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Leukocoria

MedGen UID:
57540
Concept ID:
C0152458
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Leucocoria; Leukokoria; White pupillary reflex
SNOMED CT: Leucocoria (1361009); Leukocoria (1361009)
 
HPO: HP:0000555

Definition

An abnormal white reflection from the pupil rather than the usual black reflection. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Retinoblastoma
MedGen UID:
20552
Concept ID:
C0035335
Neoplastic Process
Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the developing retina that occurs in children, usually before age five years. Retinoblastoma develops from cells that have cancer-predisposing variants in both copies of RB1. Retinoblastoma may be unifocal or multifocal. About 60% of affected individuals have unilateral retinoblastoma with a mean age of diagnosis of 24 months; about 40% have bilateral retinoblastoma with a mean age of diagnosis of 15 months. Heritable retinoblastoma is an autosomal dominant susceptibility for retinoblastoma. Individuals with heritable retinoblastoma are also at increased risk of developing non-ocular tumors.
Exudative retinopathy
MedGen UID:
102319
Concept ID:
C0154832
Disease or Syndrome
Coats disease (CD) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by retinal telangiectasia with deposition of intraretinal or subretinal exudates, potentially leading to retinal detachment and unilateral blindness. CD is classically an isolated and unilateral condition affecting otherwise healthy young children.
Atrophia bulborum hereditaria
MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by very early childhood blindness due to degenerative and proliferative changes of the neuroretina. Approximately 50% of patients show some form of progressive mental disorder, often with psychotic features, and about one-third of patients develop sensorineural deafness in the second decade. In addition, some patients have more complex phenotypes, including growth failure and seizures (Berger et al., 1992). Warburg (1966) noted confusion of the terms 'pseudoglioma' and microphthalmia with Norrie disease in the literature. 'Pseudoglioma' is a nonspecific term for any condition resembling retinoblastoma and can have diverse causes, including inflammation, hemorrhage, trauma, neoplasia, or congenital malformation, and often shows unilateral involvement. Thus, 'pseudoglioma' is not an acceptable clinical or pathologic diagnosis (Duke-Elder, 1958).
Congenital livedo reticularis
MedGen UID:
83381
Concept ID:
C0345419
Congenital Abnormality
Isolated and classic cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) are characterized by congenital skin changes including erythematous-to-violaceous, reticulated, net-like or marbled-appearing patches of skin that do not mostly or completely resolve with warming or any other acute intervention. Individuals with isolated CMTC have no other syndromic features, and skin lesions tend to fade or resolve. Those with classic CMTC may have accompanying hemihypoplasia with body asymmetry, skin atrophy or ulceration, other vascular malformations, and occasional ocular issues (early-onset glaucoma and/or peripheral retinal vascular attenuation) but do not have other malformations, dysmorphic features, or cognitive impairment. The most common location for the CMTC lesions is on the legs. An affected limb may also display weakness or be unusually susceptible to cold compared to an unaffected limb. In more than half of affected individuals, skin lesions will generally fade across a wide range in age (6 weeks to 26 years), most commonly in the first year of life, but may not resolve completely.
Revesz syndrome
MedGen UID:
231230
Concept ID:
C1327916
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Oculo-palato-cerebral syndrome
MedGen UID:
338025
Concept ID:
C1850338
Congenital Abnormality
Oculopalatocerebral syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by low birth weight, microcephaly, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, microphthalmia, large ears, small hands and feet, cleft palate, joint hypermobility, developmental delay, and cerebral atrophy (summary by Pellegrino et al., 2001).
