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Cardiac arrest

MedGen UID:
5456
Concept ID:
C0018790
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: Arrest, Cardiac; Arrest, Heart; Asystole; Asystoles; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Arrest
SNOMED CT: Asystole (397829000); Cardiac standstill (397829000); Cardiac arrest (410429000)
 
HPO: HP:0001695
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0000745

Definition

An abrupt loss of heart function. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Carnitine acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
MedGen UID:
91000
Concept ID:
C0342791
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a critical component of the carnitine shuttle, which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acylcarnitines across the inner mitochondrial membrane. CACT deficiency causes a defect in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid ß-oxidation, with variable clinical severity. Severe neonatal-onset disease is most common, with symptoms evident within two days after birth; attenuated cases may present in the first months of life. Hyperammonemia and cardiac arrhythmia are prominent in early-onset disease, with high rates of cardiac arrest. Other clinical features are typical for disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation: poor feeding, lethargy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hypotonia, transaminitis, liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly, and rhabdomyolysis. Univentricular or biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ranging from mild to severe, may respond to appropriate dietary and medical therapies. Hyperammonemia is difficult to treat and is an important determinant of long-term neurocognitive outcome. Affected individuals with early-onset disease typically experience brain injury at presentation, and have recurrent hyperammonemia leading to developmental delay / intellectual disability. Affected individuals with later-onset disease have milder symptoms and are less likely to experience recurrent hyperammonemia, allowing a better developmental outcome. Prompt treatment of the presenting episode to prevent hypoglycemic, hypoxic, or hyperammonemic brain injury may allow normal growth and development.
Sick sinus syndrome 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
320273
Concept ID:
C1834144
Disease or Syndrome
Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is a group of related heart conditions that can affect how the heart beats. "Sick sinus" refers to the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is an area of specialized cells in the heart that functions as a natural pacemaker. The SA node generates electrical impulses that start each heartbeat. These signals travel from the SA node to the rest of the heart, signaling the heart (cardiac) muscle to contract and pump blood. In people with sick sinus syndrome, the SA node does not function normally. In some cases, it does not produce the right signals to trigger a regular heartbeat. In others, abnormalities disrupt the electrical impulses and prevent them from reaching the rest of the heart.\n\nSick sinus syndrome tends to cause the heartbeat to be too slow (bradycardia), although occasionally the heartbeat is too fast (tachycardia). In some cases, the heartbeat rapidly switches from being too fast to being too slow, a condition known as tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. Symptoms related to abnormal heartbeats can include dizziness, light-headedness, fainting (syncope), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), and confusion or memory problems. During exercise, many affected individuals experience chest pain, difficulty breathing, or excessive tiredness (fatigue). Once symptoms of sick sinus syndrome appear, they usually worsen with time. However, some people with the condition never experience any related health problems.\n\nSick sinus syndrome occurs most commonly in older adults, although it can be diagnosed in people of any age. The condition increases the risk of several life-threatening problems involving the heart and blood vessels. These include a heart rhythm abnormality called atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and stroke.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 9
MedGen UID:
373205
Concept ID:
C1836906
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 8
MedGen UID:
324806
Concept ID:
C1837471
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYL3 gene.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 4
MedGen UID:
350526
Concept ID:
C1861862
Disease or Syndrome
Nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy tends to be milder. This form typically begins later in life than familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and affected individuals have a lower risk of serious cardiac events and sudden death than people with the familial form.\n\nWhile most people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are symptom-free or have only mild symptoms, this condition can have serious consequences. It can cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that may be life threatening. People with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have an increased risk of sudden death, even if they have no other symptoms of the condition. A small number of affected individuals develop potentially fatal heart failure, which may require heart transplantation.\n\nThe symptoms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are variable, even within the same family. Many affected individuals have no symptoms. Other people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may experience chest pain; shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion; a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations); lightheadedness; dizziness; and fainting.\n\nIn familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac thickening usually occurs in the interventricular septum, which is the muscular wall that separates the lower left chamber of the heart (the left ventricle) from the lower right chamber (the right ventricle). In some people, thickening of the interventricular septum impedes the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the heart, which may lead to an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur) and other signs and symptoms of the condition. Other affected individuals do not have physical obstruction of blood flow, but the pumping of blood is less efficient, which can also lead to symptoms of the condition. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often begins in adolescence or young adulthood, although it can develop at any time throughout life.\n\nHypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heart condition characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart (cardiac) muscle. When multiple members of a family have the condition, it is known as familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also occurs in people with no family history; these cases are considered nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 
Short QT syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
355891
Concept ID:
C1865020
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome is a cardiac channelopathy associated with a predisposition to atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Patients have a structurally normal heart, but electrocardiography (ECG) exhibits abbreviated QTc (Bazett's corrected QT) intervals of less than 360 ms (summary by Moreno et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Short QT Syndrome Short QT syndrome-2 (SQT2; 609621) is caused by mutation in the KCNQ1 gene (607542). SQT3 (609622) is caused by mutation in the KCNJ2 gene (600681). SQT7 (620231) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A3 gene (106195).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1AA
MedGen UID:
393713
Concept ID:
C2677338
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ACTN2 gene.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 11
MedGen UID:
436962
Concept ID:
C2677506
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant subtype of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutation(s) in the ACTC1 gene, encoding actin, alpha cardiac muscle 1.
Long QT syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
395635
Concept ID:
C2678485
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Brugada syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
413473
Concept ID:
C2751089
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on EKG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood, although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome.
Long QT syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
462083
Concept ID:
C3150733
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Long QT syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
462293
Concept ID:
C3150943
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Long QT syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
462303
Concept ID:
C3150953
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 3
MedGen UID:
462813
Concept ID:
