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Opisthotonus

MedGen UID:
56246
Concept ID:
C0151818
Sign or Symptom
Synonym: Opisthotonos
SNOMED CT: Opisthotonus (8652009); Opisthotonos (8652009)
 
HPO: HP:0002179

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVOpisthotonus

Conditions with this feature

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
MedGen UID:
9721
Concept ID:
C0023374
Disease or Syndrome
HPRT1 disorders, caused by deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), are typically associated with clinical evidence for overproduction of uric acid (hyperuricemia, nephrolithiasis, and/or gouty arthritis) and varying degrees of neurologic and/or behavioral problems. Historically, three phenotypes were identified in the spectrum of HPRT1 disorders: Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) at the most severe end with motor dysfunction resembling severe cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and self-injurious behavior; HPRT1-related neurologic dysfunction (HND) in the intermediate range with similar but fewer severe neurologic findings than LND and no self-injurious behavior; and HPRT1-related hyperuricemia (HRH) at the mild end without overt neurologic deficits. It is now recognized that these neurobehavioral phenotypes cluster along a continuum from severe to mild.
Stiff-man syndrome
MedGen UID:
39017
Concept ID:
C0085292
Disease or Syndrome
The stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is most often an adult-onset sporadic acquired disorder characterized by progressive muscle stiffness with superimposed painful muscle spasms accompanied by electromyographic evidence of continuous motor activity at rest. SPS has been associated with autoimmune disorders, diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, and hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency (George et al., 1984). Approximately 60% of patients with SPS have antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD2, or GAD65; 138275), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting an immune-mediated pathogenesis (Folli et al., 1993). Approximately 10% of patients develop SPS as a paraneoplastic neurologic disorder associated with antibodies to amphiphysin (AMPH; 600418), an intracellular protein associated with neuronal synaptic vesicle endocytosis (Burns, 2005). See also congenital stiff-man syndrome, or hereditary hyperexplexia (149400), which is caused by mutations in subunits of the glycine receptor gene (GLRA1, 138491; GLRB, 138492). Meinck and Thompson (2002) provided a detailed review of stiff-person syndrome. They also discussed 2 possibly related conditions, progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity (PERM), a more severe disorder with other neurologic features, and stiff-limb or stiff-leg syndrome, a focal disorder.
Spongy degeneration of central nervous system
MedGen UID:
61565
Concept ID:
C0206307
Disease or Syndrome
Most individuals with Canavan disease have the neonatal/infantile form. Although such infants appear normal early in life, by age three to five months, hypotonia, head lag, macrocephaly, and developmental delays become apparent. With age, children with neonatal/infantile-onset Canavan disease often become irritable and experience sleep disturbance, seizures, and feeding difficulties. Swallowing deteriorates, and some children require nasogastric feeding or permanent feeding gastrostomies. Joint stiffness increases, so that these children resemble individuals with cerebral palsy. Children with mild/juvenile Canavan disease may have normal or mildly delayed speech or motor development early in life without regression. In spite of developmental delay most of these children can be educated in typical classroom settings and may benefit from speech therapy or tutoring as needed. Most children with mild forms of Canavan disease have normal head size, although macrocephaly, retinitis pigmentosa, and seizures have been reported in a few individuals.
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
120517
Concept ID:
C0265227
Disease or Syndrome
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a highly recognizable syndrome characterized by severe mental retardation, distinctive facial features, and multiple congenital malformations including skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary and renal malformations, and cardiac defects, as well as a higher-than-normal prevalence of tumors, notably neuroepithelial neoplasia (summary by Hoischen et al., 2010).
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
MedGen UID:
78641
Concept ID:
C0268126
Disease or Syndrome
Adenylosuccinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by an enzymatic defect in de novo purine synthesis (DNPS) pathway. ADSL deficiency leads to the accumulation of toxic intermediates, including succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) in body fluids. There are 3 major phenotypic forms of the disorder that correlate with different values of the S-Ado and SAICAr concentration ratios (S-Ado/SAICAr) in the cerebrospinal fluid. These include the most severe fatal neonatal encephalopathy (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio less than 1); childhood form (type I) with severe psychomotor retardation (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio close to 1), and a milder form (type II) with psychomotor retardation or hypotonia (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio greater than 2) (summary by Baresova et al., 2012).
Deficiency of cytochrome-b5 reductase
MedGen UID:
75661
Concept ID:
C0268193
Disease or Syndrome
