U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Visual hallucination

MedGen UID:
66688
Concept ID:
C0233763
Sign or Symptom
Synonym: Visual hallucinations
SNOMED CT: Seeing things (64269007); Visual hallucinations (64269007)
 
HPO: HP:0002367

Definition

Visual perception in the absence of a visual stimulus. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Lafora disease
MedGen UID:
155631
Concept ID:
C0751783
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy, Lafora type (also known as Lafora disease [LD]) is characterized by focal occipital seizures presenting as transient blindness or visual hallucinations and fragmentary, symmetric, or generalized myoclonus beginning in previously healthy individuals at age eight to 19 years (peak 14-16 years). Generalized tonic-clonic seizures, atypical absence seizures, atonic seizures, and focal seizures with impaired awareness may occur. The course of the disease is characterized by increasing frequency and intractability of seizures. Status epilepticus with any of the seizure types is common. Cognitive decline becomes apparent at or soon after the onset of seizures. Dysarthria and ataxia appear early while spasticity appears late. Emotional disturbance and confusion are common in the early stages of the disease and are followed by dementia. Most affected individuals die within ten years of onset, usually from status epilepticus or from complications related to nervous system degeneration.
Lewy body dementia
MedGen UID:
199874
Concept ID:
C0752347
Disease or Syndrome
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by dementia and parkinsonism, often with fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Pathologically, Lewy bodies are present in a pattern more widespread than usually observed in Parkinson disease (see PD; 168600). Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300)-associated pathology and spongiform changes may also be seen (McKeith et al., 1996; Mizutani, 2000; McKeith et al., 2005).
Migraine, familial hemiplegic, 1
MedGen UID:
331388
Concept ID:
C1832884
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) falls within the category of migraine with aura. In migraine with aura (including FHM) the neurologic symptoms of aura are unequivocally localizable to the cerebral cortex or brain stem and include visual disturbance (most common), sensory loss (e.g., numbness or paresthesias of the face or an extremity), and dysphasia (difficulty with speech). FHM must include motor involvement, such as hemiparesis (weakness of an extremity). Hemiparesis occurs with at least one other symptom during FHM aura. Neurologic deficits with FHM attacks can be prolonged for hours to days and may outlast the associated migrainous headache. FHM is often earlier in onset than typical migraine, frequently beginning in the first or second decade; the frequency of attacks tends to decrease with age. Approximately 40%-50% of families with CACNA1A-FHM have cerebellar signs ranging from nystagmus to progressive, usually late-onset mild ataxia.
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 4 (Kufs type)
MedGen UID:
320287
Concept ID:
C1834207
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-4 (CLN4) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in adulthood. It belongs to a group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of intracellular autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in the brain and other tissues. Several different forms have been described according to age of onset (see, e.g., CLN3, 204200). Individuals with the adult form, sometimes referred to as Kufs disease, develop psychiatric manifestations, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive decline. Retinal degeneration is usually not present (summary by Benitez et al., 2011 and Velinov et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Bilateral parasagittal parieto-occipital polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
862085
Concept ID:
C4013648
Disease or Syndrome
Polymicrogyria is a condition characterized by abnormal development of the brain before birth. The surface of the brain normally has many ridges or folds, called gyri. In people with polymicrogyria, the brain develops too many folds, and the folds are unusually small. The name of this condition literally means too many (poly-) small (micro-) folds (-gyria) in the surface of the brain.\n\nPolymicrogyria can affect part of the brain or the whole brain. When the condition affects one side of the brain, researchers describe it as unilateral. When it affects both sides of the brain, it is described as bilateral. The signs and symptoms associated with polymicrogyria depend on how much of the brain, and which particular brain regions, are affected.\n\nResearchers have identified multiple forms of polymicrogyria. The mildest form is known as unilateral focal polymicrogyria. This form of the condition affects a relatively small area on one side of the brain. It may cause minor neurological problems, such as mild seizures that can be easily controlled with medication. Some people with unilateral focal polymicrogyria do not have any problems associated with the condition.\n\nPolymicrogyria most often occurs as an isolated feature, although it can occur with other brain abnormalities. It is also a feature of several genetic syndromes characterized by intellectual disability and multiple birth defects. These include 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Adams-Oliver syndrome, Aicardi syndrome, Galloway-Mowat syndrome, Joubert syndrome, and Zellweger spectrum disorder.\n\nBilateral forms of polymicrogyria tend to cause more severe neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of these conditions can include recurrent seizures (epilepsy), delayed development, crossed eyes, problems with speech and swallowing, and muscle weakness or paralysis. The most severe form of the disorder, bilateral generalized polymicrogyria, affects the entire brain. This condition causes severe intellectual disability, problems with movement, and seizures that are difficult or impossible to control with medication.
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 6B (Kufs type)
MedGen UID:
1794137
Concept ID:
C5561927
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-6B (CLN6B) is an autosomal recessive form of 'Kufs disease,' which refers in general to adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis without retinal involvement. CLN6B is a neurodegenerative disorder with a mean onset of symptoms at around age 28 years, although onset in the teens and later adulthood may also occur. Patients typically present with progressive myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, loss of motor function, dysarthria, progressive dementia, and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Ultrastructural examination typically shows fingerprint profiles and granular osmiophilic deposits in some tissues, including brain samples (summary by Arsov et al., 2011 and Berkovic et al., 2019). However, pathologic findings in peripheral tissues in adults is not as accurate for diagnosis as it is in children with the disease (Cherian et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Dumrikarnlert C, Thakolwiboon S, Senanarong V
BMC Neurol 2023 Sep 22;23(1):334. doi: 10.1186/s12883-023-03305-4. PMID: 37737161Free PMC Article
Swann P, O'Brien JT
Int Psychogeriatr 2019 Jun;31(6):815-836. Epub 2018 Nov 6 doi: 10.1017/S1041610218001400. PMID: 30398127
Miyoshi K, Ueki A, Nagano O
Eur Neurol 1996;36 Suppl 1:49-8. doi: 10.1159/000118884. PMID: 8791021