C3151463
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 4
MedGen UID:
766961
Concept ID:
C3554047
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 5
MedGen UID:
815866
Concept ID:
C3809536
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Atrial conduction disease
MedGen UID:
863722
Concept ID:
C4015285
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic cardiac disease characterized by variably expressed atrial tachyarrhythmia (such as atrial flutter, paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation, ectopic atrial tachycardia, or multifocal atrial tachycardia), infra-Hisian conduction system disease, and vulnerability to dilated cardiomyopathy. Age of onset ranges between childhood and adulthood.
Long QT syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
864108
Concept ID:
C4015671
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Long QT syndrome 15
MedGen UID:
864132
Concept ID:
C4015695
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies 3
MedGen UID:
906997
Concept ID:
C4225421
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or anophthalmia and linear skin defects, usually involving the face and neck, which are present at birth and heal with age, leaving minimal residual scarring. Other findings can include a wide variety of other ocular abnormalities (e.g., corneal anomalies, orbital cysts, cataracts), central nervous system involvement (e.g., structural anomalies, developmental delay, infantile seizures), cardiac concerns (e.g., hypertrophic or oncocytic cardiomyopathy, atrial or ventricular septal defects, arrhythmias), short stature, diaphragmatic hernia, nail dystrophy, hearing impairment, and genitourinary malformations. Inter- and intrafamilial variability is described.
Brugada syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1646402
Concept ID:
C4551804
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on EKG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood, although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome.
Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic 27
MedGen UID:
1648325
Concept ID:
C4748014
Disease or Syndrome
CMH27 is a severe, early-onset cardiomyopathy with morphologic features of both dilated and hypertrophic disease, characterized by biventricular involvement and atypical distribution of hypertrophy. Heterozygotes are at increased risk of developing cardiomyopathy (Almomani et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, see CMH1 (192600). An oligogenic form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, involving heterozygous mutations in the ALPK3, TTN (188840), and MYL3 (160790) genes has also been reported in 1 family.
Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 1
MedGen UID:
1748867
Concept ID:
C5399977
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 2 (MC4DN2) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms at birth or in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have severe hypotonia, often associated with feeding difficulties and respiratory insufficiency necessitating tube feeding and mechanical ventilation. The vast majority of patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first days or weeks of life, which usually leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Patients also show neurologic abnormalities, including developmental delay, nystagmus, fasciculations, dystonia, EEG changes, and brain imaging abnormalities compatible with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). There may also be evidence of systemic involvement with hepatomegaly and myopathy, although neurogenic muscle atrophy is more common and may resemble spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA1; 253300). Serum lactate is increased, and laboratory studies show decreased mitochondrial complex IV protein and activity levels in various tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Most patients die in infancy of cardiorespiratory failure (summary by Papadopoulou et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5
MedGen UID:
1731112
Concept ID:
C5436453
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-5 (AMC5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe joint contractures apparent at birth. Affected individuals usually have hypertonia and abnormal movements suggestive of dystonia, as well as feeding and/or breathing difficulties. More variable features may include poor overall growth, strabismus, dysmorphic facies, and global developmental delay with impaired speech (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2017).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 45
MedGen UID:
1731010
Concept ID:
C5436461
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-45 (COXPD45) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth apparent from infancy, global developmental delay, seizures, and acute progressive neurologic deterioration with loss of skills. Other features may include dysmorphic facies and lesions on brain imaging. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and COXPD in patient tissues, consistent with a mitochondrial defect (summary by Serre et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Martsolf syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1778114
Concept ID:
C5542298
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Recurrent metabolic encephalomyopathic crises-rhabdomyolysis-cardiac arrhythmia-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798947
Concept ID:
C5567524
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias can present in acute metabolic crisis (hypoglycemia, elevated lactate, mild hyperammonemia) or with developmental delay, regression, and/or seizures. The acute presentation varies from profound muscle weakness, ataxia, and/or disorientation to a comatose state. Individuals can present with intermittent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The first episode of myoglobinuria has been known to occur as early as age five months. Acute renal tubular damage due to myoglobinuria can result in acute kidney injury and renal failure. During acute illness, transient electrocardiogram changes can be seen; the most common is QT prolongation. Life-threatening recurrent ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes occurs primarily during times of acute illness. Individuals who do not present in metabolic crises may present with gait incoordination, progressively unsteady gait, difficulty with speech, or clumsiness. Intellectual disability of variable severity is observed in almost all individuals. Seizures are observed outside the periods of crises in more than 75% of individuals. Hypothyroidism has been reported in more than one third of individuals.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Wyckoff MH, Greif R, Morley PT, Ng KC, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Soar J, Cheng A, Drennan IR, Liley HG, Scholefield BR, Smyth MA, Welsford M, Zideman DA, Acworth J, Aickin R, Andersen LW, Atkins D, Berry DC, Bhanji F, Bierens J, Borra V, Böttiger BW, Bradley RN, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Callaway CW, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castrén M, Chang WT, Charlton NP, Chung SP, Considine J, Costa-Nobre DT, Couper K, Couto TB, Dainty KN, Davis PG, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, Deakin CD, Djärv T, Donnino MW, Douma MJ, Duff JP, Dunne CL, Eastwood K, El-Naggar W, Fabres JG, Fawke J, Finn J, Foglia EE, Folke F, Gilfoyle E, Goolsby CA, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian AM, Guinsburg R, Hirsch KG, Holmberg MJ, Hosono S, Hsieh MJ, Hsu CH, Ikeyama T, Isayama T, Johnson NJ, Kapadia VS, Kawakami MD, Kim HS, Kleinman M, Kloeck DA, Kudenchuk PJ, Lagina AT, Lauridsen KG, Lavonas EJ, Lee HC, Lin YJ, Lockey AS, Maconochie IK, Madar RJ, Malta Hansen C, Masterson S, Matsuyama T, McKinlay CJD, Meyran D, Morgan P, Morrison LJ, Nadkarni V, Nakwa FL, Nation KJ, Nehme Z, Nemeth M, Neumar RW, Nicholson T, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, Norii T, Nuthall GA, O'Neill BJ, Ong YG, Orkin AM, Paiva EF, Parr MJ, Patocka C, Pellegrino JL, Perkins GD, Perlman JM, Rabi Y, Reis AG, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Roehr CC, Rüdiger M, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Sawyer TL, Schexnayder SM, Schmölzer GM, Schnaubelt S, Semeraro F, Skrifvars MB, Smith CM, Sugiura T, Tijssen JA, Trevisanuto D, Van de Voorde P, Wang TL, Weiner GM, Wyllie JP, Yang CW, Yeung J, Nolan JP, Berg KM; Collaborators
Circulation 2022 Dec 20;146(25):e483-e557. Epub 2022 Nov 3 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000001095. PMID: 36325905
Trott T, Bowman J
Emerg Med Clin North Am 2022 Aug;40(3):565-581. Epub 2022 Jul 8 doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2022.05.008. PMID: 35953217
Al-Khatib SM, Stevenson WG, Ackerman MJ, Bryant WJ, Callans DJ, Curtis AB, Deal BJ, Dickfeld T, Field ME, Fonarow GC, Gillis AM, Granger CB, Hammill SC, Hlatky MA, Joglar JA, Kay GN, Matlock DD, Myerburg RJ, Page RL
J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Oct 2;72(14):e91-e220. Epub 2018 Aug 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.054. PMID: 29097296

