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Mental deterioration

MedGen UID:
66713
Concept ID:
C0234985
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: Cognitive Decline; Cognitive Declines; Decline, Cognitive; Declines, Cognitive; Deterioration, Mental; Deteriorations, Mental; Mental Deterioration; Mental Deteriorations
 
HPO: HP:0001268

Definition

Loss of previously present mental abilities, generally in adults. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVMental deterioration

Conditions with this feature

Fucosidosis
MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976).
Pigmentary pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
6708
Concept ID:
C0018523
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early-childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
6071
Concept ID:
C0023522
Disease or Syndrome
Arylsulfatase A deficiency (also known as metachromatic leukodystrophy or MLD) is characterized by three clinical subtypes: late-infantile MLD, juvenile MLD, and adult MLD. Age of onset within a family is usually similar. The disease course may be from several years in the late-infantile-onset form to decades in the juvenile- and adult-onset forms. Late-infantile MLD. Onset is before age 30 months. Typical presenting findings include weakness, hypotonia, clumsiness, frequent falls, toe walking, and dysarthria. As the disease progresses, language, cognitive, and gross and fine motor skills regress. Later signs include spasticity, pain, seizures, and compromised vision and hearing. In the final stages, children have tonic spasms, decerebrate posturing, and general unawareness of their surroundings. Juvenile MLD. Onset is between age 30 months and 16 years. Initial manifestations include decline in school performance and emergence of behavioral problems, followed by gait disturbances. Progression is similar to but slower than in the late-infantile form. Adult MLD. Onset occurs after age 16 years, sometimes not until the fourth or fifth decade. Initial signs can include problems in school or job performance, personality changes, emotional lability, or psychosis; in others, neurologic symptoms (weakness and loss of coordination progressing to spasticity and incontinence) or seizures initially predominate. Peripheral neuropathy is common. Disease course is variable – with periods of stability interspersed with periods of decline – and may extend over two to three decades. The final stage is similar to earlier-onset forms.
Adrenoleukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention-deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within six months to two years. Most individuals have impaired adrenocortical function at the time that neurologic disturbances are first noted. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in an individual in his twenties or middle age as progressive stiffness and weakness of the legs, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops by middle age. More than 20% of female carriers develop mild-to-moderate spastic paraparesis in middle age or later. Adrenal function is usually normal.
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
MedGen UID:
61440
Concept ID:
C0205711
Disease or Syndrome
PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease.
DE SANCTIS-CACCHIONE SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
75550
Concept ID:
C0265201
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive inherited syndrome. It is characterized by xeroderma pigmentosum, mental retardation, dwarfism, hypogonadism, and neurologic abnormalities.
Xeroderma pigmentosum group A
MedGen UID:
82775
Concept ID:
C0268135
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group D
MedGen UID:
75656
Concept ID:
C0268138
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Niemann-Pick disease, type B
MedGen UID:
78651
Concept ID:
C0268243
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotype of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) occurs along a continuum. Individuals with the severe early-onset form, infantile neurovisceral ASMD, were historically diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A). The later-onset, chronic visceral form of ASMD is also referred to as Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B). A phenotype with intermediate severity is also known as chronic neurovisceral ASMD (NPD-A/B). The most common presenting symptom in NPD-A is hepatosplenomegaly, usually detectable by age three months; over time the liver and spleen become massive in size. Psychomotor development progresses no further than the 12-month level, after which neurologic deterioration is relentless. Failure to thrive typically becomes evident by the second year of life. A classic cherry-red spot of the macula of the retina, which may not be present in the first few months, is eventually present in all affected children. Interstitial lung disease caused by storage of sphingomyelin in pulmonary macrophages results in frequent respiratory infections and often respiratory failure. Most children succumb before the third year of life. NPD-B generally presents later than NPD-A, and the manifestations are less severe. NPD-B is characterized by progressive hepatosplenomegaly, gradual deterioration in liver and pulmonary function, osteopenia, and atherogenic lipid profile. No central nervous system (CNS) manifestations occur. Individuals with NPD-A/B have symptoms that are intermediate between NPD-A and NPD-B. The presentation in individuals with NPD-A/B varies greatly, although all are characterized by the presence of some CNS manifestations. Survival to adulthood can occur in individuals with NPD-B and NPD-A/B.
Sphingolipid activator protein 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
120624
Concept ID:
C0268262
Disease or Syndrome
Metachromatic leukodystrophy gets its name from the way cells with an accumulation of sulfatides appear when viewed under a microscope. The sulfatides form granules that are described as metachromatic, which means they pick up color differently than surrounding cellular material when stained for examination.\n\nThe adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy affects approximately 15 to 20 percent of individuals with the disorder. In this form, the first symptoms appear during the teenage years or later. Often behavioral problems such as alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or difficulties at school or work are the first symptoms to appear. The affected individual may experience psychiatric symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. People with the adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy may survive for 20 to 30 years after diagnosis. During this time there may be some periods of relative stability and other periods of more rapid decline.\n\nIn 20 to 30 percent of individuals with metachromatic leukodystrophy, onset occurs between the age of 4 and adolescence. In this juvenile form, the first signs of the disorder may be behavioral problems and increasing difficulty with schoolwork. Progression of the disorder is slower than in the late infantile form, and affected individuals may survive for about 20 years after diagnosis.\n\nThe most common form of metachromatic leukodystrophy, affecting about 50 to 60 percent of all individuals with this disorder, is called the late infantile form. This form of the disorder usually appears in the second year of life. Affected children lose any speech they have developed, become weak, and develop problems with walking (gait disturbance). As the disorder worsens, muscle tone generally first decreases, and then increases to the point of rigidity. Individuals with the late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy typically do not survive past childhood.\n\nIn people with metachromatic leukodystrophy, white matter damage causes progressive deterioration of intellectual functions and motor skills, such as the ability to walk. Affected individuals also develop loss of sensation in the extremities (peripheral neuropathy), incontinence, seizures, paralysis, an inability to speak, blindness, and hearing loss. Eventually they lose awareness of their surroundings and become unresponsive. While neurological problems are the primary feature of metachromatic leukodystrophy, effects of sulfatide accumulation on other organs and tissues have been reported, most often involving the gallbladder.\n\nMetachromatic leukodystrophy is an inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of fats called sulfatides in cells. This accumulation especially affects cells in the nervous system that produce myelin, the substance that insulates and protects nerves. Nerve cells covered by myelin make up a tissue called white matter. Sulfatide accumulation in myelin-producing cells causes progressive destruction of white matter (leukodystrophy) throughout the nervous system, including in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) and the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound (the peripheral nervous system).
Sneddon syndrome
MedGen UID:
76449
Concept ID:
C0282492
Disease or Syndrome
Sneddon syndrome is a noninflammatory arteriopathy characterized by onset of livedo reticularis in the second decade and onset of cerebrovascular disease in early adulthood (summary by Bras et al., 2014). Livedo reticularis occurs also with polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, and central thrombocythemia, any one of which may be accompanied by cerebrovascular accidents (Bruyn et al., 1987).
