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Neck muscle weakness

MedGen UID:
66808
Concept ID:
C0240479
Finding
Synonym: Floppy neck
 
HPO: HP:0000467

Definition

Decreased strength of the neck musculature. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNeck muscle weakness

Conditions with this feature

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
75730
Concept ID:
C0270952
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is characterized by ptosis and dysphagia due to selective involvement of the muscles of the eyelids and pharynx, respectively. For the vast majority of individuals with typical OPMD, the mean age of onset of ptosis is usually 48 years and of dysphagia 50 years; in 5%-10% of individuals with severe OPMD, onset of ptosis and dysphagia occur before age 45 years and is associated with lower limb girdle weakness starting around age 60 years. Swallowing difficulties, which determine prognosis, increase the risk for potentially life-threatening aspiration pneumonia and poor nutrition. Other manifestations as the disease progresses can include limitation of upward gaze, tongue atrophy and weakness, chewing difficulties, wet voice, facial muscle weakness, axial muscle weakness, and proximal limb girdle weakness predominantly in lower limbs. Some individuals with severe involvement will eventually need a wheelchair. Neuropsychological tests have shown altered scores in executive functions in some.
Severe X-linked myotubular myopathy
MedGen UID:
98374
Concept ID:
C0410203
Congenital Abnormality
X-linked myotubular myopathy (X-MTM), also known as myotubular myopathy (MTM), is characterized by muscle weakness that ranges from severe to mild. Approximately 80% of affected males present with severe (classic) X-MTM characterized by polyhydramnios, decreased fetal movement, and neonatal weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory failure. Motor milestones are significantly delayed and most individuals fail to achieve independent ambulation. Weakness is profound and often involves facial and extraocular muscles. Respiratory failure is nearly uniform, with most individuals requiring 24-hour ventilatory assistance. It is estimated that at least 25% of boys with severe X-MTM die in the first year of life, and those who survive rarely live into adulthood. Males with mild or moderate X-MTM (~20%) achieve motor milestones more quickly than males with the severe form; many ambulate independently, and may live into adulthood. Most require gastrostomy tubes and/or ventilator support. In all subtypes of X-MTM, the muscle disease is not obviously progressive. Female carriers of X-MTM are generally asymptomatic, although manifesting heterozygotes are increasingly being identified. In affected females, symptoms range from severe, generalized weakness presenting in childhood, with infantile onset similar to affected male patients, to mild (often asymmetric) weakness manifesting in adulthood. Affected adult females may experience progressive respiratory decline and ultimately require ventilatory support.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q.
Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy
MedGen UID:
330449
Concept ID:
C1832370
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) is a noncommittal term that refers to a group of morphologically homogeneous, but genetically heterogeneous chronic neuromuscular disorders. The morphologic changes in skeletal muscle in MFM result from disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disc and the myofibrils, followed by abnormal ectopic accumulation of multiple proteins involved in the structure of the Z disc, including desmin, alpha-B-crystallin (CRYAB; 123590), dystrophin (300377), and myotilin (TTID; 604103). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myofibrillar Myopathy Other forms of MFM include MFM2 (608810), caused by mutation in the CRYAB gene (123590); MFM3 (609200), caused by mutation in the MYOT gene (604103); MFM4 (609452), caused by mutation in the ZASP gene (LDB3; 605906); MFM5 (609524), caused by mutation in the FLNC gene (102565); MFM6 (612954), caused by mutation in the BAG3 gene (603883); MFM7 (617114), caused by mutation in the KY gene (605739); MFM8 (617258), caused by mutation in the PYROXD1 gene (617220); MFM9 (603689), caused by mutation in the TTN gene (188840); MFM10 (619040), caused by mutation in the SVIL UNC45B gene (611220); MFM11 (619178), caused by mutation in the UNC45B gene (611220); and MFM12 (619424), caused by mutation in the MYL2 gene (160781). 'Desmin-related myopathy' is another term referring to MFM in which there are intrasarcoplasmic aggregates of desmin, usually in addition to other sarcomeric proteins. Rigid spine syndrome (602771), caused by mutation in the SEPN1 gene (606210), is another desmin-related myopathy. Goebel (1995) provided a review of desmin-related myopathy.
Congenital myopathy 23
MedGen UID:
324513
Concept ID:
C1836447