Methemoglobinemia due to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, with resultant cyanosis and hypoxia (review by Percy and Lappin, 2008). There are 2 types of methemoglobin reductase deficiency. In type I, the defect affects the soluble form of the enzyme, is restricted to red blood cells, and causes well-tolerated methemoglobinemia. In type II, the defect affects both the soluble and microsomal forms of the enzyme and is thus generalized, affecting red cells, leukocytes, and all body tissues. Type II methemoglobinemia is associated with mental deficiency and other neurologic symptoms. The neurologic symptoms may be related to the major role played by the cytochrome b5 system in the desaturation of fatty acids (Vives-Corrons et al., 1978; Kaplan et al., 1979).
Glutaric aciduria, type 1
MedGen UID:
124337
Concept ID:
C0268595
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of untreated glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA-1) ranges from the more common form (infantile-onset disease) to the less common form (later-onset disease – i.e., after age 6 years). Of note, the GA-1 phenotype can vary widely between untreated family members with the same genotype, primarily as a function of the age at which the first acute encephalopathic crisis occurred: three months to six years in infantile-onset GA-1 and after age six years in later-onset GA-1. Characteristically these crises result in acute bilateral striatal injury and subsequent complex movement disorders. In the era of newborn screening (NBS), the prompt initiation of treatment of asymptomatic infants detected by NBS means that most individuals who would have developed manifestations of either infantile-onset or later-onset GA-1 remain asymptomatic; however, they may be at increased risk for other manifestations (e.g., renal disease) that are becoming apparent as the understanding of the natural history of treated GA-1 continues to evolve.
3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
78691
Concept ID:
C0268600
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. The clinical phenotype is highly variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurologic involvement to asymptomatic adults. There is a characteristic organic aciduria with massive excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine, usually in combination with a severe secondary carnitine deficiency. MCC activity in extracts of cultured fibroblasts of patients is usually less than 2% of control (summary by Baumgartner et al., 2001). Also see 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria II (MCC2D; 210210), caused by mutation in the beta subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCC2; 609014).
D-Glyceric aciduria
MedGen UID:
452447
Concept ID:
C0342765
Disease or Syndrome
D-glyceric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have an encephalopathic presentation, with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and sometimes early death, whereas others have a mild phenotype with only mild speech delay or even normal development (summary by Sass et al., 2010).
Chiari type II malformation
MedGen UID:
108222
Concept ID:
C0555206
Congenital Abnormality
Chiari malformation type II (CM2), also known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation, consists of elongation and descent of the inferior cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, pons, medulla, and fourth ventricle through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. CM2 is uniquely associated with myelomeningocele (open spina bifida; see 182940) and is found only in this population (Stevenson, 2004). It is believed to be a disorder of neuroectodermal origin (Schijman, 2004). For a general phenotypic description of the different forms of Chiari malformations, see Chiari malformation type I (CM1; 118420).
Gaucher disease perinatal lethal
MedGen UID:
374996
Concept ID:
C1842704
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease
MedGen UID:
375289
Concept ID:
C1843807
Disease or Syndrome
Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) may present in childhood, early infancy, or adulthood. The classic presentation of BTBGD occurs in childhood (age 3-10 years) and is characterized by recurrent subacute encephalopathy manifest as confusion, seizures, ataxia, dystonia, supranuclear facial palsy, external ophthalmoplegia, and/or dysphagia which, if left untreated, can eventually lead to coma and even death. Dystonia and cogwheel rigidity are nearly always present; hyperreflexia, ankle clonus, and Babinski responses are common. Hemiparesis or quadriparesis may be seen. Episodes are often triggered by febrile illness or mild trauma or stress. Simple partial or generalized seizures are easily controlled with anti-seizure medication. An early-infantile Leigh-like syndrome / atypical infantile spasms presentation occurs in the first three months of life with poor feeding, vomiting, acute encephalopathy, and severe lactic acidosis. An adult-onset Wernicke-like encephalopathy presentation is characterized by acute onset of status epilepticus, ataxia, nystagmus, diplopia, and ophthalmoplegia in the second decade of life. Prompt administration of biotin and thiamine early in the disease course results in partial or complete improvement within days in the childhood and adult presentations, but most with the infantile presentation have had poor outcome even after supplementation with biotin and thiamine.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2A
MedGen UID:
376379
Concept ID:
C1848526
Disease or Syndrome