Opticocochleodentate degeneration
MedGen UID:
101046
Concept ID:
C0520711
Disease or Syndrome
Neurocutaneous melanocytosis
MedGen UID:
154259
Concept ID:
C0544862
Congenital Abnormality
Neurocutaneous melanosis, or neuromelanosis, is characterized by the presence of melanin-producing cells within the brain parenchyma or leptomeninges, which may lead to clinically apparent neurologic signs and symptoms, such as seizures. Other neurologic abnormalities, including hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, tumors, and syringomyelia, may also occur. The disorder is a rare but severe manifestation of congenital melanocytic nevus syndrome (CMNS; 137550). Some patients with neurocutaneous melanosis or CMNS may develop malignant melanoma. The incidence of neurologic involvement, development of malignant melanoma, and death is significantly associated with the projected adult size of the largest congenital melanocytic nevus, particularly those greater than 40 cm (summary by Kinsler et al., 2008; Kinsler et al., 2013).
Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
MedGen UID:
148243
Concept ID:
C0751122
Disease or Syndrome
SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family.
Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome
MedGen UID:
155629
Concept ID:
C0751779
Disease or Syndrome
The action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome, also known as progressive myclonic epilepsy-4 with or without renal failure (EPM4), is an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonic epilepsy associated with renal failure. Cognitive function is preserved (Badhwar et al., 2004). Some patients do not develop renal failure (Dibbens et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Unverricht-Lundborg syndrome
MedGen UID:
155923
Concept ID:
C0751785
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1(EPM1) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset from age six to 15 years, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus, and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. Some years after the onset, ataxia, incoordination, intentional tremor, and dysarthria develop. Individuals with EPM1 are cognitively mostly within the normal range, but show emotional lability and depression. The epileptic seizures are usually well controlled by anti-seizure medication, but the myoclonic jerks are progressive, action activated, and treatment resistant, and can be severely disabling.
Spinocerebellar ataxia 7
MedGen UID:
156006
Concept ID:
C0752125
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) comprises a phenotypic spectrum ranging from adolescent- or adult-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia and cone-rod retinal dystrophy to infantile or early-childhood onset with multiorgan failure, an accelerated course, and early death. Anticipation in this nucleotide repeat disorder may be so dramatic that within a family a child with infantile or early-childhood onset may be diagnosed with what is thought to be an unrelated neurodegenerative disorder years before a parent or grandparent with a CAG repeat expansion becomes symptomatic. In adolescent-onset SCA7, the initial manifestation is typically impaired vision, followed by cerebellar ataxia. In those with adult onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia usually precedes the onset of visual manifestations. While the rate of progression varies in these two age groups, the eventual result for almost all affected individuals is loss of vision, severe dysarthria and dysphagia, and a bedridden state with loss of motor control.
Deafness dystonia syndrome
MedGen UID:
162903
Concept ID:
C0796074
Disease or Syndrome
Males with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy (DDON) syndrome have prelingual or postlingual sensorineural hearing impairment in early childhood, slowly progressive dystonia or ataxia in the teens, slowly progressive decreased visual acuity from optic atrophy beginning at approximately age 20 years, and dementia beginning at approximately age 40 years. Psychiatric symptoms such as personality change and paranoia may appear in childhood and progress. The hearing impairment appears to be consistent in age of onset and progression, whereas the neurologic, visual, and neuropsychiatric signs vary in degree of severity and rate of progression. Females may have mild hearing impairment and focal dystonia.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 7
MedGen UID:
325457
Concept ID:
C1838571
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL, or CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally (summary by Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 21
MedGen UID:
375311
Concept ID:
C1843891
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-21 (SCA21) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first decades of life of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, which is associated with cognitive impairment in most patients (summary by Delplanque et al., 2014). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14
MedGen UID:
343106
Concept ID:
C1854369
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus. Axial myoclonus, cognitive impairment, tremor, and sensory loss may also be observed. Parkinsonian features including rigidity and tremor have been described in some families. Findings seen in other ataxia disorders (e.g., dysphagia, dysphonia) may also occur in SCA14. The average age of onset is in the 30s, with a range from childhood to the seventh decade. Life span is not shortened.
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 1
MedGen UID:
347456
Concept ID:
C1857451
Disease or Syndrome
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is an endogenous form of adrenal Cushing syndrome characterized by multiple bilateral adrenocortical nodules that cause a striking enlargement of the adrenal glands. Although some familial cases have been reported, the vast majority of AIMAH cases are sporadic. Patients typically present in the fifth and sixth decades of life, approximately 10 years later than most patients with other causes of Cushing syndrome (Swain et al., 1998; Christopoulos et al., 2005). Approximately 10 to 15% of adrenal Cushing syndrome is due to primary bilateral ACTH-independent adrenocortical pathology. The 2 main subtypes are AIMAH and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, see 610489), which is often a component of the Carney complex (160980) and associated with mutations in the PRKAR1A gene (188830) on chromosome 17q23-q24. AIMAH is rare, representing less than 1% of endogenous causes of Cushing syndrome (Swain et al., 1998; Christopoulos et al., 2005). See also ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (615830) due to somatic mutation in the PRKACA gene (601639). Cushing 'disease' (219090) is an ACTH-dependent disorder caused in most cases by pituitary adenomas that secrete excessive ACTH. Genetic Heterogeneity of ACTH-Independent Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia AIMAH2 (615954) is caused by germline mutation of 1 allele of the ARMC5 gene (615549) coupled with a somatic mutation in the other allele.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 2B
MedGen UID:
346658
Concept ID:
C1857747
Disease or Syndrome
PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). Atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD). PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD usually begins between ages six months and three years with psychomotor regression or delay, hypotonia, and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Many affected children never learn to walk or lose the ability shortly after attaining it. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Disease progression is rapid, resulting in severe spasticity, progressive cognitive decline, and visual impairment. Many affected children do not survive beyond their first decade. Atypical NAD shows more phenotypic variability than INAD. In general, onset is in early childhood but can be as late as the end of the second decade. The presenting signs may be gait instability, ataxia, or speech delay and autistic features, which are sometimes the only evidence of disease for a year or more. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Neuropsychiatric disturbances including impulsivity, poor attention span, hyperactivity, and emotional lability are also common. The course is fairly stable during early childhood and resembles static encephalopathy but is followed by neurologic deterioration between ages seven and 12 years. PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism has a variable age of onset, but most individuals present in early adulthood with gait disturbance or neuropsychiatric changes. Affected individuals consistently develop dystonia and parkinsonism (which may be accompanied by rapid cognitive decline) in their late teens to early twenties. Dystonia is most common in the hands and feet but may be more generalized. The most common features of parkinsonism in these individuals are bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability.
Huntington disease-like 3
MedGen UID:
347622
Concept ID:
C1858114
Disease or Syndrome
A rare Huntington disease-like syndrome with characteristics of childhood-onset progressive neurologic deterioration with pyramidal and extrapyramidal abnormalities, chorea, dystonia, ataxia, gait instability, spasticity, seizures, mutism, and (on brain MRI) progressive frontal cortical atrophy and bilateral caudate atrophy.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 11