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Holmberg MJ, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian AM, Sandroni C, Hsu CH, Gardner RM, Lind PC, Eggertsen MA, Johannsen CM, Andersen LW
Resuscitation 2023 Jan;182:109665. Epub 2022 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2022.12.003. PMID: 36521684
Penketh J, Nolan JP
Crit Care 2022 Dec 6;26(1):376. doi: 10.1186/s13054-022-04247-y. PMID: 36474215Free PMC Article
Paal P, Pasquier M, Darocha T, Lechner R, Kosinski S, Wallner B, Zafren K, Brugger H
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jan 3;19(1) doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010501. PMID: 35010760Free PMC Article
Andersen LW, Holmberg MJ, Berg KM, Donnino MW, Granfeldt A
JAMA 2019 Mar 26;321(12):1200-1210. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.1696. PMID: 30912843Free PMC Article
Smith JE, Rickard A, Wise D
J R Soc Med 2015 Jan;108(1):11-6. doi: 10.1177/0141076814560837. PMID: 25572990Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Paal P, Pasquier M, Darocha T, Lechner R, Kosinski S, Wallner B, Zafren K, Brugger H
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jan 3;19(1) doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010501. PMID: 35010760Free PMC Article
Morgan RW, Kirschen MP, Kilbaugh TJ, Sutton RM, Topjian AA
JAMA Pediatr 2021 Mar 1;175(3):293-302. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.5039. PMID: 33226408Free PMC Article
Ong MEH, Perkins GD, Cariou A
Lancet 2018 Mar 10;391(10124):980-988. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30316-7. PMID: 29536862
Napp LC, Kühn C, Bauersachs J
Herz 2017 Feb;42(1):27-44. doi: 10.1007/s00059-016-4523-4. PMID: 28127638Free PMC Article
Binks A, Nolan JP
Minerva Anestesiol 2010 May;76(5):362-8. PMID: 20395899

