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Clostridioides difficile infection

MedGen UID:
575554
Concept ID:
C0343386
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Clostridioides difficile Infection; Clostridium difficile Infection; Clostridium difficile Infections; Infection, Clostridioides difficile; Infection, Clostridium difficile
SNOMED CT: Clostridium difficile infection (186431008); Clostridioides difficile infection (186431008); Infection caused by Clostridioides difficile (186431008)

Definition

A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium difficile (Clostridioides difficile), which is a spore-forming, toxin-producing Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Infection may cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon, and risk factors include use of antibiotic medication, advanced age, and hospital or long-term care facility admission. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVClostridioides difficile infection

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Johnson S, Lavergne V, Skinner AM, Gonzales-Luna AJ, Garey KW, Kelly CP, Wilcox MH
Clin Infect Dis 2021 Sep 7;73(5):e1029-e1044. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab549. PMID: 34164674
Kelly CR, Fischer M, Allegretti JR, LaPlante K, Stewart DB, Limketkai BN, Stollman NH
Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 1;116(6):1124-1147. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001278. PMID: 34003176
Shenoy ES, Macy E, Rowe T, Blumenthal KG
JAMA 2019 Jan 15;321(2):188-199. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.19283. PMID: 30644987

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Saeed M, Bass S, Chaisson NF
Cleve Clin J Med 2022 Jul 1;89(7):363-367. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.89a.21085. PMID: 35777844
Feuerstadt P, Louie TJ, Lashner B, Wang EEL, Diao L, Bryant JA, Sims M, Kraft CS, Cohen SH, Berenson CS, Korman LY, Ford CB, Litcofsky KD, Lombardo MJ, Wortman JR, Wu H, Auniņš JG, McChalicher CWJ, Winkler JA, McGovern BH, Trucksis M, Henn MR, von Moltke L
N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 20;386(3):220-229. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2106516. PMID: 35045228
van Prehn J, Reigadas E, Vogelzang EH, Bouza E, Hristea A, Guery B, Krutova M, Norén T, Allerberger F, Coia JE, Goorhuis A, van Rossen TM, Ooijevaar RE, Burns K, Scharvik Olesen BR, Tschudin-Sutter S, Wilcox MH, Vehreschild MJGT, Fitzpatrick F, Kuijper EJ; Guideline Committee of the European Study Group on Clostridioides difficile
Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Dec;27 Suppl 2:S1-S21. Epub 2021 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.09.038. PMID: 34678515
Abad CLR, Safdar N
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;50(2):323-340. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.010. PMID: 34024444
Mounsey A, Lacy Smith K, Reddy VC, Nickolich S
Am Fam Physician 2020 Feb 1;101(3):168-175. PMID: 32003951

Diagnosis

Feuerstadt P, Louie TJ, Lashner B, Wang EEL, Diao L, Bryant JA, Sims M, Kraft CS, Cohen SH, Berenson CS, Korman LY, Ford CB, Litcofsky KD, Lombardo MJ, Wortman JR, Wu H, Auniņš JG, McChalicher CWJ, Winkler JA, McGovern BH, Trucksis M, Henn MR, von Moltke L
N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 20;386(3):220-229. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2106516. PMID: 35045228
Abad CLR, Safdar N
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;50(2):323-340. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.010. PMID: 34024444
Kelly CR, Fischer M, Allegretti JR, LaPlante K, Stewart DB, Limketkai BN, Stollman NH
Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 1;116(6):1124-1147. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001278. PMID: 34003176
Mounsey A, Lacy Smith K, Reddy VC, Nickolich S
Am Fam Physician 2020 Feb 1;101(3):168-175. PMID: 32003951
Guh AY, Kutty PK
Ann Intern Med 2018 Oct 2;169(7):ITC49-ITC64. doi: 10.7326/AITC201810020. PMID: 30285209Free PMC Article