MedGen UID:
388073
Concept ID:
C1858479
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 11 (SPG11) is characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs frequently associated with the following: mild intellectual disability with learning difficulties in childhood and/or progressive cognitive decline; peripheral neuropathy; pseudobulbar involvement; and increased reflexes in the upper limbs. Less frequent findings include: cerebellar signs (ataxia, nystagmus, saccadic pursuit); retinal degeneration; pes cavus; scoliosis; and parkinsonism with characteristic brain MRI features that include thinning of the corpus callosum. Onset occurs mainly during infancy or adolescence (range: age 1-31 years) and in rare cases as late as age 60 years. Most affected individuals become wheelchair bound one or two decades after disease onset.
Sengers syndrome
MedGen UID:
395228
Concept ID:
C1859317
Disease or Syndrome
Sengers syndrome is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Mental development is normal, but affected individuals may die early from cardiomyopathy (summary by Mayr et al., 2012). Skeletal muscle biopsies of 2 affected individuals showed severe mtDNA depletion (Calvo et al., 2012).
Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia
MedGen UID:
395301
Concept ID:
C1859598
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. The first manifestation is progressive gait imbalance (mean age of onset: 4.3 years; range: 2-10 years), followed by dysarthria, then upper-limb dysmetria with mild intention tremor. Oculomotor apraxia, usually noticed a few years after the onset of ataxia, progresses to external ophthalmoplegia. All affected individuals have generalized areflexia followed by a peripheral neuropathy and quadriplegia with loss of ambulation about seven to ten years after onset. Hands and feet are short and atrophic. Chorea and upper-limb dystonia are common. Intellect remains normal in some individuals; in others, different degrees of cognitive impairment have been observed.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 10
MedGen UID:
350481
Concept ID:
C1864669
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, see CLN1 (256730).
Pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
400627
Concept ID:
C1864846
Disease or Syndrome
Primary pigmented micronodular adrenocortical disease is a form of ACTH-independent adrenal hyperplasia resulting in Cushing syndrome. It is usually seen as a manifestation of the Carney complex (CNC1; 160980), a multiple neoplasia syndrome. However, PPNAD can also occur in isolation (Groussin et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Primary Pigmented Micronodular Adrenocortical Disease See also PPNAD2 (610475), caused by mutation in the PDE11A gene (604961) on chromosome 2q31; PPNAD3 (614190), caused by mutation in the PDE8B gene (603390) on chromosome 5q13; and PPNAD4 (615830), caused by a duplication on chromosome 19p13 that includes the PRKACA gene (601639).
Pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, primary, 2
MedGen UID:
355843
Concept ID:
C1864851
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PDE11A gene.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 8 northern epilepsy variant
MedGen UID:
355328
Concept ID:
C1864923
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment patterns observed most often in CLN8 comprise mixed combinations of 'granular,' 'curvilinear,' and 'fingerprint' profiles (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 1
MedGen UID:
357008
Concept ID:
C1868595
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease is the second most common neurogenic disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300), affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 50. Clinical manifestations include resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia (Polymeropoulos et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600.
Spastic ataxia 2
MedGen UID:
370750
Concept ID:
C1969796
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia-2 (SPAX2) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first 2 decades of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and variable spasticity of the lower limbs. Cognition is not affected (summary by Dor et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spastic ataxia, see SPAX1 (108600).
Immunodeficiency 83, susceptibility to viral infections
MedGen UID:
416638
Concept ID:
C2751803
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-83 (IMD83) is characterized by increased susceptibility to severe viral infections, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), influenza A virus (IAV), hantavirus, and possibly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The age at onset varies widely from infancy to adulthood, and there is incomplete penetrance. The susceptibility to encephalitis or pneumonitis appears to result from impaired TLR3-dependent interferon production by nonhematopoietic cells that reside within the central nervous system (CNS) or lung epithelial cells (review by Zhang et al., 2013; summary by Mork et al., 2015; Sironi et al., 2017, Lim et al., 2019, Partanen et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description of herpes simplex encephalitis and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acute infection-induced encephalopathy, see 610551.
Autosomal recessive Parkinson disease 14
MedGen UID:
414488
Concept ID:
C2751842
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.\n\nParkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 46
MedGen UID:
473687
Concept ID:
C2828721
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-46 (SPG46) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset in childhood of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia and cerebellar signs. Some patients have cognitive impairment, cataracts, and cerebral, cerebellar, and corpus callosum atrophy on brain imaging (summary by Boukhris et al., 2010 and Martin et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 48
MedGen UID:
462251
Concept ID:
C3150901
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-48 (SPG48) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by spasticity of the lower limbs resulting in gait difficulties. Most patients have onset in mid- or late-adulthood, although childhood onset has been reported in 1 patient. Additional features may include parkinsonism, urinary incontinence, neuropathy, and mild cognitive impairment (summary by Hirst et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 2A
MedGen UID:
462705
Concept ID:
C3151355
Disease or Syndrome
The classic phenotype of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is characterized by early-onset macrocephaly, often in combination with mild gross motor developmental delay and seizures; gradual onset of ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes extrapyramidal findings; and usually late onset of mild mental deterioration. Macrocephaly, observed in virtually all individuals, may be present at birth but more frequently develops during the first year of life. The degree of macrocephaly is variable and can be as great as 4 to 6 SD above the mean in some individuals. After the first year of life, head growth rate normalizes and growth follows a line parallel to and usually several centimeters above the 98th centile. Initial mental and motor development is normal in most individuals. Walking is often unstable, followed by ataxia of the trunk and extremities, then minor signs of pyramidal dysfunction and brisk deep-tendon stretch reflexes. Almost all individuals have epilepsy from an early age. The epilepsy is typically well controlled with anti-seizure medication, but status epilepticus occurs relatively frequently. Mental deterioration is late and mild. Disease severity ranges from independent walking for a few years only to independent walking in the fifth decade. Some individuals have died in their teens or twenties; others are alive in their fifties. An improving phenotype has a similar initial presentation with delayed mental or motor development, followed by an improving clinical course: macrocephaly usually persists, but some children become normocephalic; motor function improves or normalizes; hypotonia and clumsiness may persist in some or neurologic examination may become normal. Some have intellectual disability that is stable, with or without autism. Epilepsy and status epilepticus may occur.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 4
MedGen UID:
482001
Concept ID:
C3280371
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is characterized initially by gait changes followed by progressive spastic paresis, progressive dystonia (which may be limited to the hands and feet or more generalized), neuropsychiatric abnormalities (emotional lability, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, compulsions, hallucinations, perseveration, inattention, and hyperactivity), and cognitive decline. Additional early findings can include dysphagia, dysarthria, optic atrophy, axonal neuropathy, parkinsonism, and bowel/bladder incontinence. Survival is usually well into adulthood. End-stage disease is characterized by severe dementia, spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism.
Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts
MedGen UID:
482830
Concept ID:
C3281200