Therapy

Gao Y, Sun T, Yuan D, Liang H, Wan Y, Yuan B, Zhu C, Li Y, Yu Y
Resuscitation 2021 Dec;169:124-135. Epub 2021 Oct 24 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.10.028. PMID: 34699924
Rossetti AO, Alvarez V
Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Apr 1;34(2):172-181. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000899. PMID: 33664203
Finn J, Jacobs I, Williams TA, Gates S, Perkins GD
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Jan 17;1(1):CD003179. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003179.pub2. PMID: 30653257Free PMC Article
Holmberg MJ, Geri G, Wiberg S, Guerguerian AM, Donnino MW, Nolan JP, Deakin CD, Andersen LW; International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation’s (ILCOR) Advanced Life Support and Pediatric Task Forces
Resuscitation 2018 Oct;131:91-100. Epub 2018 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.07.029. PMID: 30063963Free PMC Article
Chen N, Callaway CW, Guyette FX, Rittenberger JC, Doshi AA, Dezfulian C, Elmer J; Pittsburgh Post-Cardiac Arrest Service
Resuscitation 2018 Sep;130:33-40. Epub 2018 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.06.024. PMID: 29940296Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Di Marco A, Brown PF, Bradley J, Nucifora G, Claver E, de Frutos F, Dallaglio PD, Comin-Colet J, Anguera I, Miller CA, Schmitt M
J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jun 15;77(23):2890-2905. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.030. PMID: 34112317
Emery MS, Kovacs RJ
JACC Heart Fail 2018 Jan;6(1):30-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2017.07.014. PMID: 29284578
Porzer M, Mrazkova E, Homza M, Janout V
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2017 Dec;161(4):348-353. Epub 2017 Dec 13 doi: 10.5507/bp.2017.054. PMID: 29235577
Ellis SJ, Newland MC, Simonson JA, Peters KR, Romberger DJ, Mercer DW, Tinker JH, Harter RL, Kindscher JD, Qiu F, Lisco SJ
Anesthesiology 2014 Apr;120(4):829-38. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000153. PMID: 24496124
Berdowski J, Berg RA, Tijssen JG, Koster RW
Resuscitation 2010 Nov;81(11):1479-87. Epub 2010 Sep 9 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2010.08.006. PMID: 20828914

