321. PMID: 26353173
Ambler G
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002 Sep;16(3):519-46. doi: 10.1053/beem.2002.0207. PMID: 12464232


Smith SM, Wallace E, O'Dowd T, Fortin M
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jan 15;1(1):CD006560. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006560.pub4. PMID: 33448337Free PMC Article
Goudet SM, Bogin BA, Madise NJ, Griffiths PL
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Jun 17;6(6):CD011695. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011695.pub2. PMID: 31204795Free PMC Article
Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Rizvi A, Gaffey MF, Walker N, Horton S, Webb P, Lartey A, Black RE; Lancet Nutrition Interventions Review Group, the Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group
Lancet 2013 Aug 3;382(9890):452-477. Epub 2013 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60996-4. PMID: 23746776
Joshi N, Rajeshwari K
J Postgrad Med 2009 Oct-Dec;55(4):296-300. doi: 10.4103/0022-3859.58942. PMID: 20083885
Keating GM
BioDrugs 2008;22(3):177-88. doi: 10.2165/00063030-200822030-00004. PMID: 18481900


Sävendahl L, Polak M, Backeljauw P, Blair JC, Miller BS, Rohrer TR, Hokken-Koelega A, Pietropoli A, Kelepouris N, Ross J
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 13;106(6):1728-1741. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab080. PMID: 33571362Free PMC Article
Schilbach K, Bidlingmaier M
Arch Endocrinol Metab 2019 Nov-Dec;63(6):618-629. doi: 10.20945/2359-3997000000192. PMID: 31939487Free PMC Article
Taylor-Miller T, Simm PJ
Aust Fam Physician 2017 Dec;46(12):913-917. PMID: 29464228
Kozin SH, Zlotolow DA
J Hand Surg Am 2015 Oct;40(10):2090-8. Epub 2015 Sep 1 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2015.03.033. PMID: 26341718
Poindexter B
World Rev Nutr Diet 2014;110:228-38. Epub 2014 Apr 11 doi: 10.1159/000358471. PMID: 24751633

Clinical prediction guides

Xu C, Wu Y, Xu S
Helicobacter 2022 Feb;27(1):e12861. Epub 2022 Jan 8 doi: 10.1111/hel.12861. PMID: 34997950
Clayton PE, Whatmore AJ
Growth Horm IGF Res 2019 Oct-Dec;48-49:60-64. Epub 2019 Oct 24 doi: 10.1016/j.ghir.2019.10.003. PMID: 31706073
Kalafat E, Khalil A
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec;30(6):344-354. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000490. PMID: 30299319
Mahmudiono T, Sumarmi S, Rosenkranz RR
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2017 Mar;26(2):317-325. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.012016.01. PMID: 28244712
Prentice AM, Darboe MK
Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 2008;61:197-210. doi: 10.1159/000113495. PMID: 18196953

Recent systematic reviews

Katoch OR
Nutrition 2022 Apr;96:111565. Epub 2021 Dec 11 doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2021.111565. PMID: 35066367
Thurstans S, Sessions N, Dolan C, Sadler K, Cichon B, Isanaka S, Roberfroid D, Stobaugh H, Webb P, Khara T
Matern Child Nutr 2022 Jan;18(1):e13246. Epub 2021 Sep 5 doi: 10.1111/mcn.13246. PMID: 34486229Free PMC Article
Vilcins D, Sly PD, Jagals P
Ann Glob Health 2018 Nov 5;84(4):551-562. doi: 10.9204/aogh.2361. PMID: 30779500Free PMC Article
Beal T, Tumilowicz A, Sutrisna A, Izwardy D, Neufeld LM
Matern Child Nutr 2018 Oct;14(4):e12617. Epub 2018 May 17 doi: 10.1111/mcn.12617. PMID: 29770565Free PMC Article
Akombi BJ, Agho KE, Hall JJ, Wali N, Renzaho AMN, Merom D
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Aug 1;14(8) doi: 10.3390/ijerph14080863. PMID: 28788108Free PMC Article

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