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
370100
Concept ID:
C1969783
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), also termed 'persistent fetal vasculature,' is a developmental malformation of the eye in which the primary vitreous fails to regress in utero, resulting in the presence of a retrolental fibrovascular membrane with persistence of the posterior portion of the tunica vasculosa lentis and hyaloid artery. This abnormality is usually unilateral and associated with microphthalmia, cataract, glaucoma, and congenital retinal nonattachment (see Haddad et al., 1978; Khaliq et al., 2001; Prasov et al., 2012). PHPV shares phenotypic overlap with Norrie disease (310600). Genetic Heterogeneity of Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous A dominant form of PHPV has been described (PHPVAD; 611308).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Kaliki S, Vempuluru VS, Mohamed A, Al-Jadiry MF, Bowman R, Chawla B, Hamid SA, Ji X, Kapelushnik N, Kebudi R, Sthapit PR, Rojanaporn D, Sitorus RS, Yousef YA, Fabian ID; Global Retinoblastoma Study Group
Ophthalmology 2024 Apr;131(4):468-477. Epub 2023 Oct 13 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.10.015. PMID: 37839559
Ademola-Popoola DS, Opocher E, Reddy MA
Niger Postgrad Med J 2019 Apr-Jun;26(2):69-79. doi: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_21_19. PMID: 31187745
Jenkinson H
Arch Dis Child 2015 Nov;100(11):1070-5. Epub 2015 May 4 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306208. PMID: 25940424

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lin FY, Chintagumpala MM
Clin Perinatol 2021 Mar;48(1):53-70. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2020.12.001. PMID: 33583507
Global Retinoblastoma Study Group, Fabian ID, Abdallah E, Abdullahi SU, Abdulqader RA, Adamou Boubacar S, Ademola-Popoola DS, Adio A, Afshar AR, Aggarwal P, Aghaji AE, Ahmad A, Akib MNR, Al Harby L, Al Ani MH, Alakbarova A, Portabella SA, Al-Badri SAF, Alcasabas APA, Al-Dahmash SA, Alejos A, Alemany-Rubio E, Alfa Bio AI, Alfonso Carreras Y, Al-Haddad C, Al-Hussaini HHY, Ali AM, Alia DB, Al-Jadiry MF, Al-Jumaily U, Alkatan HM, All-Eriksson C, Al-Mafrachi AARM, Almeida AA, Alsawidi KM, Al-Shaheen AASM, Al-Shammary EH, Amiruddin PO, Antonino R, Astbury NJ, Atalay HT, Atchaneeyasakul LO, Atsiaya R, Attaseth T, Aung TH, Ayala S, Baizakova B, Balaguer J, Balayeva R, Balwierz W, Barranco H, Bascaran C, Beck Popovic M, Benavides R, Benmiloud S, Bennani Guebessi N, Berete RC, Berry JL, Bhaduri A, Bhat S, Biddulph SJ, Biewald EM, Bobrova N, Boehme M, Boldt HC, Bonanomi MTBC, Bornfeld N, Bouda GC, Bouguila H, Boumedane A, Brennan RC, Brichard BG, Buaboonnam J, Calderón-Sotelo P, Calle Jara DA, Camuglia JE, Cano MR, Capra M, Cassoux N, Castela G, Castillo L, Català-Mora J, Chantada GL, Chaudhry