TSEN54 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (TSEN54-PCH) comprises three PCH phenotypes (PCH2, 4, and 5) that share characteristic neuroradiologic and neurologic findings. The three PCH phenotypes (which differ mainly in life expectancy) were considered to be distinct entities before their molecular basis was known. PCH2. Children usually succumb before age ten years (those with PCH4 and 5 usually succumb as neonates). Children with PCH2 have generalized clonus, uncoordinated sucking and swallowing, impaired cognitive development, lack of voluntary motor development, cortical blindness, and an increased risk for rhabdomyolysis during severe infections. Epilepsy is present in approximately 50%. PCH4. Neonates often have seizures, multiple joint contractures ("arthrogryposis"), generalized clonus, and central respiratory impairment. PCH5 resembles PCH4 and has been described in one family.
Cold-induced sweating syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
338577
Concept ID:
C1848947
Disease or Syndrome
Cold-induced sweating syndrome (CISS) and its infantile presentation, Crisponi syndrome(CS) is characterized by dysmorphic features (distinctive facies, lower facial weakness, flexion deformity at the elbows, camptodactyly with fisted hands, misshapen feet, and overriding toes); intermittent contracture of facial and oropharyngeal muscles when crying or being handled with puckering of lips and drooling of foamy saliva often associated with laryngospasm and respiratory distress; excessive startling and opisthotonus-like posturing with unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli; poor suck reflex and severely impaired swallowing; and a scaly erythematous rash. During the first decade of life, children with CISS/CS develop profuse sweating of the face, arms, and chest with ambient temperatures below 18º to 22º C, and with other stimuli including nervousness or ingestion of sweets. Affected individuals sweat very little in hot environments and may feel overheated. Progressive thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis occurs, requiring intervention in the second decade.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A
MedGen UID:
381530
Concept ID:
C1854988
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B
MedGen UID:
340760
Concept ID:
C1854989
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 4
MedGen UID:
387884
Concept ID:
C1857682
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial disorder due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis with characteristics of neonatal onset of severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress, persistent lactic acidosis with episodes of metabolic crises, developmental regression, microcephaly, abnormal gaze fixation and pursuit, axial hypotonia with limb spasticity and reduced spontaneous movements. Neuroimaging studies reveal polymicrogyria, white matter abnormalities and multiple cystic brain lesions, including basal ganglia, and cerebral atrophy. Decreased activity of complex I and IV have been determined in muscle biopsy.
3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase 2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
347898
Concept ID:
C1859499
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. The clinical phenotype is highly variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurologic involvement to asymptomatic adults. There is a characteristic organic aciduria with massive excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine, usually in combination with a severe secondary carnitine deficiency. MCC activity in extracts of cultured fibroblasts of patients is usually less than 2% of control (summary by Baumgartner et al., 2001). Also see 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria I (MCC1D; 210200), caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCC1; 609010).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2, juvenile
MedGen UID:
349246
Concept ID:
C1859807
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2B
MedGen UID:
393505
Concept ID:
C2676466
Disease or Syndrome
TSEN54 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (TSEN54-PCH) comprises three PCH phenotypes (PCH2, 4, and 5) that share characteristic neuroradiologic and neurologic findings. The three PCH phenotypes (which differ mainly in life expectancy) were considered to be distinct entities before their molecular basis was known. PCH2. Children usually succumb before age ten years (those with PCH4 and 5 usually succumb as neonates). Children with PCH2 have generalized clonus, uncoordinated sucking and swallowing, impaired cognitive development, lack of voluntary motor development, cortical blindness, and an increased risk for rhabdomyolysis during severe infections. Epilepsy is present in approximately 50%. PCH4. Neonates often have seizures, multiple joint contractures ("arthrogryposis"), generalized clonus, and central respiratory impairment. PCH5 resembles PCH4 and has been described in one family.
ALG11-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
462263
Concept ID:
C3150913
Disease or Syndrome
A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation with characteristics of facial dysmorphism (microcephaly, high forehead, low posterior hairline, strabismus), hypotonia, failure to thrive, intractable seizures, developmental delay, persistent vomiting and gastric bleeding. Additional features that may be observed include fat pads anomalies, inverted nipples, and body temperature oscillation. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene ALG11 (13q14.3).
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
478062
Concept ID:
C3276432