Therapy

Feuerstadt P, Louie TJ, Lashner B, Wang EEL, Diao L, Bryant JA, Sims M, Kraft CS, Cohen SH, Berenson CS, Korman LY, Ford CB, Litcofsky KD, Lombardo MJ, Wortman JR, Wu H, Auniņš JG, McChalicher CWJ, Winkler JA, McGovern BH, Trucksis M, Henn MR, von Moltke L
N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 20;386(3):220-229. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2106516. PMID: 35045228
van Prehn J, Reigadas E, Vogelzang EH, Bouza E, Hristea A, Guery B, Krutova M, Norén T, Allerberger F, Coia JE, Goorhuis A, van Rossen TM, Ooijevaar RE, Burns K, Scharvik Olesen BR, Tschudin-Sutter S, Wilcox MH, Vehreschild MJGT, Fitzpatrick F, Kuijper EJ; Guideline Committee of the European Study Group on Clostridioides difficile
Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Dec;27 Suppl 2:S1-S21. Epub 2021 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.09.038. PMID: 34678515
Abad CLR, Safdar N
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;50(2):323-340. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.010. PMID: 34024444
Mounsey A, Lacy Smith K, Reddy VC, Nickolich S
Am Fam Physician 2020 Feb 1;101(3):168-175. PMID: 32003951
Guh AY, Kutty PK
Ann Intern Med 2018 Oct 2;169(7):ITC49-ITC64. doi: 10.7326/AITC201810020. PMID: 30285209Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Baker MA, Sands KE, Huang SS, Kleinman K, Septimus EJ, Varma N, Blanchard J, Poland RE, Coady MH, Yokoe DS, Fraker S, Froman A, Moody J, Goldin L, Isaacs A, Kleja K, Korwek KM, Stelling J, Clark A, Platt R, Perlin JB; CDC Prevention Epicenters Program
Clin Infect Dis 2022 May 30;74(10):1748-1754. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab688. PMID: 34370014Free PMC Article
van Prehn J, Reigadas E, Vogelzang EH, Bouza E, Hristea A, Guery B, Krutova M, Norén T, Allerberger F, Coia JE, Goorhuis A, van Rossen TM, Ooijevaar RE, Burns K, Scharvik Olesen BR, Tschudin-Sutter S, Wilcox MH, Vehreschild MJGT, Fitzpatrick F, Kuijper EJ; Guideline Committee of the European Study Group on Clostridioides difficile
Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Dec;27 Suppl 2:S1-S21. Epub 2021 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.09.038. PMID: 34678515
Guh AY, Mu Y, Winston LG, Johnston H, Olson D, Farley MM, Wilson LE, Holzbauer SM, Phipps EC, Dumyati GK, Beldavs ZG, Kainer MA, Karlsson M, Gerding DN, McDonald LC; Emerging Infections Program Clostridioides difficile Infection Working Group
N Engl J Med 2020 Apr 2;382(14):1320-1330. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1910215. PMID: 32242357Free PMC Article
PEPTIC Investigators for the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group, Alberta Health Services Critical Care Strategic Clinical Network, and the Irish Critical Care Trials Group, Young PJ, Bagshaw SM, Forbes AB, Nichol AD, Wright SE, Bailey M, Bellomo R, Beasley R, Brickell K, Eastwood GM, Gattas DJ, van Haren F, Litton E, Mackle DM, McArthur CJ, McGuinness SP, Mouncey PR, Navarra L, Opgenorth D, Pilcher D, Saxena MK, Webb SA, Wiley D, Rowan KM
JAMA 2020 Feb 18;323(7):616-626. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.22190. PMID: 31950977Free PMC Article
Shenoy ES, Macy E, Rowe T, Blumenthal KG
JAMA 2019 Jan 15;321(2):188-199. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.19283. PMID: 30644987

Clinical prediction guides

Khanna S, Assi M, Lee C, Yoho D, Louie T, Knapple W, Aguilar H, Garcia-Diaz J, Wang GP, Berry SM, Marion J, Su X, Braun T, Bancke L, Feuerstadt P
Drugs 2022 Oct;82(15):1527-1538. Epub 2022 Oct 26 doi: 10.1007/s40265-022-01797-x. PMID: 36287379Free PMC Article
Baunwall SMD, Andreasen SE, Hansen MM, Kelsen J, Høyer KL, Rågård N, Eriksen LL, Støy S, Rubak T, Damsgaard EMS, Mikkelsen S, Erikstrup C, Dahlerup JF, Hvas CL
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Dec;7(12):1083-1091. Epub 2022 Sep 22 doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(22)00276-X. PMID: 36152636
Feuerstadt P, Louie TJ, Lashner B, Wang EEL, Diao L, Bryant JA, Sims M, Kraft CS, Cohen SH, Berenson CS, Korman LY, Ford CB, Litcofsky KD, Lombardo MJ, Wortman JR, Wu H, Auniņš JG, McChalicher CWJ, Winkler JA, McGovern BH, Trucksis M, Henn MR, von Moltke L
N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 20;386(3):220-229. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2106516. PMID: 35045228
van Prehn J, Reigadas E, Vogelzang EH, Bouza E, Hristea A, Guery B, Krutova M, Norén T, Allerberger F, Coia JE, Goorhuis A, van Rossen TM, Ooijevaar RE, Burns K, Scharvik Olesen BR, Tschudin-Sutter S, Wilcox MH, Vehreschild MJGT, Fitzpatrick F, Kuijper EJ; Guideline Committee of the European Study Group on Clostridioides difficile
Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Dec;27 Suppl 2:S1-S21. Epub 2021 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.09.038. PMID: 34678515
Shenoy ES, Macy E, Rowe T, Blumenthal KG
JAMA 2019 Jan 15;321(2):188-199. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.19283. PMID: 30644987

Recent systematic reviews

Prosty C, Hanula R, Katergi K, Longtin Y, McDonald EG, Lee TC
Clin Infect Dis 2024 Feb 17;78(2):430-438. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad523. PMID: 37648251
Minkoff NZ, Aslam S, Medina M, Tanner-Smith EE, Zackular JP, Acra S, Nicholson MR, Imdad A
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Apr 25;4(4):CD013871. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013871.pub2. PMID: 37096495Free PMC Article
Garey KW, Rose W, Gunter K, Serio AW, Wilcox MH
Ann Pharmacother 2023 Feb;57(2):184-192. Epub 2022 Jun 3 doi: 10.1177/10600280221089007. PMID: 35656828Free PMC Article
Dong N, Li ZR, Qin P, Qiang CX, Yang J, Niu YN, Niu XR, Liu XX, Wang WG, Wen BJ, Ouyang ZR, Zhang YL, Zhao M, Li JYR, Zhao JH
J Hosp Infect 2022 Dec;130:112-121. Epub 2022 Sep 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2022.09.004. PMID: 36108754
Mihaescu A, Augustine AM, Khokhar HT, Zafran M, Masood SSME, Gilca-Blanariu GE, Covic A, Nistor I
Biomed Res Int 2021;2021:5466656. Epub 2021 Sep 13 doi: 10.1155/2021/5466656. PMID: 34557546Free PMC Article

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