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy, brain calcifications, and cysts (LCC), also known as Labrune syndrome, is characterized by a constellation of features restricted to the central nervous system, including leukoencephalopathy, brain calcifications, and cysts, resulting in spasticity, dystonia, seizures, and cognitive decline (summary by Labrune et al., 1996). See also cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC; 612199), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the CTC1 gene (613129) that shows phenotypic similarities to Labrune syndrome. CRMCC includes the neurologic findings of intracranial calcifications, leukodystrophy, and brain cysts, but also includes retinal vascular abnormalities and other systemic manifestations, such as osteopenia with poor bone healing, a high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, hair, skin, and nail changes, and anemia and thrombocytopenia. Although Coats plus syndrome and Labrune syndrome were initially thought to be manifestations of the same disorder, namely CRMCC, molecular evidence has excluded mutations in the CTC1 gene in patients with Labrune syndrome, suggesting that the 2 disorders are not allelic (Anderson et al., 2012; Polvi et al., 2012).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 35
MedGen UID:
501249
Concept ID:
C3496228
Disease or Syndrome
Fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration (FAHN) is characterized early in the disease course by central nervous system involvement including corticospinal tract involvement (spasticity), mixed movement disorder (ataxia/dystonia), and eye findings (optic atrophy, oculomotor abnormalities), and later in the disease course by progressive intellectual impairment and seizures. With disease progression, dystonia and spasticity compromise the ability to ambulate, leading to wheelchair dependence. Life expectancy is variable. FAHN is considered to be a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA).
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 11
MedGen UID:
761331
Concept ID:
C3539123
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-11 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive visual loss due to retinal dystrophy, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Cognitive decline may also occur (summary by Smith et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 5
MedGen UID:
763887
Concept ID:
C3550973
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is typically characterized by early-onset seizures, infantile-onset developmental delay, intellectual disability, absent-to-limited expressive language, motor dysfunction (ataxia), and abnormal behaviors often similar to autism spectrum disorder. Seizure types including generalized (absence, tonic, atonic, tonic-clonic and myoclonic), focal with impaired consciousness, and epileptic spasms, as well as epileptic syndromes (West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) can be seen. With age seizures tend to resolve or become less prominent, whereas cognitive decline and movement disorders (progressive parkinsonism and dystonia) emerge as characteristic findings.
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood 2
MedGen UID:
766702
Concept ID:
C3553788
Disease or Syndrome
ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders represent a clinical continuum in which at least three distinct phenotypes have been delineated: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP); alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ACH); and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). However, some affected individuals have intermediate phenotypes or only a few features that do not fit well into one of these major phenotypes. RDP has been characterized by: abrupt onset of dystonia over days to weeks with parkinsonism (primarily bradykinesia and postural instability); common bulbar involvement; and absence or minimal response to an adequate trial of L-dopa therapy, with few exceptions. Often fever, physiologic stress, or alcoholic binges trigger the onset of symptoms. After their initial appearance, symptoms often stabilize with little improvement; occasionally second episodes occur with abrupt worsening of symptoms. Rarely, affected individuals have reported a more gradual onset of symptoms over weeks to months. Anxiety, depression, and seizures have been reported. Age of onset ranges from four to 55 years, although a childhood variation of RDP with onset between ages nine and 14 months has been reported. AHC is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome most frequently manifesting in infancy or early childhood with paroxysmal episodic neurologic dysfunction including alternating hemiparesis or dystonia, quadriparesis, seizure-like episodes, and oculomotor abnormalities. Episodes can last for minutes, hours, days, or even weeks. Remission of symptoms occurs with sleep and immediately after awakening. Over time, persistent neurologic deficits including oculomotor apraxia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction develop in the majority of those affected; more than 50% develop epilepsy in addition to their episodic movement disorder phenotype. CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is characterized by episodes of ataxic encephalopathy and/or weakness during and after a febrile illness. Onset is between ages six months and four years. Some acute symptoms resolve; progression of sensory losses and severity vary.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 13
MedGen UID:
811566
Concept ID:
C3715049
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-13 (CLN13) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cognitive decline and motor dysfunction leading to dementia and often early death. Some patients develop seizures. Neurons show abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material (summary by Smith et al., 2013). Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is sometimes referred to as Kufs disease (see 204300). In a review of the classification of CLN disease, Gardner and Mole (2021) noted that the CLN13 phenotype corresponds to 'Kufs type B', which is characterized by dementia and a variety of motor signs (Smith et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN), see CLN1 (256730).
Early-onset Parkinson disease 20
MedGen UID:
816154
Concept ID:
C3809824
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease-20 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young adult-onset of parkinsonism. Additional features may include seizures, cognitive decline, abnormal eye movements, and dystonia (summary by Krebs et al., 2013 and Quadri et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see PD (168600).
Severe neurodegenerative syndrome with lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
863137
Concept ID:
C4014700
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of BSCL2-related neurologic disorders includes Silver syndrome and variants of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) type V, and spastic paraplegia 17. Features of these disorders include onset of symptoms ranging from the first to the seventh decade, slow disease progression, upper motor neuron involvement (gait disturbance with pyramidal signs ranging from mild to severe spasticity with hyperreflexia in the lower limbs and variable extensor plantar responses), lower motor neuron involvement (amyotrophy of the peroneal muscles and small muscles of the hand), and pes cavus and other foot deformities. Disease severity is variable among and within families.
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 7
MedGen UID:
863857
Concept ID:
C4015420
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-7 (EPM7) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe progressive myoclonus and infrequent tonic-clonic seizures in the first or second decades of life. Most patients become wheelchair-bound; some patients may have cognitive decline (summary by Muona et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 23
MedGen UID:
896607
Concept ID:
C4225186
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease-23 is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young-adult onset of parkinsonism associated with progressive cognitive impairment leading to dementia and dysautonomia. Some individuals have additional motor abnormalities. Affected individuals become severely disabled within a few decades (summary by Lesage et al., 2016).
Cerebral arteriopathy, autosomal dominant, with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, type 2
MedGen UID:
895965
Concept ID:
C4225211
Disease or Syndrome
HTRA1 disorder is a phenotypic spectrum in which some individuals have few to no symptoms and others manifest with the more severe CARASIL (cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) phenotype. Those who have a heterozygous HTRA1 pathogenic variant may have mild neurologic findings (sometimes identified only on neuroimaging) or mild-to-moderate neurologic signs and symptoms of CARASIL. In this chapter, the term "classic CARASIL" refers to the more severe phenotype associated with biallelic pathogenic variants, and "HTRA1 cerebral small vessel disease" (HTRA1-CSVD) refers to the milder phenotype associated with a heterozygous HTRA1 pathogenic variant. Classic CARASIL is characterized by early-onset changes in the deep white matter of the brain observed on MRI, and associated neurologic findings. The most frequent initial symptom is gait disturbance from spasticity beginning between ages 20 and 40 years. Forty-four percent of affected individuals have stroke-like episodes before age 40 years. Mood changes (apathy and irritability), pseudobulbar palsy, and cognitive dysfunction begin between ages 20 and 50 years. The disease progresses slowly following the onset of neurologic symptoms. Scalp alopecia and acute mid- to lower-back pain (lumbago) before age 30 years are characteristic. The most frequent initial symptom in individuals with HTRA1-CSVD is slowly progressive gait disturbance after age 40 years, which may be followed by the development of mood changes and cognitive dysfunction. A majority of affected individuals have a stroke-like episode after age 40 years. Spondylosis and alopecia are seen in a minority of individuals with HTRA1-CSVD.