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy is a disorder that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. People with nemaline myopathy have muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body, but it is typically most severe in the muscles of the face; neck; trunk; and other muscles close to the center of the body (proximal muscles), such as those of the upper arms and legs. This weakness can worsen over time. Affected individuals may have feeding and swallowing difficulties, foot deformities, abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), and joint deformities (contractures). Most people with nemaline myopathy are able to walk, although some affected children may begin walking later than usual. As the condition progresses, some people may require wheelchair assistance. In severe cases, the muscles used for breathing are affected and life-threatening breathing difficulties can occur.\n\nNemaline myopathy is divided into six types. In order of decreasing severity, the types are: severe congenital, Amish, intermediate congenital, typical congenital, childhood-onset, and adult-onset. The types are distinguished by the age when symptoms first appear and the severity of symptoms; however, there is overlap among the various types. The severe congenital type is the most life-threatening. Most individuals with this type do not survive past early childhood due to respiratory failure. The Amish type solely affects the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania and is typically fatal in early childhood. The most common type of nemaline myopathy is the typical congenital type, which is characterized by muscle weakness and feeding problems beginning in infancy. Most of these individuals do not have severe breathing problems and can walk unassisted. People with the childhood-onset type usually develop muscle weakness in adolescence. The adult-onset type is the mildest of all the various types. People with this type usually develop muscle weakness between ages 20 and 50.
Myofibrillar myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
324735
Concept ID:
C1837317
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-B crystallin-related myofibrillar myopathy is an autosomal dominant muscular disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive muscle weakness affecting both the proximal and distal muscles and associated with respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and cataracts. There is phenotypic variability both within and between families (Fardeau et al., 1978; Selcen and Engel, 2003). A homozygous founder mutation in the CRYAB gene has been identified in Canadian aboriginal infants of Cree origin who have a severe fatal infantile hypertonic form of myofibrillar myopathy; see 613869. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Mitochondrial myopathy with diabetes
MedGen UID:
333236
Concept ID:
C1839028
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, mitochondrial DNA-related mitochondrial myopathy disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscular weakness (proximal greater than distal), predominantly involving the facial muscles and scapular girdle, associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Neurological involvement and congenital myopathy may be variably observed.
Neutral lipid storage myopathy
MedGen UID:
339913
Concept ID:
C1853136
Disease or Syndrome
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and associated with increased serum creatine kinase; distal muscle weakness may also occur. About half of patients develop cardiomyopathy later in the disease course. Other variable features include diabetes mellitus, hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly sensorineural hearing loss. Leukocytes and muscle cells show cytoplasmic accumulation of triglycerides (summary by Reilich et al., 2011). Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy belongs to a group of disorders termed neutral lipid storage disorders (NLSDs). These disorders are characterized by the presence of triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in leukocytes and in other tissues, including bone marrow, skin, and muscle. Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS; 275630) is defined as NLSD with ichthyosis (NLSDI). Patients with NLSDM present with myopathy but without ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2007).
Nemaline myopathy 7
MedGen UID:
343979
Concept ID:
C1853154
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-7 is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by very early onset of hypotonia and delayed motor development. Affected individuals have difficulty walking and running due to proximal muscle weakness. The disorder is slowly progressive, and patients may lose independent ambulation. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline rods and may later show minicores, abnormal protein aggregates, and dystrophic changes (summary by Ockeloen et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 161800.
Myopathy, proximal, and ophthalmoplegia
MedGen UID:
381340
Concept ID:
C1854106
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-6 with ophthalmoplegia (CMYP6) is a relatively mild muscle disorder characterized by childhood onset of symptoms. The disorder is either slowly progressive or nonprogressive, and affected individuals retain ambulation, although there is variable severity. CMYP6 can show both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance; the phenotype is similar in both forms (summary by Lossos et al., 2005 and Tajsharghi et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
400481
Concept ID:
C1864233
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction. Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. Endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency is an autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndrome characterized by a defect within the synapse at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Mutations in COLQ result in a deficiency of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes prolonged synaptic currents and action potentials due to extended residence of acetylcholine in the synaptic space. Treatment with ephedrine may be beneficial; AChE inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital muscular dystrophy due to LMNA mutation