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

McCann E, Lee S, Coleman F, O'Sullivan JD, Nestor PJ
PLoS One 2023;18(11):e0293942. Epub 2023 Nov 6 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0293942. PMID: 37930972Free PMC Article
Collerton D, Barnes J, Diederich NJ, Dudley R, Ffytche D, Friston K, Goetz CG, Goldman JG, Jardri R, Kulisevsky J, Lewis SJG, Nara S, O'Callaghan C, Onofrj M, Pagonabarraga J, Parr T, Shine JM, Stebbins G, Taylor JP, Tsuda I, Weil RS
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2023 Jul;150:105208. Epub 2023 May 2 doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105208. PMID: 37141962
Fernyhough C
Psychol Med 2019 Dec;49(16):2639-2645. Epub 2019 Sep 18 doi: 10.1017/S0033291719002496. PMID: 31530334Free PMC Article
Ffytche DH, Aarsland D
Int Rev Neurobiol 2017;133:585-622. Epub 2017 Jun 16 doi: 10.1016/bs.irn.2017.04.005. PMID: 28802934
Lee JY, Ahn J, Kim TW, Jeon BS
J Parkinsons Dis 2014;4(2):197-204. doi: 10.3233/JPD-130306. PMID: 24518436

Diagnosis

Smailes D, Burdis E, Gregoriou C, Fenton B, Dudley R
Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2020 Mar;25(2):113-125. Epub 2019 Dec 6 doi: 10.1080/13546805.2019.1700789. PMID: 31810425
Fernyhough C
Psychol Med 2019 Dec;49(16):2639-2645. Epub 2019 Sep 18 doi: 10.1017/S0033291719002496. PMID: 31530334Free PMC Article
van Ommen MM, van Laar T, Cornelissen FW, Bruggeman R
Psychiatry Res 2019 Oct;280:112517. Epub 2019 Aug 10 doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112517. PMID: 31446216
Lee JY, Ahn J, Kim TW, Jeon BS
J Parkinsons Dis 2014;4(2):197-204. doi: 10.3233/JPD-130306. PMID: 24518436
ffytche DH
Curr Opin Neurol 2009 Feb;22(1):28-35. doi: 10.1097/wco.0b013e32831f1b3f. PMID: 19165953