Neurodegeneration with ataxia, dystonia, and gaze palsy, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
934660
Concept ID:
C4310693
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with ataxia, dystonia, and gaze palsy (NADGP) is an autosomal recessive progressive disorder characterized by onset of gait ataxia, cognitive decline, and gaze palsy in the first or second decades. Additional features include dysarthria, dystonia, and athetoid movements. Some patients may become wheelchair-bound as young adults (summary by Haack et al., 2016).
Striatal degeneration, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
934758
Concept ID:
C4310791
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant striatal degeneration-2 is a neurologic disorder characterized by hyperkinetic movements, mainly chorea, resulting from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Although symptoms appear in the first decade, the disorder is not progressive (summary by Mencacci et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ADSD, see ADSD1 (609161).
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 6
MedGen UID:
1387791
Concept ID:
C4517377
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction beginning in childhood or young adulthood. Patients show extrapyramidal motor signs, such as spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism. Brain imaging shows iron accumulation in the basal ganglia (summary by Dusi et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200).
Childhood-onset motor and cognitive regression syndrome with extrapyramidal movement disorder
MedGen UID:
1626007
Concept ID:
C4540086
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with brain atrophy (CONDBA) is a severe progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor and cognitive skills between ages 2 and 7 years. Affected individuals may have normal development or mild developmental delay, but all eventually lose all motor skills, resulting in inability to walk, absence of language, and profound intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Edvardson et al., 2017).
Nephrotic syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1617660
Concept ID:
C4540559
Disease or Syndrome
Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is characterized by varying combinations of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ranging from nonimmune fetal hydrops to adolescent onset), primary adrenal insufficiency (with or without mineralocorticoid deficiency), testicular insufficiency, hypothyroidism, ichthyosis, lymphopenia/immunodeficiency, and neurologic abnormalities that can include developmental delay, regression / progressive neurologic involvement, cranial nerve deficits, and peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy.
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 1
MedGen UID:
1637664
Concept ID:
C4551624
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present.
Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts 1
MedGen UID:
1636142
Concept ID:
C4552029
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Encephalopathy, acute, infection-induced (herpes-specific), susceptibility to, 8
MedGen UID:
1646997
Concept ID:
C4693542
Finding
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A2
MedGen UID:
1648317
Concept ID:
C4721887
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Spinocerebellar ataxia 48
MedGen UID:
1648409
Concept ID:
C4748158
Disease or Syndrome
SCA48 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of gait ataxia and/or cognitive-affective symptoms in midadulthood. Patients may present with involvement of either system, but most eventually develop impairment in both. Features include gait ataxia, dysarthria, and dysphagia, as well as cognitive decline, deficits in executive function, and psychiatric or affective manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, and apathy. Additional more variable features may include movement abnormalities, such as parkinsonism, tremor, chorea, dystonia, and dysmetria; spasticity is not observed. Brain imaging shows selective atrophy of the posterior areas of the cerebellar vermis, often with bilateral T2-weighted hyperintensities in the dentate nuclei (the 'crab sign'), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may show paucity of cerebellar connections to the brainstem and cerebrum. The presentation is consistent with a clinical diagnosis of cerebellar cognitive-affective syndrome (CCAS). The phenotype shows both inter- and intrafamilial variability as well as some clinical overlap with SCAR16, suggesting that mutations in the STUB1 gene result in a spectrum of neurodegenerative manifestations (summary by Genis et al., 2018; Cocozza et al., 2020; Palvadeau et al., 2020; Ravel et al., 2021). Magri et al. (2022) found evidence that heterozygous STUB1 variants alone do not cause disease but require a concurrent expanded repeat allele of the TBP gene (600075) for disease manifestation; see MOLECULAR GENETICS.
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 7, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1683911
Concept ID:
C5193025
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-7 is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in adulthood. Patients present with dysarthria, gait abnormalities, various movement abnormalities, and often cognitive decline. Brain imaging shows abnormal accumulation of calcium deposits in deep brain regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, dentate nuclei, cerebellum, and sometimes other areas of the brain and spinal cord. Some patients with brain imaging abnormalities may be clinically asymptomatic (summary by Yao et al., 2018). For a detailed phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
1672866
Concept ID:
C5193058
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-27 (SCAR27) is an adult-onset neurologic disorder characterized by gait difficulties and other cerebellar signs, such as eye movement abnormalities, dysarthria, and difficulty writing. The disorder is progressive, and some patients may lose independent ambulation. Additional features include spasticity of the lower limbs and cognitive impairment. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy (summary by Eidhof et al., 2018).
Spastic paraplegia 80, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1682111
Concept ID:
C5193084
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-80 (SPG80) is an autosomal dominant juvenile-onset neurologic disorder characterized by onset of progressive spasticity and hyperreflexia affecting mainly the lower limbs and resulting in difficulty walking or loss of independent ambulation, sometimes as early as the second decade. Some patients may have cerebellar signs and mild cognitive impairment, but most have a pure form of the disorder (summary by Farazi Fard et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600).
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
1678789
Concept ID:
C5193117
Disease or Syndrome
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis (BANDDOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain abnormalities, progressive neurologic deterioration, and sclerotic bone dysplasia similar to dysosteosclerosis (DOS). The age at onset is highly variable: some patients may present in infancy with hydrocephalus, global developmental delay, and hypotonia, whereas others may have onset of symptoms in the late teens or early twenties after normal development. Neurologic features include loss of previous motor and language skills, cognitive impairment, spasticity, and focal seizures. Brain imaging shows periventricular white matter abnormalities and calcifications, large cisterna magna or Dandy-Walker malformation, and sometimes agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by Guo et al., 2019).
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 8, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1713414
Concept ID:
C5394199
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-8 (IBGC8) is a progressive neurologic disorder with insidious onset of motor symptoms in adulthood. Affected individuals develop gait difficulties, parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, and dysarthria. Some may demonstrate cognitive decline or memory impairment. Brain imaging shows extensive calcifications in various brain regions including the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Because serum calcium and phosphate are normal, the disorder is thought to result from defects in the integrity of the neurovascular unit in the brain (summary by Schottlaender et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with ataxia, tremor, optic atrophy, and cognitive decline