MedGen UID:
413043
Concept ID:
C2750785
Disease or Syndrome
LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) is a condition that primarily affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). It is part of a group of genetic conditions called congenital muscular dystrophies, which cause weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life.\n\nIn people with L-CMD, muscle weakness becomes apparent in infancy or early childhood and can worsen quickly. The most severely affected infants develop few motor skills, and they are never able to hold up their heads, roll over, or sit. Less severely affected children may learn to sit, stand, and walk before muscle weakness becomes apparent. First the neck muscles weaken, causing the head to fall forward (dropped-head syndrome). As other skeletal muscles become weaker, these children may ultimately lose the ability to sit, stand, and walk unassisted.\n\nOther features of L-CMD often include spinal rigidity and abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis and lordosis); joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement, particularly in the hips and legs; and an inward-turning foot. People with L-CMD also have an increased risk of heart rhythm abnormalities (arrhythmias).\n\nOver time, muscle weakness causes most infants and children with L-CMD to have trouble eating and breathing. The breathing problems result from restrictive respiratory insufficiency, which occurs when muscles in the chest are weakened and the ribcage becomes increasingly rigid. This problem can be life-threatening, and many affected children require support with a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation).
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 4, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
414476
Concept ID:
C2751807
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SYNE1 gene.
Mitochondrial myopathy with reversible cytochrome C oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
463248
Concept ID:
C3151898
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile mitochondrial myopathy due to reversible COX deficiency is a rare mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset in infancy of severe hypotonia and generalized muscle weakness associated with lactic acidosis, but is distinguished from other mitochondrial disorders in that affected individuals recover spontaneously after 1 year of age (summary by Mimaki et al., 2010). See also transient infantile liver failure (LFIT; 613070), which is a similar disorder.
Congenital myopathy 10b, mild variant
MedGen UID:
762102
Concept ID:
C3541476
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-10B (CMYP10B) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy, areflexia, dysphagia, and respiratory distress that usually requires nocturnal ventilation. Other common features include facial and neck muscle weakness, feeding difficulties, contractures, scoliosis, high-arched palate, hyporeflexia, and difficulties walking. The disorder is slowly progressive and most patients follow a chronic course. Muscle biopsy shows variable findings, including type 1 fiber predominance, minicore lesions, and myofibrillar disorganization (Boyden et al., 2012; Harris et al., 2018). Patients with missense mutations affecting conserved cysteine residues in the EGF-like domain show the mild variant phenotype (CMYP10B) with later onset of respiratory failure and minicores on muscle biopsy, whereas patients with more damaging mutations, including nonsense or frameshift null mutations, show the severe variant phenotype (CMYP10A) (Croci et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
765249
Concept ID:
C3552335
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-12 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of proximal muscle weakness in the first decade. EMG classically shows a decremental response to repeated nerve stimulation. Affected individuals show a favorable response to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (summary by Senderek et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 7, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
765974
Concept ID:
C3553060
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a genetically heterogeneous muscular disease that presents with muscular dystrophy, joint contractures, and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects (summary by Liang et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EDMD, see 310300.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766452
Concept ID:
C3553538
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome-2 (BVVLS2) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of sensorineural deafness, bulbar dysfunction, and severe diffuse muscle weakness and wasting of the upper and lower limbs and axial muscles, resulting in respiratory insufficiency. Some patients may lose independent ambulation. Because it results from a defect in riboflavin metabolism, some patients may benefit from high-dose riboflavin supplementation (summary by Johnson et al., 2012; Foley et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, see BVVLS1 (211530).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 35
MedGen UID:
854733
Concept ID:
C3888031