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive disorder of systemic energy metabolism, resulting in weakness, respiratory failure, lack of neurologic development, lactic acidosis, and early death (summary by Seyda et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome See also MMDS2 (614299), caused by mutation in the BOLA3 gene (613183) on chromosome 2p13; MMDS3 (615330), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on chromosome 1q42; MMDS4 (616370), caused by mutation in the ISCA2 gene (615317) on chromosome 14q24; MMDS5 (617613), caused by mutation in the ISCA1 gene (611006) on chromosome 9q21; MMDS6 (617954), caused by mutation in the PMPCB gene (603131) on chromosome 7q22; and MMDS7 (620423), caused by mutation in the GCSH gene (238330) on chromosome 16q23.
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome
MedGen UID:
481430
Concept ID:
C3279800
Disease or Syndrome
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome (KPLBS) is a rare disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, generalized lipodystrophy giving an aged appearance, and distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, prominent eyes, narrow nasal bridge, and open mouth (summary by Masotti et al., 2015).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7
MedGen UID:
767140
Concept ID:
C3554226
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7 (PCH7) is a severe neurologic condition characterized by delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, breathing abnormalities, and gonadal abnormalities (summary by Anderson et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2E
MedGen UID:
862925
Concept ID:
C4014488
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2E is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by profound mental retardation, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and early-onset epilepsy (summary by Feinstein et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 14 (cardioencephalomyopathic type)
MedGen UID:
903789
Concept ID:
C4225163
Disease or Syndrome
Any mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the OPA1 gene.
Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2
MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth
MedGen UID:
1648309
Concept ID:
C4748081
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth (NEDSG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly (Nahorski et al., 2018).
Snijders blok-fisher syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684801
Concept ID:
C5231424
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Fisher syndrome (SNIBFIS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, hypotonia, variable impaired intellectual development, and specifically impaired speech and language acquisition. Patients achieve independent ambulation and most have mildly to moderately impaired cognition with autistic features, although a few may develop seizures and have a more severe phenotype. Dysmorphic features include abnormal, cupped, or prominent ears and ocular anomalies. Mutations usually occur de novo, although 1 family with autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported (summary by Snijders Blok et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 84
MedGen UID:
1720141
Concept ID:
C5394081
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-84 (DEE84) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired global development with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, and inability to walk. Other features include axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, feeding difficulties that sometimes necessitate tube feeding, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may show nonspecific findings such as cerebral/cerebellar atrophy and/or hypomyelination. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Hengel et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 37
MedGen UID:
1783339
Concept ID:
C5543281
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1794216
Concept ID:
C5562006
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures (NEDLAS) is characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with gait ataxia and poor language development. Behavioral abnormalities also commonly occur. The severity is highly variable: a subset of patients have a more severe phenotype with early-onset seizures resembling epileptic encephalopathy, inability to walk or speak, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Stolz et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder, nonprogressive, with spasticity and transient opisthotonus
MedGen UID:
1794250
Concept ID:
C5562040
Disease or Syndrome
Nonprogressive neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and transient opisthotonus (NEDSTO) is an autosomal recessive complex neurologic disorder characterized by delay of gross motor milestones, particularly walking, associated with axial hypotonia and peripheral spasticity apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals often show transient opisthotonic posturing in infancy, and later show abnormal involuntary movements, including chorea, dystonia, and dyspraxia. Some patients have impaired intellectual development, although the severity is highly variable; most have speech delay and articulation difficulties and a happy overall demeanor. Brain imaging shows myelination defects in some patients. The disorder is nonprogressive, and many patients may catch up developmentally in the second or third decades (summary by Wagner et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and neonatal cholestasis
MedGen UID:
1794262
Concept ID:
C5562052