S, Chaugule SS, Chauhan A, Chawla B, Chernodrinska VS, Chiwanga FS, Chuluunbat T, Cieslik K, Cockcroft RL, Comsa C, Correa ZM, Correa Llano MG, Corson TW, Cowan-Lyn KE, Csóka M, Cui X, Da Gama IV, Dangboon W, Das A, Das S, Davanzo JM, Davidson A, De Potter P, Delgado KQ, Demirci H, Desjardins L, Diaz Coronado RY, Dimaras H, Dodgshun AJ, Donaldson C, Donato Macedo CR, Dragomir MD, Du Y, Du Bruyn M, Edison KS, Eka Sutyawan IW, El Kettani A, Elbahi AM, Elder JE, Elgalaly D, Elhaddad AM, Elhassan MMA, Elzembely MM, Essuman VA, Evina TGA, Fadoo Z, Fandiño AC, Faranoush M, Fasina O, Fernández DDPG, Fernández-Teijeiro A, Foster A, Frenkel S, Fu LD, Fuentes-Alabi SL, Gallie BL, Gandiwa M, Garcia JL, García Aldana D, Gassant PY, Geel JA, Ghassemi F, Girón AV, Gizachew Z, Goenz MA, Gold AS, Goldberg-Lavid M, Gole GA, Gomel N, Gonzalez E, Gonzalez Perez G, González-Rodríguez L, Garcia Pacheco HN, Graells J, Green L, Gregersen PA, Grigorovski NDAK, Guedenon KM, Gunasekera DS, Gündüz AK, Gupta H, Gupta S, Hadjistilianou T, Hamel P, Hamid SA, Hamzah N, Hansen ED, Harbour JW, Hartnett ME, Hasanreisoglu M, Hassan S, Hassan S, Hederova S, Hernandez J, Hernandez LMC, Hessissen L, Hordofa DF, Huang LC, Hubbard GB, Hummlen M, Husakova K, Hussein Al-Janabi AN, Ida R, Ilic VR, Jairaj V, Jeeva I, Jenkinson H, Ji X, Jo DH, Johnson KP, Johnson WJ, Jones MM, Kabesha TBA, Kabore RL, Kaliki S, Kalinaki A, Kantar M, Kao LY, Kardava T, Kebudi R, Kepak T, Keren-Froim N, Khan ZJ, Khaqan HA, Khauv P, Kheir WJ, Khetan V, Khodabande A, Khotenashvili Z, Kim JW, Kim JH, Kiratli H, Kivelä TT, Klett A, Komba Palet JEK, Krivaitiene D, Kruger M, Kulvichit K, Kuntorini MW, Kyara A, Lachmann ES, Lam CPS, Lam GC, Larson SA, Latinovic S, Laurenti KD, Le BHA, Lecuona K, Leverant AA, Li C, Limbu B, Long QB, López JP, Lukamba RM, Lumbroso L, Luna-Fineman S, Lutfi D, Lysytsia L, Magrath GN, Mahajan A, Majeed AR, Maka E, Makan M, Makimbetov EK, Manda C, Martín Begue N, Mason L, Mason JO 3rd, Matende IO, Materin M, Mattosinho CCDS, Matua M, Mayet I, Mbumba FB, McKenzie JD, Medina-Sanson A, Mehrvar A, Mengesha AA, Menon V, Mercado GJVD, Mets MB, Midena E, Mishra DKC, Mndeme FG, Mohamedani AA, Mohammad MT, Moll AC, Montero MM, Morales RA, Moreira C, Mruthyunjaya P, Msina MS, Msukwa G, Mudaliar SS, Muma KI, Munier FL, Murgoi G, Murray TG, Musa KO, Mushtaq A, Mustak H, Muyen OM, Naidu G, Nair AG, Naumenko L, Ndoye Roth PA, Nency YM, Neroev V, Ngo H, Nieves RM, Nikitovic M, Nkanga ED, Nkumbe H, Nuruddin M, Nyaywa M, Obono-Obiang G, Oguego NC, Olechowski A, Oliver SCN, Osei-Bonsu P, Ossandon D, Paez-Escamilla MA, Pagarra H, Painter SL, Paintsil V, Paiva L, Pal BP, Palanivelu MS, Papyan R, Parrozzani R, Parulekar M, Pascual Morales CR, Paton KE, Pawinska-Wasikowska K, Pe'er J, Peña A, Peric S, Pham CTM, Philbert R, Plager DA, Pochop