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-35 (SCA35) is an autosomal dominant adult-onset neurologic disorder characterized by difficulty walking due to cerebellar ataxia. The age at onset ranges from teenage years to late adulthood, and the disorder is slowly progressive. Additional features may include hand tremor, dysarthria, hyperreflexia, and saccadic eye movements (summary by Guo et al., 2014). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Myopathy, tubular aggregate, 2
MedGen UID:
862994
Concept ID:
C4014557
Disease or Syndrome
Any tubular aggregate myopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ORAI1 gene.
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
895641
Concept ID:
C4225368
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Patients may show a favorable response to amifampridine (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4B
MedGen UID:
904424
Concept ID:
C4225369
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the AChR channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 3B
MedGen UID:
909404
Concept ID:
C4225371
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 1B, fast-channel
MedGen UID:
909200
Concept ID:
C4225405
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myofibrillar myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
934612
Concept ID:
C4310645
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-8 (MFM8) is an autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the upper and lower limbs, resulting in increased falls, gait problems, difficulty running or climbing stairs, and upper limb weakness or scapular winging. Some patients develop distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The phenotype may also be consistent with a clinical diagnosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Age at symptom onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. Ambulation is generally preserved and cardiac involvement is rare, but respiratory compromise with decreased forced vital capacity often occurs. Muscle biopsy shows a mix of myopathic features, including myofibrillar inclusions and sarcomeric disorganization; some patients have been reported to have dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy (O'Grady et al., 2016; Daimaguler et al., 2021). There is significant phenotypic variation, even in patients with the same mutation, which must be taken into account when counseling affecting individuals (Woods et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934661
Concept ID:
C4310694
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-20 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe hypotonia associated with episodic apnea soon after birth. Patients have muscle weakness resulting in delayed walking, ptosis, poor sucking and swallowing, and generalized limb fatigability and weakness. EMG studies usually show a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation, and some patients may show a good response to AChE inhibitors (summary by Bauche et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital muscular dystrophy-respiratory failure-skin abnormalities-joint hyperlaxity syndrome
MedGen UID:
934703
Concept ID:
C4310736
Disease or Syndrome
A rare congenital muscular dystrophy characterised by neonatal hypotonia, life-threatening respiratory failure and feeding difficulties, furthermore by delayed motor development, severe muscle weakness predominantly affecting axial muscles (leading to poor head control, rigid cervical spine, and severe scoliosis), generalised joint laxity with no or mild contractures, as well as dry skin with follicular hyperkeratosis. Serum creatine kinase is normal or slightly elevated. Muscle biopsy shows fibre size variability, rounded fibres with mild increase of endomysial connective tissue and adipose replacement, abundant minicore lesions, increase of centrally located nuclei, angular fibres and cap lesions.
MYH7-related skeletal myopathy
MedGen UID:
1647391
Concept ID:
C4552004
Disease or Syndrome
Laing distal myopathy is characterized by early-onset weakness (usually before age 5 years) that initially involves the dorsiflexors of the ankles and great toes and then the finger extensors, especially those of the third and fourth fingers. Weakness of the neck flexors is seen in most affected individuals and mild facial weakness is often present. After distal weakness has been present for more than ten years, mild proximal weakness may be observed. Life expectancy is normal.
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 23, presynaptic
MedGen UID:
1648392
Concept ID:
C4748678
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy with reduced type 2 muscle fibers
MedGen UID:
1672638
Concept ID:
C5193081
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-14 (CMYP14) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by onset of severe muscle weakness apparent at birth and sometimes in utero. Affected infants have difficulty breathing independently and usually require mechanical ventilation for variable lengths of time. Other features include delayed motor development with delayed walking, hypo- or areflexia, and high-arched palate. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows variation in fiber size with specific atrophy of the fast-twitch type II fibers. Cardiac muscle is not affected (summary by Ravenscroft et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Dyskinesia with orofacial involvement, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1790407
Concept ID:
C5551343
Disease or Syndrome