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and neonatal cholestasis (NEDMSC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent from infancy, progressive microcephaly, and neonatal cholestasis manifest as jaundice and elevated liver enzymes. The liver disease resolves, but affected individuals show feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, seizures, hyperkinetic movements, irritability, and poor eye contact or vision, and achieve almost no motor or cognitive developmental milestones. Brain imaging demonstrates agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Death in early childhood may occur (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2021).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 27
MedGen UID:
1799031
Concept ID:
C5567608
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-27 (COXPD27) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized mainly by neurologic features, including delayed development, seizures, abnormal movements, and neurologic regression. Age at onset, ranging from infancy to late childhood, and severity are variable. Other features include hypotonia, myoclonus, brain imaging abnormalities, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Liver dysfunction has also been reported (summary by Samanta et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type VIIB
MedGen UID:
1810214
Concept ID:
C5676893
Disease or Syndrome
CLPB (caseinolytic peptidase B) deficiency is characterized by neurologic involvement and neutropenia, which can range from severe to mild. In severe CLPB deficiency, death usually occurs at a few months of age due to significant neonatal neurologic involvement (hyperekplexia or absence of voluntary movements, hypotonia or hypertonia, swallowing problems, respiratory insufficiency, and epilepsy) and severe neutropenia associated with life-threatening infections. Individuals with moderate CLPB deficiency present with neurologic abnormalities in infancy including hypotonia and feeding problems, and develop spasticity, a progressive movement disorder (ataxia, dystonia, and/or dyskinesia), epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Neutropenia is variable, but not life threatening. In those with mild CLPB deficiency there is no neurologic involvement, intellect is normal, neutropenia is mild and intermittent, and life expectancy is normal.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 101
MedGen UID:
1805172
Concept ID:
C5676955
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-101 (DEE101) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile epileptic encephalopathy and severe global developmental delay (summary by Blakes et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1801540
Concept ID:
C5676972
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with progressive microcephaly (CONPM) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: the most severely affected individuals have severe and progressive microcephaly, early-onset seizures, lack of visual tracking, and almost no developmental milestones, resulting in early death. Less severely affected individuals have a small head circumference and severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and motor delay. Additional features may include poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia with spasticity, undescended testes, and cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss (Lam et al., 2019 and Vanoevelen et al., 2022).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 103
MedGen UID:
1809962
Concept ID:
C5677002
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-103 (DEE103) is characterized by onset of various types of seizures in the first year of life, most of which are refractory to treatment. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development ranging from mild to severe. Additional features may include hypotonia, ataxia, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism and hyperactivity (Schwarz et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 31B
MedGen UID:
1841095
Concept ID:
C5830459
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-31B (DEE31B) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with early-onset epilepsy, generalized muscular hypotonia, visual impairment, and severe neurodevelopmental delay (Yigit et al., 2022).
Auriculocondylar syndrome 2B
MedGen UID:
1841300
Concept ID:
C5830664
Disease or Syndrome
ARCND2B is characterized by the typical features of auriculocondylar syndrome, including the pathognomonic question mark ears, consisting of a variable degree of clefting between the helix and earlobe, as well as hypoplasia of the mandibular condyle, temporomandibular joint abnormalities, micrognathia, microstomia, glossoptosis, and a round facial appearance with prominent cheeks. Patients have difficulty chewing, respiratory abnormalities, snoring, and obstructive and central apneas. In addition, they experience severe gastrointestinal problems, including feeding difficulties with failure to thrive, gastroesophageal reflux, and chronic constipation, and male patients show macropenis whereas female patients may exhibit clitoromegaly (summary by Leoni et al., 2016). Heterozygous mutation in the PLCB4 gene also causes an autosomal dominant form of auriculocondylar syndrome (see ARCND2A, 614669). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of auriculocondylar syndrome, see ARCND1 (602483).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Ceulemans B, van Rhijn J, Kenis S, Krols R, Laridon A, Van Havenbergh T
Eur J Pediatr 2008 Jun;167(6):641-5. Epub 2007 Aug 24 doi: 10.1007/s00431-007-0563-3. PMID: 17717703