P, Polania RA, Polyakov VG, Pompe MT, Pons JJ, Prat D, Prom V, Purwanto I, Qadir AO, Qayyum S, Qian J, Rahman A, Rahman S, Rahmat J, Rajkarnikar P, Ramanjulu R, Ramasubramanian A, Ramirez-Ortiz MA, Raobela L, Rashid R, Reddy MA, Reich E, Renner LA, Reynders D, Ribadu D, Riheia MM, Ritter-Sovinz P, Rojanaporn D, Romero L, Roy SR, Saab RH, Saakyan S, Sabhan AH, Sagoo MS, Said AMA, Saiju R, Salas B, San Román Pacheco S, Sánchez GL, Sayalith P, Scanlan TA, Schefler AC, Schoeman J, Sedaghat A, Seregard S, Seth R, Shah AS, Shakoor SA, Sharma MK, Sherief ST, Shetye NG, Shields CL, Siddiqui SN, Sidi Cheikh S, Silva S, Singh AD, Singh N, Singh U, Singha P, Sitorus RS, Skalet AH, Soebagjo HD, Sorochynska T, Ssali G, Stacey AW, Staffieri SE, Stahl ED, Stathopoulos C, Stirn Kranjc B, Stones DK, Strahlendorf C, Suarez MEC, Sultana S, Sun X, Sundy M, Superstein R, Supriyadi E, Surukrattanaskul S, Suzuki S, Svojgr K, Sylla F, Tamamyan G, Tan D, Tandili A, Tarrillo Leiva FF, Tashvighi M, Tateshi B, Tehuteru ES, Teixeira LF, Teh KH, Theophile T, Toledano H, Trang DL, Traoré F, Trichaiyaporn S, Tuncer S, Tyau-Tyau H, Umar AB, Unal E, Uner OE, Urbak SF, Ushakova TL, Usmanov RH, Valeina S, van Hoefen Wijsard M, Varadisai A, Vasquez L, Vaughan LO, Veleva-Krasteva NV, Verma N, Victor AA, Viksnins M, Villacís Chafla EG, Vishnevskia-Dai V, Vora T, Wachtel AE, Wackernagel W, Waddell K, Wade PD, Wali AH, Wang YZ, Weiss A, Wilson MW, Wime ADC, Wiwatwongwana A, Wiwatwongwana D, Wolley Dod C, Wongwai P, Xiang D, Xiao Y, Yam JC, Yang H, Yanga JM, Yaqub MA, Yarovaya VA, Yarovoy AA, Ye H, Yousef YA, Yuliawati P, Zapata López AM, Zein E, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zheng X, Zhilyaeva K, Zia N, Ziko OAO, Zondervan M, Bowman R
JAMA Oncol 2020 May 1;6(5):685-695. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6716. PMID: 32105305Free PMC Article
Ortiz MV, Dunkel IJ
J Child Neurol 2016 Feb;31(2):227-36. Epub 2015 May 28 doi: 10.1177/0883073815587943. PMID: 26023180
Jenkinson H
Arch Dis Child 2015 Nov;100(11):1070-5. Epub 2015 May 4 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306208. PMID: 25940424
Aerts I, Lumbroso-Le Rouic L, Gauthier-Villars M, Brisse H, Doz F, Desjardins L
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Aug 25;1:31. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-31. PMID: 16934146Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Lin FY, Chintagumpala MM
Clin Perinatol 2021 Mar;48(1):53-70. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2020.12.001. PMID: 33583507