ADCY5 dyskinesia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder (more prominent in the face and arms than the legs) characterized by infantile to late-adolescent onset of chorea, athetosis, dystonia, myoclonus, or a combination of these. To date, affected individuals have had overlapping (but not identical) manifestations with wide-ranging severity. The facial movements are typically periorbital and perioral. The dyskinesia is prone to episodic or paroxysmal exacerbation lasting minutes to hours, and may occur during sleep. Precipitating factors in some persons have included emotional stress, intercurrent illness, sneezing, or caffeine; in others, no precipitating factors have been identified. In some children, severe infantile axial hypotonia results in gross motor delays accompanied by chorea, sometimes with language delays. The overall tendency is for the abnormal movements to stabilize in early middle age, at which point they may improve in some individuals; less commonly, the abnormal movements are slowly progressive, increasing in severity and frequency.
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy 3
MedGen UID:
1794166
Concept ID:
C5561956
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-3 (OPDM3) is a neuromyodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness with ocular, facial, pharyngeal, and distal limb involvement, resulting in dysarthria and gait difficulties. The onset of the disorder is usually in adulthood, although childhood onset has rarely been reported. Additional features include hyporeflexia, proximal muscle weakness, neck muscle weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia, and ptosis. Some patients may develop pigmentary retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, or hearing loss. Cognition is usually not affected, but there may be deficits or psychiatric manifestations. Brain imaging tends to show a leukoencephalopathy, often with a characteristic linear signal along the corticomedullary junction on brain imaging. Skin and muscle biopsy show intranuclear inclusions and rimmed vacuoles. Many of the clinical features are reminiscent of NIID, suggesting that these disorders likely fall within a broad phenotypic spectrum of diseases with neuromyodegenerative features associated with abnormal repeat expansions in this gene (summary by Ogasawara et al., 2020 and Yu et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of OPDM, see OPDM1 (164310).
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 3, digenic
MedGen UID:
1794169
Concept ID:
C5561959
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy-3 (FSHD3) is a digenic muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of proximal muscle weakness affecting the face, neck, scapular muscles, and upper and lower limbs. Muscle involvement is usually asymmetric, and other muscle groups may become involved with progression of the disease (summary by Hamanaka et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FSHD, see FSHD1 (158900).
Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
1794212
Concept ID:
C5562002
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-27 (LGMDR27) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness primarily affecting the lower limbs and resulting in walking difficulty or loss of ambulation. The age at onset is highly variable, from infancy to young adulthood. Patients with infantile onset may have a more severe disease course with rapid progression. Upper limb involvement and distal muscle weakness may also occur. Additional more variable features include neck muscle weakness, scoliosis, and joint contractures. Less common features include impaired intellectual development or speech delay, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac arrhythmia. Muscle biopsy shows nonspecific dystrophic changes (Coppens et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDR1 (253600).
Congenital myopathy 4B, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1840525
Concept ID:
C5829889
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-4B (CMYP4B) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by the onset of muscle weakness in infancy or early childhood. The severity and pattern of muscle weakness varies, but most affected individuals show congenital contractures, delayed motor development, hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, and weakness of the proximal limb muscles and neck muscles, resulting in difficulty walking or inability to walk. Affected individuals have respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness, which may be life-threatening. Other common features include myopathic facies, chest deformities, distal joint laxity, and scoliosis. Variable histologic findings on skeletal muscle biopsy are observed, including nemaline rods, type 1 fiber predomination, and centralized nuclei (Tan et al., 1999; Lehtokari et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Leung AKC, Lam JM, Alobaida S, Leong KF, Wong AHC
Curr Pediatr Rev 2021;17(4):273-287. doi: 10.2174/1573396317666210426105045. PMID: 33902423
Stubblefield MD
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2017 Feb;28(1):89-100. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2016.08.003. PMID: 27913002
Baugh RF, Basura GJ, Ishii LE, Schwartz SR, Drumheller CM, Burkholder R, Deckard NA, Dawson C, Driscoll C, Gillespie MB, Gurgel RK, Halperin J, Khalid AN, Kumar KA, Micco A, Munsell D, Rosenbaum S, Vaughan W
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 Nov;149(3 Suppl):S1-27. doi: 10.1177/0194599813505967. PMID: 24189771