Clinical prediction guides

Vernooij LM, van Klei WA, Moons KG, Takada T, van Waes J, Damen JA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Dec 21;12(12):CD013139. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013139.pub2. PMID: 34931303Free PMC Article
Zhang L, Awadalla M, Mahmood SS, Nohria A, Hassan MZO, Thuny F, Zlotoff DA, Murphy SP, Stone JR, Golden DLA, Alvi RM, Rokicki A, Jones-O'Connor M, Cohen JV, Heinzerling LM, Mulligan C, Armanious M, Barac A, Forrestal BJ, Sullivan RJ, Kwong RY, Yang EH, Damrongwatanasuk R, Chen CL, Gupta D, Kirchberger MC, Moslehi JJ, Coelho-Filho OR, Ganatra S, Rizvi MA, Sahni G, Tocchetti CG, Mercurio V, Mahmoudi M, Lawrence DP, Reynolds KL, Weinsaft JW, Baksi AJ, Ederhy S, Groarke JD, Lyon AR, Fradley MG, Thavendiranathan P, Neilan TG
Eur Heart J 2020 May 7;41(18):1733-1743. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa051. PMID: 32112560Free PMC Article
Mosley JD, Gupta DK, Tan J, Yao J, Wells QS, Shaffer CM, Kundu S, Robinson-Cohen C, Psaty BM, Rich SS, Post WS, Guo X, Rotter JI, Roden DM, Gerszten RE, Wang TJ
JAMA 2020 Feb 18;323(7):627-635. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.21782. PMID: 32068817Free PMC Article
Agusala V, Khera R, Cheeran D, Mody P, Reddy PP, Link MS
Resuscitation 2019 Aug;141:69-72. Epub 2019 Jun 12 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.06.004. PMID: 31201884
McMahon GM, Zeng X, Waikar SS
JAMA Intern Med 2013 Oct 28;173(19):1821-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9774. PMID: 24000014Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Sandroni C, Natalini D, Nolan JP
Crit Care 2022 Nov 24;26(1):361. doi: 10.1186/s13054-022-04238-z. PMID: 36434649Free PMC Article
Granfeldt A, Holmberg MJ, Nolan JP, Soar J, Andersen LW; International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Advanced Life Support Task Force
Resuscitation 2021 Oct;167:160-172. Epub 2021 Aug 30 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.08.040. PMID: 34474143
Sandroni C, D'Arrigo S, Cacciola S, Hoedemaekers CWE, Kamps MJA, Oddo M, Taccone FS, Di Rocco A, Meijer FJA, Westhall E, Antonelli M, Soar J, Nolan JP, Cronberg T
Intensive Care Med 2020 Oct;46(10):1803-1851. Epub 2020 Sep 11 doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06198-w. PMID: 32915254Free PMC Article
Yan S, Gan Y, Jiang N, Wang R, Chen Y, Luo Z, Zong Q, Chen S, Lv C
Crit Care 2020 Feb 22;24(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-2773-2. PMID: 32087741Free PMC Article
Ouweneel DM, Schotborgh JV, Limpens J, Sjauw KD, Engström AE, Lagrand WK, Cherpanath TGV, Driessen AHG, de Mol BAJM, Henriques JPS
Intensive Care Med 2016 Dec;42(12):1922-1934. Epub 2016 Sep 19 doi: 10.1007/s00134-016-4536-8. PMID: 27647331Free PMC Article

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