Global Retinoblastoma Study Group, Fabian ID, Abdallah E, Abdullahi SU, Abdulqader RA, Adamou Boubacar S, Ademola-Popoola DS, Adio A, Afshar AR, Aggarwal P, Aghaji AE, Ahmad A, Akib MNR, Al Harby L, Al Ani MH, Alakbarova A, Portabella SA, Al-Badri SAF, Alcasabas APA, Al-Dahmash SA, Alejos A, Alemany-Rubio E, Alfa Bio AI, Alfonso Carreras Y, Al-Haddad C, Al-Hussaini HHY, Ali AM, Alia DB, Al-Jadiry MF, Al-Jumaily U, Alkatan HM, All-Eriksson C, Al-Mafrachi AARM, Almeida AA, Alsawidi KM, Al-Shaheen AASM, Al-Shammary EH, Amiruddin PO, Antonino R, Astbury NJ, Atalay HT, Atchaneeyasakul LO, Atsiaya R, Attaseth T, Aung TH, Ayala S, Baizakova B, Balaguer J, Balayeva R, Balwierz W, Barranco H, Bascaran C, Beck Popovic M, Benavides R, Benmiloud S, Bennani Guebessi N, Berete RC, Berry JL, Bhaduri A, Bhat S, Biddulph SJ, Biewald EM, Bobrova N, Boehme M, Boldt HC, Bonanomi MTBC, Bornfeld N, Bouda GC, Bouguila H, Boumedane A, Brennan RC, Brichard BG, Buaboonnam J, Calderón-Sotelo P, Calle Jara DA, Camuglia JE, Cano MR, Capra M, Cassoux N, Castela G, Castillo L, Català-Mora J, Chantada GL, Chaudhry S, Chaugule SS, Chauhan A, Chawla B, Chernodrinska VS, Chiwanga FS, Chuluunbat T, Cieslik K, Cockcroft RL, Comsa C, Correa ZM, Correa Llano MG, Corson TW, Cowan-Lyn KE, Csóka M, Cui X, Da Gama IV, Dangboon W, Das A, Das S, Davanzo JM, Davidson A, De Potter P, Delgado KQ, Demirci H, Desjardins L, Diaz Coronado RY, Dimaras H, Dodgshun AJ, Donaldson C, Donato Macedo CR, Dragomir MD, Du Y, Du Bruyn M, Edison KS, Eka Sutyawan IW, El Kettani A, Elbahi AM, Elder JE, Elgalaly D, Elhaddad AM, Elhassan MMA, Elzembely MM, Essuman VA, Evina TGA, Fadoo Z, Fandiño AC, Faranoush M, Fasina O, Fernández DDPG, Fernández-Teijeiro A, Foster A, Frenkel S, Fu LD, Fuentes-Alabi SL, Gallie BL, Gandiwa M, Garcia JL, García Aldana D, Gassant PY, Geel JA, Ghassemi F, Girón AV, Gizachew Z, Goenz MA, Gold AS, Goldberg-Lavid M, Gole GA, Gomel N, Gonzalez E, Gonzalez Perez G, González-Rodríguez L, Garcia Pacheco HN, Graells J, Green L, Gregersen PA, Grigorovski NDAK, Guedenon KM, Gunasekera DS, Gündüz AK, Gupta H, Gupta S, Hadjistilianou T, Hamel P, Hamid SA, Hamzah N, Hansen ED, Harbour JW, Hartnett ME, Hasanreisoglu M, Hassan S, Hassan S, Hederova S, Hernandez J, Hernandez LMC, Hessissen L, Hordofa DF, Huang LC, Hubbard GB, Hummlen M, Husakova K, Hussein Al-Janabi AN, Ida R, Ilic VR, Jairaj V, Jeeva I, Jenkinson H, Ji X, Jo DH, Johnson KP, Johnson WJ, Jones MM, Kabesha TBA, Kabore RL, Kaliki S, Kalinaki A, Kantar M, Kao LY, Kardava T, Kebudi R, Kepak T, Keren-Froim N, Khan ZJ, Khaqan HA, Khauv P, Kheir WJ, Khetan V, Khodabande A, Khotenashvili Z, Kim JW, Kim JH, Kiratli H, Kivelä TT, Klett A, Komba Palet JEK, Krivaitiene D, Kruger M, Kulvichit K, Kuntorini MW, Kyara A, Lachmann ES, Lam CPS, Lam GC, Larson SA, Latinovic S, Laurenti KD, Le BHA, Lecuona K, Leverant AA, Li C, Limbu B, Long QB, López JP, Lukamba RM, Lumbroso L, Luna-Fineman S, Lutfi D, Lysytsia L, Magrath GN, Mahajan A, Majeed AR, Maka E, Makan M, Makimbetov EK, Manda C, Martín Begue N, Mason L, Mason JO 3rd, Matende IO, Materin M, Mattosinho CCDS, Matua