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Shimizu T, Ishiura H, Hara M, Shibata S, Unuma A, Kubota A, Sakuishi K, Inoue K, Goto J, Takahashi Y, Shirota Y, Hamada M, Shimizu J, Tsuji S, Toda T
Muscle Nerve 2022 Dec;66(6):679-685. Epub 2022 Sep 27 doi: 10.1002/mus.27717. PMID: 36052448
Hledíková Andrea, Hruban Lukáš, Jura René, Sas Igor, Hrdý Ondřej, Janků Petr
Ceska Gynekol 2021;86(3):189-193. doi: 10.48095/cccg2021189. PMID: 34192879
Alahakoon C, Dassanayake TL, Gawarammana IB, Weerasinghe VS
Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec;69:209-216. Epub 2017 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.12.002. PMID: 29217407
Noguchi E, Uruha A, Suzuki S, Hamanaka K, Ohnuki Y, Tsugawa J, Watanabe Y, Nakahara J, Shiina T, Suzuki N, Nishino I
JAMA Neurol 2017 Aug 1;74(8):992-999. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.0934. PMID: 28586844Free PMC Article
Chowdhary V, Wakhlu A, Agarwal A, Misra R
Indian Pediatr 2002 Oct;39(10):931-5. PMID: 12428038

Diagnosis

Shimizu T, Ishiura H, Hara M, Shibata S, Unuma A, Kubota A, Sakuishi K, Inoue K, Goto J, Takahashi Y, Shirota Y, Hamada M, Shimizu J, Tsuji S, Toda T
Muscle Nerve 2022 Dec;66(6):679-685. Epub 2022 Sep 27 doi: 10.1002/mus.27717. PMID: 36052448
Hledíková Andrea, Hruban Lukáš, Jura René, Sas Igor, Hrdý Ondřej, Janků Petr
Ceska Gynekol 2021;86(3):189-193. doi: 10.48095/cccg2021189. PMID: 34192879
Vasta R, Torrieri MC, D'Ovidio F, Circiello A, De Mattei F, Manera U, Canosa A, Calvo A, Chiò A, Moglia C
Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr;28(4):1181-1187. Epub 2020 Dec 29 doi: 10.1111/ene.14676. PMID: 33314477
Alahakoon C, Dassanayake TL, Gawarammana IB, Weerasinghe VS
Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec;69:209-216. Epub 2017 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.12.002. PMID: 29217407
Chowdhary V, Wakhlu A, Agarwal A, Misra R
Indian Pediatr 2002 Oct;39(10):931-5. PMID: 12428038

Therapy

Maskin LP, Wilken M, Rodriguez Lucci F, Wisnivesky JP, Barroso F, Wainsztein N
Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2024 Jan-Feb;39(1):36-42. doi: 10.1016/j.nrleng.2023.12.004. PMID: 38161071
Rho Y, Chon J, Yoo MC, Shim GY, Chung SJ, Soh Y
Medicine (Baltimore) 2023 Dec 1;102(48):e36378. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000036378. PMID: 38050269Free PMC Article
Alahakoon C, Dassanayake TL, Gawarammana IB, Weerasinghe VS
Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec;69:209-216. Epub 2017 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.12.002. PMID: 29217407
Zhang LL, Mao YP, Zhou GQ, Tang LL, Qi ZY, Lin L, Yao JJ, Ma J, Lin AH, Sun Y
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Aug;94(31):e1294. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001294. PMID: 26252307Free PMC Article
Poewe W, Deuschl G, Nebe A, Feifel E, Wissel J, Benecke R, Kessler KR, Ceballos-Baumann AO, Ohly A, Oertel W, Künig G
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):13-7. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.64.1.13. PMID: 9436721Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Maskin LP, Wilken M, Rodriguez Lucci F, Wisnivesky JP, Barroso F, Wainsztein N
Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2024 Jan-Feb;39(1):36-42. doi: 10.1016/j.nrleng.2023.12.004. PMID: 38161071
Hledíková Andrea, Hruban Lukáš, Jura René, Sas Igor, Hrdý Ondřej, Janků Petr
Ceska Gynekol 2021;86(3):189-193. doi: 10.48095/cccg2021189. PMID: 34192879
Vasta R, Torrieri MC, D'Ovidio F, Circiello A, De Mattei F, Manera U, Canosa A, Calvo A, Chiò A, Moglia C
Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr;28(4):1181-1187. Epub 2020 Dec 29 doi: 10.1111/ene.14676. PMID: 33314477
Alahakoon C, Dassanayake TL, Gawarammana IB, Weerasinghe VS
Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec;69:209-216. Epub 2017 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.12.002. PMID: 29217407
Seneviratne U, Dissanayake S
J Postgrad Med 2002 Oct-Dec;48(4):275-8; discussion 278-9. PMID: 12571382

Clinical prediction guides

Rho Y, Chon J, Yoo MC, Shim GY, Chung SJ, Soh Y
Medicine (Baltimore) 2023 Dec 1;102(48):e36378. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000036378. PMID: 38050269Free PMC Article
Shimizu T, Ishiura H, Hara M, Shibata S, Unuma A, Kubota A, Sakuishi K, Inoue K, Goto J, Takahashi Y, Shirota Y, Hamada M, Shimizu J, Tsuji S, Toda T
Muscle Nerve 2022 Dec;66(6):679-685. Epub 2022 Sep 27 doi: 10.1002/mus.27717. PMID: 36052448
Gupta S, Verma R, Sethi R, Garg RK, Malhotra HS, Sharma PK, Rizvi I, Uniyal R
QJM 2020 Feb 1;113(2):93-99. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcz225. PMID: 31504947
Alahakoon C, Dassanayake TL, Gawarammana IB, Weerasinghe VS
Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec;69:209-216. Epub 2017 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.12.002. PMID: 29217407
Poewe W, Deuschl G, Nebe A, Feifel E, Wissel J, Benecke R, Kessler KR, Ceballos-Baumann AO, Ohly A, Oertel W, Künig G
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):13-7. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.64.1.13. PMID: 9436721Free PMC Article

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