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hull M, Parnes M, Jankovic J
Toxins (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;13(2) doi: 10.3390/toxins13020137. PMID: 33673369Free PMC Article
Baviskar PS, Ahuja SA, Natarajan S, Bagchi PR
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Feb;122(1):115-118. Epub 2020 May 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jormas.2020.05.004. PMID: 32416284
Stamelou M, Lai SC, Aggarwal A, Schneider SA, Houlden H, Yeh TH, Batla A, Lu CS, Bhatt M, Bhatia KP
Mov Disord 2013 Sep;28(10):1325-9. Epub 2013 Jun 4 doi: 10.1002/mds.25490. PMID: 23736975Free PMC Article
Ceulemans B, van Rhijn J, Kenis S, Krols R, Laridon A, Van Havenbergh T
Eur J Pediatr 2008 Jun;167(6):641-5. Epub 2007 Aug 24 doi: 10.1007/s00431-007-0563-3. PMID: 17717703
Jan MM
Pediatr Neurol 2004 Oct;31(4):298-303. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2004.03.017. PMID: 15464646

Diagnosis

Hull M, Parnes M, Jankovic J
Toxins (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;13(2) doi: 10.3390/toxins13020137. PMID: 33673369Free PMC Article
Yıldırım M, Köse E, Keçeli AM, Balasar Ö, Şimşek N
Brain Dev 2021 Apr;43(4):571-575. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2020.12.005. PMID: 33358637
Baviskar PS, Ahuja SA, Natarajan S, Bagchi PR
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Feb;122(1):115-118. Epub 2020 May 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jormas.2020.05.004. PMID: 32416284
Stamelou M, Lai SC, Aggarwal A, Schneider SA, Houlden H, Yeh TH, Batla A, Lu CS, Bhatt M, Bhatia KP
Mov Disord 2013 Sep;28(10):1325-9. Epub 2013 Jun 4 doi: 10.1002/mds.25490. PMID: 23736975Free PMC Article
Dehring DJ, Gupta B, Peruzzi WT
Can J Anaesth 1991 Oct;38(7):919-25. doi: 10.1007/BF03036975. PMID: 1742831

Therapy

Tonomura H, Nagae M, Ishibashi H, Hosoi K, Ikeda T, Mikami Y, Takahashi K
Medicina (Kaunas) 2024 May 1;60(5) doi: 10.3390/medicina60050755. PMID: 38792938
Hull M, Parnes M, Jankovic J
Toxins (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;13(2) doi: 10.3390/toxins13020137. PMID: 33673369Free PMC Article
Ceulemans B, van Rhijn J, Kenis S, Krols R, Laridon A, Van Havenbergh T
Eur J Pediatr 2008 Jun;167(6):641-5. Epub 2007 Aug 24 doi: 10.1007/s00431-007-0563-3. PMID: 17717703
Hooda S, Kiran S, Thapa D, Chhabra B
Anesth Analg 1995 Dec;81(6):1309-10. doi: 10.1097/00000539-199512000-00035. PMID: 7486125
Dehring DJ, Gupta B, Peruzzi WT
Can J Anaesth 1991 Oct;38(7):919-25. doi: 10.1007/BF03036975. PMID: 1742831

Prognosis

Yıldırım M, Köse E, Keçeli AM, Balasar Ö, Şimşek N
Brain Dev 2021 Apr;43(4):571-575. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2020.12.005. PMID: 33358637
Askitopoulou H, Stefanakis G, Astyrakaki EE, Papaioannou A, Agouridakis P
Eur J Emerg Med 2016 Dec;23(6):399-405. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000415. PMID: 27384218
Sillanpää M, Schmidt D
Seizure 2014 Jun;23(6):487-9. Epub 2014 Mar 21 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2014.03.009. PMID: 24726506
Ceulemans B, van Rhijn J, Kenis S, Krols R, Laridon A, Van Havenbergh T
Eur J Pediatr 2008 Jun;167(6):641-5. Epub 2007 Aug 24 doi: 10.1007/s00431-007-0563-3. PMID: 17717703
Jan MM
Pediatr Neurol 2004 Oct;31(4):298-303. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2004.03.017. PMID: 15464646

Clinical prediction guides

Ivanov I, Pacheva I, Yordanova R, Sotkova I, Galabova F, Gaberova K, Panova M, Gheneva I, Tsvetanova T, Noneva K, Dimitrova D, Markov S, Sapundzhiev N, Bichev S, Savov A
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2023;22(2):207-214. doi: 10.2174/1871527321666220221100704. PMID: 35189806
A R, Chandran S, Ghatak AR, Thomas N, Danda S
Indian J Pediatr 2022 Nov;89(11):1148-1150. Epub 2022 Aug 19 doi: 10.1007/s12098-022-04263-4. PMID: 35984556
Yıldırım M, Köse E, Keçeli AM, Balasar Ö, Şimşek N
Brain Dev 2021 Apr;43(4):571-575. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2020.12.005. PMID: 33358637
Askitopoulou H, Stefanakis G, Astyrakaki EE, Papaioannou A, Agouridakis P
Eur J Emerg Med 2016 Dec;23(6):399-405. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000415. PMID: 27384218
Stamelou M, Lai SC, Aggarwal A, Schneider SA, Houlden H, Yeh TH, Batla A, Lu CS, Bhatt M, Bhatia KP
Mov Disord 2013 Sep;28(10):1325-9. Epub 2013 Jun 4 doi: 10.1002/mds.25490. PMID: 23736975Free PMC Article

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