MedGen UID:
1715031
Concept ID:
C5394335
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with ataxia, tremor, optic atrophy, and cognitive decline (CONATOC) is an autosomal recessive progressive disorder with onset of symptoms in the first decade. Brain imaging may show variable features, including leukoencephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Fagerberg et al., 2020).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 7
MedGen UID:
1754683
Concept ID:
C5436685
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 7 (MC4DN7) is an autosomal recessive metabolic encephalomyopathic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Only a few patients have been reported. Some patients have normal early development then show rapid neurodegeneration with progressive muscle weakness, gait disturbances, and cognitive decline in mid to late childhood. Other features may include seizures and visual impairment. Brain imaging shows progressive leukodystrophy with cystic lesions. In contrast, at least 1 patient has been reported who presented in the neonatal period with metabolic acidosis, hydrocephalus, hypotonia, and cortical blindness. This patient developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulting in early death. All patients had increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Massa et al., 2008 and Abdulhag et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 12
MedGen UID:
1778162
Concept ID:
C5543069
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-12 (EPM12) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of tonic-clonic seizures and/or myoclonus in the second decade of life. Affected individuals develop cerebellar ataxia associated with progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Most patients lose ambulation and become wheelchair-bound. Additional more variable features include mild cognitive dysfunction or psychiatric manifestations, such as depression or anxiety (summary by Mazzola et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Deafness, congenital, and adult-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
1784506
Concept ID:
C5543087
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital deafness and adult-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy (DEAPLE) is an autosomal recessive complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by congenital neurosensory deafness followed by onset of neurodegenerative symptoms, including pyramidal signs and cognitive decline, in young adulthood. Some patients may have mild developmental delay or learning difficulties in childhood, but most can function independently. The onset of motor and cognitive decline in adulthood can be rapid and may result in early death. Brain imaging shows diffuse white matter abnormalities affecting various brain regions, consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. More variable additional features may include visual impairment and axonal peripheral neuropathy (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2019).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 21
MedGen UID:
1778269
Concept ID:
C5543334
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-21 (HLD21) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy with loss of motor, speech, and cognitive milestones in the first decades of life. Affected individuals show cerebellar and pyramidal signs, including nystagmus, ataxia, dystonia, and spasticity, resulting in the loss of ambulation. Other more variable features include feeding difficulties, poor overall growth with microcephaly, optic atrophy, and seizures. Brain imaging shows diffuse hypomyelination of the white matter and atrophy of the cerebellum and corpus callosum. The disorder is progressive and may lead to premature death (summary by Dorboz et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 6B (Kufs type)
MedGen UID:
1794137
Concept ID:
C5561927
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-6B (CLN6B) is an autosomal recessive form of 'Kufs disease,' which refers in general to adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis without retinal involvement. CLN6B is a neurodegenerative disorder with a mean onset of symptoms at around age 28 years, although onset in the teens and later adulthood may also occur. Patients typically present with progressive myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, loss of motor function, dysarthria, progressive dementia, and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Ultrastructural examination typically shows fingerprint profiles and granular osmiophilic deposits in some tissues, including brain samples (summary by Arsov et al., 2011 and Berkovic et al., 2019). However, pathologic findings in peripheral tissues in adults is not as accurate for diagnosis as it is in children with the disease (Cherian et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids 1
MedGen UID:
1794139
Concept ID:
C5561929
Disease or Syndrome
CSF1R-related adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is characterized by executive dysfunction, memory decline, personality changes, motor impairments, and seizures. A frontal lobe syndrome (e.g., loss of judgment, lack of social inhibitors, lack of insight, and motor persistence) usually appears early in the disease course. The mean age of onset is usually in the fourth decade. Affected individuals eventually become bedridden with spasticity and rigidity. The disease course ranges from two to 30 or more years (mean: 8 years).
Leukoencephalopathy, hereditary diffuse, with spheroids 2
MedGen UID:
1794254
Concept ID:
C5562044
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids-2 (HDLS2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and executive dysfunction, psychiatric disturbances, and neurologic symptoms, such as gait abnormalities, paresis, seizures, and rigidity. Symptom onset is usually in adulthood, although earlier onset has been reported. Some patients have an acute encephalopathic course with severe neurologic decline resulting in early death, whereas other patients have a more protracted and chronic disease course. Neuropathologic examination shows a leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and myelination defects (summary by Sundal et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HDLS, see HDLS1 (221820).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 27
MedGen UID:
1799031
Concept ID:
C5567608
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-27 (COXPD27) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized mainly by neurologic features, including delayed development, seizures, abnormal movements, and neurologic regression. Age at onset, ranging from infancy to late childhood, and severity are variable. Other features include hypotonia, myoclonus, brain imaging abnormalities, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Liver dysfunction has also been reported (summary by Samanta et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 78
MedGen UID:
1799316
Concept ID:
C5567893
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized predominantly by spasticity and muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and loss of ambulation in some patients. Affected individuals also have cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, oculomotor disturbances, and limb and gait ataxia; brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Some patients may have mild cognitive impairment or frank dementia. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017). Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693), a neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with KRS have earlier onset and prominent parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 20 (mngie type)
MedGen UID:
1804209
Concept ID:
C5676934
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-20 (MTDPS20) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with variable manifestations and severity. Most patients develop symptoms in childhood, although the onset can range from infancy to the teenage years. Prominent features include severe gastrointestinal dysmotility often requiring parenteral nutrition, neurogenic bladder, and muscle weakness and atrophy. Neurologic involvement manifests as headaches, stroke-like episodes, seizures, pyramidal signs, and learning difficulties or cognitive decline. Brain imaging usually shows diffuse leukoencephalopathy and may show cerebellar atrophy. The disorder results from a defect in the maintenance and repair of mitochondrial DNA, resulting in mtDNA depletion and impaired mitochondrial function (summary by Bonora et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041).
Muscular dystrophy, congenital, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1824047
Concept ID:
C5774274
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy with or without seizures (MYOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe muscle hypotonia apparent from birth, as well as developmental delay. Laboratory studies show increased serum creatine kinase and muscle biopsy shows nonspecific dystrophic features. Most patients develop seizures or have abnormal epileptiform findings on EEG studies; other variable findings may include feeding difficulties, nystagmus, myopathic facies, areflexia, and brain atrophy on MRI (summary by Larson et al., 2018 and Henige et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Curated