M, Mayet I, Mbumba FB, McKenzie JD, Medina-Sanson A, Mehrvar A, Mengesha AA, Menon V, Mercado GJVD, Mets MB, Midena E, Mishra DKC, Mndeme FG, Mohamedani AA, Mohammad MT, Moll AC, Montero MM, Morales RA, Moreira C, Mruthyunjaya P, Msina MS, Msukwa G, Mudaliar SS, Muma KI, Munier FL, Murgoi G, Murray TG, Musa KO, Mushtaq A, Mustak H, Muyen OM, Naidu G, Nair AG, Naumenko L, Ndoye Roth PA, Nency YM, Neroev V, Ngo H, Nieves RM, Nikitovic M, Nkanga ED, Nkumbe H, Nuruddin M, Nyaywa M, Obono-Obiang G, Oguego NC, Olechowski A, Oliver SCN, Osei-Bonsu P, Ossandon D, Paez-Escamilla MA, Pagarra H, Painter SL, Paintsil V, Paiva L, Pal BP, Palanivelu MS, Papyan R, Parrozzani R, Parulekar M, Pascual Morales CR, Paton KE, Pawinska-Wasikowska K, Pe'er J, Peña A, Peric S, Pham CTM, Philbert R, Plager DA, Pochop P, Polania RA, Polyakov VG, Pompe MT, Pons JJ, Prat D, Prom V, Purwanto I, Qadir AO, Qayyum S, Qian J, Rahman A, Rahman S, Rahmat J, Rajkarnikar P, Ramanjulu R, Ramasubramanian A, Ramirez-Ortiz MA, Raobela L, Rashid R, Reddy MA, Reich E, Renner LA, Reynders D, Ribadu D, Riheia MM, Ritter-Sovinz P, Rojanaporn D, Romero L, Roy SR, Saab RH, Saakyan S, Sabhan AH, Sagoo MS, Said AMA, Saiju R, Salas B, San Román Pacheco S, Sánchez GL, Sayalith P, Scanlan TA, Schefler AC, Schoeman J, Sedaghat A, Seregard S, Seth R, Shah AS, Shakoor SA, Sharma MK, Sherief ST, Shetye NG, Shields CL, Siddiqui SN, Sidi Cheikh S, Silva S, Singh AD, Singh N, Singh U, Singha P, Sitorus RS, Skalet AH, Soebagjo HD, Sorochynska T, Ssali G, Stacey AW, Staffieri SE, Stahl ED, Stathopoulos C, Stirn Kranjc B, Stones DK, Strahlendorf C, Suarez MEC, Sultana S, Sun X, Sundy M, Superstein R, Supriyadi E, Surukrattanaskul S, Suzuki S, Svojgr K, Sylla F, Tamamyan G, Tan D, Tandili A, Tarrillo Leiva FF, Tashvighi M, Tateshi B, Tehuteru ES, Teixeira LF, Teh KH, Theophile T, Toledano H, Trang DL, Traoré F, Trichaiyaporn S, Tuncer S, Tyau-Tyau H, Umar AB, Unal E, Uner OE, Urbak SF, Ushakova TL, Usmanov RH, Valeina S, van Hoefen Wijsard M, Varadisai A, Vasquez L, Vaughan LO, Veleva-Krasteva NV, Verma N, Victor AA, Viksnins M, Villacís Chafla EG, Vishnevskia-Dai V, Vora T, Wachtel AE, Wackernagel W, Waddell K, Wade PD, Wali AH, Wang YZ, Weiss A, Wilson MW, Wime ADC, Wiwatwongwana A, Wiwatwongwana D, Wolley Dod C, Wongwai P, Xiang D, Xiao Y, Yam JC, Yang H, Yanga JM, Yaqub MA, Yarovaya VA, Yarovoy AA, Ye H, Yousef YA, Yuliawati P, Zapata López AM, Zein E, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zheng X, Zhilyaeva K, Zia N, Ziko OAO, Zondervan M, Bowman R
JAMA Oncol 2020 May 1;6(5):685-695. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6716. PMID: 32105305Free PMC Article
Khokhar SK, Pillay G, Dhull C, Agarwal E, Mahabir M, Aggarwal P
Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Dec;65(12):1340-1349. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1023_17. PMID: 29208814Free PMC Article