Therapy

Blackman G, Dadwal AK, Teixeira-Dias M, Ffytche D
Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2023 Nov;28(6):391-405. Epub 2023 Nov 30 doi: 10.1080/13546805.2023.2266872. PMID: 37922514
Ganjei Z, Bahmani K
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Mar;59(3):254-256. doi: 10.5414/CP203789. PMID: 33191905
Brandt C, Klein P, Badalamenti V, Gasalla T, Whitesides J
Epilepsy Behav 2020 Feb;103(Pt A):106864. Epub 2020 Jan 12 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106864. PMID: 31937513
van Ommen MM, van Laar T, Cornelissen FW, Bruggeman R
Psychiatry Res 2019 Oct;280:112517. Epub 2019 Aug 10 doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112517. PMID: 31446216
Swann P, O'Brien JT
Int Psychogeriatr 2019 Jun;31(6):815-836. Epub 2018 Nov 6 doi: 10.1017/S1041610218001400. PMID: 30398127

Prognosis

McCann E, Lee S, Coleman F, O'Sullivan JD, Nestor PJ
PLoS One 2023;18(11):e0293942. Epub 2023 Nov 6 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0293942. PMID: 37930972Free PMC Article
Blackman G, Dadwal AK, Teixeira-Dias M, Ffytche D
Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2023 Nov;28(6):391-405. Epub 2023 Nov 30 doi: 10.1080/13546805.2023.2266872. PMID: 37922514
Omoto S, Murakami H, Shiraishi T, Bono K, Umehara T, Iguchi Y
Acta Neurol Scand 2021 May;143(5):538-544. Epub 2020 Dec 4 doi: 10.1111/ane.13380. PMID: 33222164
Smailes D, Burdis E, Gregoriou C, Fenton B, Dudley R
Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2020 Mar;25(2):113-125. Epub 2019 Dec 6 doi: 10.1080/13546805.2019.1700789. PMID: 31810425
ffytche DH
Curr Opin Neurol 2009 Feb;22(1):28-35. doi: 10.1097/wco.0b013e32831f1b3f. PMID: 19165953

Clinical prediction guides

McCann E, Lee S, Coleman F, O'Sullivan JD, Nestor PJ
PLoS One 2023;18(11):e0293942. Epub 2023 Nov 6 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0293942. PMID: 37930972Free PMC Article
Blackman G, Dadwal AK, Teixeira-Dias M, Ffytche D
Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2023 Nov;28(6):391-405. Epub 2023 Nov 30 doi: 10.1080/13546805.2023.2266872. PMID: 37922514
Yuki N, Yoshioka A, Mizuhara R, Kimura T
Brain Behav 2020 Dec;10(12):e01883. Epub 2020 Oct 20 doi: 10.1002/brb3.1883. PMID: 33078912Free PMC Article
Smailes D, Burdis E, Gregoriou C, Fenton B, Dudley R
Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2020 Mar;25(2):113-125. Epub 2019 Dec 6 doi: 10.1080/13546805.2019.1700789. PMID: 31810425
Lee WW, Yoon EJ, Lee JY, Park SW, Kim YK
Neurodegener Dis 2017;17(2-3):63-72. Epub 2016 Oct 20 doi: 10.1159/000448517. PMID: 27760431

Recent systematic reviews

Blackman G, Dadwal AK, Teixeira-Dias M, Ffytche D
Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2023 Nov;28(6):391-405. Epub 2023 Nov 30 doi: 10.1080/13546805.2023.2266872. PMID: 37922514
Eversfield CL, Orton LD
Psychol Med 2019 Oct;49(14):2342-2353. Epub 2018 Nov 26 doi: 10.1017/S0033291718003161. PMID: 30474581Free PMC Article
Swann P, O'Brien JT
Int Psychogeriatr 2019 Jun;31(6):815-836. Epub 2018 Nov 6 doi: 10.1017/S1041610218001400. PMID: 30398127
Sakakibara R, Tateno F, Kishi M, Tsuyusaki Y, Terada H, Inaoka T
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Mar;20(3):267-73. Epub 2013 Nov 21 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.11.001. PMID: 24332912

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...