UK NICE Guideline (NG127), Suspected neurological conditions: recognition and referral, 2023

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Yuksel H, Aydin O, Ari D, Oter V, Akdogan M, Birol Bostanci E
Ideggyogy Sz 2022 Mar 31;75(3-04):129-135. doi: 10.18071/isz.75.0129. PMID: 35357787
Dahlke S, Hunter KF
Int J Older People Nurs 2022 Mar;17(2):e12417. Epub 2021 Aug 22 doi: 10.1111/opn.12417. PMID: 34420260
Maciejewska K, Czarnecka K, Szymański P
Pharmacol Rep 2021 Dec;73(6):1565-1581. Epub 2021 Jun 13 doi: 10.1007/s43440-021-00293-5. PMID: 34121170Free PMC Article
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Diagnosis

Ding H, Jian Z, Stary CM, Yi W, Xiong X
Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:643409. Epub 2015 Jun 28 doi: 10.1155/2015/643409. PMID: 26221602Free PMC Article
Valstar MJ, Ruijter GJ, van Diggelen OP, Poorthuis BJ, Wijburg FA
J Inherit Metab Dis 2008 Apr;31(2):240-52. Epub 2008 Apr 4 doi: 10.1007/s10545-008-0838-5. PMID: 18392742
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Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1993 Sep;27(3):374-8. doi: 10.3109/00048679309075792. PMID: 8250779
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Therapy