Rao R, Honavar SG
Indian J Pediatr 2017 Dec;84(12):937-944. Epub 2017 Jun 16 doi: 10.1007/s12098-017-2395-0. PMID: 28620731
Mehta M, Sethi S, Pushker N, Kashyap S, Sen S, Bajaj MS, Ghose S
Singapore Med J 2012 Feb;53(2):128-35; quiz 136. PMID: 22337189

Therapy

Kaliki S, Vempuluru VS, Mohamed A, Al-Jadiry MF, Bowman R, Chawla B, Hamid SA, Ji X, Kapelushnik N, Kebudi R, Sthapit PR, Rojanaporn D, Sitorus RS, Yousef YA, Fabian ID; Global Retinoblastoma Study Group
Ophthalmology 2024 Apr;131(4):468-477. Epub 2023 Oct 13 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.10.015. PMID: 37839559
Martinez J, Ivankovich-Escoto G, Wu L
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Nov 17;29(7-8):1246-1251. Epub 2020 Aug 18 doi: 10.1080/09273948.2020.1792513. PMID: 32809906
Parrilla-Vallejo M, Perea-Pérez R, Relimpio-López I, Montero-de-Espinosa I, Rodríguez-de-la-Rúa E, Terrón-León JA, Díaz-Granda MJ, Coca-Gutiérrez L, Ponte-Zuñiga B, Espejo-Arjona F
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) 2018 Sep;93(9):423-430. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1016/j.oftal.2018.04.010. PMID: 29954624
Jenkinson H
Arch Dis Child 2015 Nov;100(11):1070-5. Epub 2015 May 4 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306208. PMID: 25940424
Damasco VC, Dire DJ
Pediatr Emerg Care 2011 Dec;27(12):1170-4. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31823b0316. PMID: 22158277

Prognosis

AlAli A, Kletke S, Gallie B, Lam WC
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2018 May-Jun;7(3):160-168. Epub 2018 May 8 doi: 10.22608/APO.201870. PMID: 29737052
Khokhar SK, Pillay G, Dhull C, Agarwal E, Mahabir M, Aggarwal P
Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Dec;65(12):1340-1349. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1023_17. PMID: 29208814Free PMC Article
Ortiz MV, Dunkel IJ
J Child Neurol 2016 Feb;31(2):227-36. Epub 2015 May 28 doi: 10.1177/0883073815587943. PMID: 26023180
Mehta M, Sethi S, Pushker N, Kashyap S, Sen S, Bajaj MS, Ghose S
Singapore Med J 2012 Feb;53(2):128-35; quiz 136. PMID: 22337189
Aerts I, Lumbroso-Le Rouic L, Gauthier-Villars M, Brisse H, Doz F, Desjardins L
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Aug 25;1:31. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-31. PMID: 16934146Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Wang Y, Lai Y, Jiang Z, Li S, Ding X
Exp Eye Res 2023 Sep;234:109574. Epub 2023 Jul 12 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2023.109574. PMID: 37451565
Helmi HA, Jammah A, Maktabi AM, AlMesfer S, Alkatan HM
J Epidemiol Glob Health 2022 Dec;12(4):496-503. Epub 2022 Sep 29 doi: 10.1007/s44197-022-00068-y. PMID: 36175755Free PMC Article
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