Yuksel H, Aydin O, Ari D, Oter V, Akdogan M, Birol Bostanci E
Ideggyogy Sz 2022 Mar 31;75(3-04):129-135. doi: 10.18071/isz.75.0129. PMID: 35357787
Ambrose CT
J Alzheimers Dis 2015;43(1):1-17. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140498. PMID: 25061056
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Prognosis

Dahlke S, Hunter KF
Int J Older People Nurs 2022 Mar;17(2):e12417. Epub 2021 Aug 22 doi: 10.1111/opn.12417. PMID: 34420260
Ding H, Jian Z, Stary CM, Yi W, Xiong X
Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:643409. Epub 2015 Jun 28 doi: 10.1155/2015/643409. PMID: 26221602Free PMC Article
Valstar MJ, Ruijter GJ, van Diggelen OP, Poorthuis BJ, Wijburg FA
J Inherit Metab Dis 2008 Apr;31(2):240-52. Epub 2008 Apr 4 doi: 10.1007/s10545-008-0838-5. PMID: 18392742
Stores G, Zaiwalla Z, Styles E, Hoshika A
Arch Dis Child 1995 Aug;73(2):106-11. doi: 10.1136/adc.73.2.106. PMID: 7574851Free PMC Article
Birchwood M, Macmillan F
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1993 Sep;27(3):374-8. doi: 10.3109/00048679309075792. PMID: 8250779

Clinical prediction guides

Yuksel H, Aydin O, Ari D, Oter V, Akdogan M, Birol Bostanci E
Ideggyogy Sz 2022 Mar 31;75(3-04):129-135. doi: 10.18071/isz.75.0129. PMID: 35357787
Gołaszewska A, Bik W, Motyl T, Orzechowski A
Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 3;20(7) doi: 10.3390/ijms20071664. PMID: 30987146Free PMC Article
Ambrose CT
J Alzheimers Dis 2015;43(1):1-17. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140498. PMID: 25061056
Vanneste JA
J Neurol 2000 Jan;247(1):5-14. doi: 10.1007/s004150050003. PMID: 10701891
Poeck K
J Neurol 1983;230(1):1-5. doi: 10.1007/BF00313591. PMID: 6194268

Recent systematic reviews

Moghadasi AN, Mirmosayyeb O, Mohammadi A, Sahraian MA, Ghajarzadeh M
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr;49:102757. Epub 2021 Jan 15 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2021.102757. PMID: 33486400
Sutanto B, Singh-Grewal D, McNeil HP, O'Neill S, Craig JC, Jones J, Tong A
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2013 Nov;65(11):1752-65. doi: 10.1002/acr.22032. PMID: 23609952

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    Clinical resources

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      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    • NICE, 2023
      UK NICE Guideline (NG127), Suspected neurological conditions: recognition and referral, 2023

    Consumer resources

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