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Scapular winging

MedGen UID:
66822
Concept ID:
C0240953
Anatomical Abnormality
Synonym: winged scapula
SNOMED CT: Winging of scapula (17211005); Winged scapula (17211005); Scapula alata (17211005)
 
HPO: HP:0003691

Definition

Abnormal protrusion of the scapula away from the surface of the back. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Langer-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
6009
Concept ID:
C0023003
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Waardenburg syndrome type 3
MedGen UID:
86948
Concept ID:
C0079661
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 3 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; presence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the ocular inner canthi; and upper limb abnormalities (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 3 is also referred to as 'Klein-Waardenburg syndrome' (Gorlin et al., 1976). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type IV (WS4; 277580), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010).
Wrinkly skin syndrome
MedGen UID:
98030
Concept ID:
C0406587
Disease or Syndrome
ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa is characterized by generalized cutis laxa, findings associated with generalized connective tissue disorder, developmental delays, and a variety of neurologic findings including abnormality on brain MRI. At birth, hypotonia, overfolded skin, and distinctive facial features are present and enlarged fontanelles are often observed. During childhood, the characteristic facial features and thick or coarse hair may become quite pronounced. The skin findings decrease with age, although easy bruising and Ehlers-Danlos-like scars have been described in some. In most (not all) affected individuals, cortical and cerebellar malformations are observed on brain MRI. Nearly all affected individuals have developmental delays, seizures, and neurologic regression.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
98048
Concept ID:
C0410190
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is characterized by the clinical triad of: joint contractures that begin in early childhood; slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting initially in a humero-peroneal distribution that later extends to the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles; and cardiac involvement that may manifest as palpitations, presyncope and syncope, poor exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure along with variable cardiac rhythm disturbances. Age of onset, severity, and progression of muscle and cardiac involvement demonstrate both inter- and intrafamilial variability. Clinical variability ranges from early onset with severe presentation in childhood to late onset with slow progression in adulthood. In general, joint contractures appear during the first two decades, followed by muscle weakness and wasting. Cardiac involvement usually occurs after the second decade and respiratory function may be impaired in some individuals.
Myopathy, centronuclear, 2
MedGen UID:
98049
Concept ID:
C0410204
Disease or Syndrome
Any centronuclear myopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BIN1 gene.
Trichorhinophalangeal dysplasia type I
MedGen UID:
140929
Concept ID:
C0432233
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
148283
Concept ID:
C0751335
Disease or Syndrome
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 23
MedGen UID:
167094
Concept ID:
C0796019
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-23 (SPG23) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset spastic paraplegia resulting in gait difficulties and associated with pigmentary abnormalities, including premature graying of the hair and vitiligo-like or hyperpigmented skin lesions. Some patients may also have a peripheral neuropathy (summary by Lee et al., 2017).
Andersen Tawil syndrome
MedGen UID:
327586
Concept ID:
C1563715
Disease or Syndrome
Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by a triad of: episodic flaccid muscle weakness (i.e., periodic paralysis); ventricular arrhythmias and prolonged QT interval; and anomalies including low-set ears, widely spaced eyes, small mandible, fifth-digit clinodactyly, syndactyly, short stature, and scoliosis. Affected individuals present in the first or second decade with either cardiac symptoms (palpitations and/or syncope) or weakness that occurs spontaneously following prolonged rest or following rest after exertion. Mild permanent weakness is common. Mild learning difficulties and a distinct neurocognitive phenotype (i.e., deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning) have been described.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F
MedGen UID:
331308
Concept ID:
C1832525
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-6 (LGMDR6) is a very rare and severe neuromuscular disorder with onset in most patients in the first decade of life. Generalized muscle weakness affecting predominantly proximal and distal muscles of the limbs is progressive, and patients require walking aids or become wheelchair-bound. Some patients have cardiomyopathy or heart rhythm abnormalities, or require ventilatory support (Alonso-Perez et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDR1 (253600).
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
320405
Concept ID:
C1834671
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) typically presents with weakness of the facial muscles, the stabilizers of the scapula, or the dorsiflexors of the foot. Severity is highly variable. Weakness is slowly progressive and approximately 20% of affected individuals eventually require a wheelchair. Life expectancy is not shortened.
Congenital myopathy 23
MedGen UID:
324513
Concept ID:
C1836447
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy is a disorder that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. People with nemaline myopathy have muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body, but it is typically most severe in the muscles of the face; neck; trunk; and other muscles close to the center of the body (proximal muscles), such as those of the upper arms and legs. This weakness can worsen over time. Affected individuals may have feeding and swallowing difficulties, foot deformities, abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), and joint deformities (contractures). Most people with nemaline myopathy are able to walk, although some affected children may begin walking later than usual. As the condition progresses, some people may require wheelchair assistance. In severe cases, the muscles used for breathing are affected and life-threatening breathing difficulties can occur.\n\nNemaline myopathy is divided into six types. In order of decreasing severity, the types are: severe congenital, Amish, intermediate congenital, typical congenital, childhood-onset, and adult-onset. The types are distinguished by the age when symptoms first appear and the severity of symptoms; however, there is overlap among the various types. The severe congenital type is the most life-threatening. Most individuals with this type do not survive past early childhood due to respiratory failure. The Amish type solely affects the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania and is typically fatal in early childhood. The most common type of nemaline myopathy is the typical congenital type, which is characterized by muscle weakness and feeding problems beginning in infancy. Most of these individuals do not have severe breathing problems and can walk unassisted. People with the childhood-onset type usually develop muscle weakness in adolescence. The adult-onset type is the mildest of all the various types. People with this type usually develop muscle weakness between ages 20 and 50.
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1F
MedGen UID:
333983
Concept ID:
C1842062
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-2 (LGMDD2) is a myopathy characterized by proximal muscle weakness primarily affecting the lower limbs, but also affecting the upper limbs in most patients. Affected individuals also have distal muscle weakness of the hands and lower leg muscles. There is variability in presentation and progression. Some patients present in early childhood with mildly delayed walking and difficulty running and jumping, whereas others present as adults with mainly pelvic-girdle weakness. Patients with early onset tend to have a more severe disorder, and may develop contractures, loss of independent ambulation, and respiratory insufficiency. Muscle biopsy shows dystrophic changes with abnormal nuclei, rimmed vacuoles, and filamentous inclusions (summary by Melia et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDD1 (603511).
Myosin storage myopathy
MedGen UID:
374868
Concept ID:
C1842160
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant myosin storage congenital myopathy-7A (CMYP7A) is a skeletal muscle disorder with wide phenotypic variability. The age at symptom onset can range from early childhood to late adulthood. Affected individuals have proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and distal muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and scapular winging (scapuloperoneal myopathy). Additional features may include thin habitus, high-arched palate, foot drop, pes cavus, calf pseudohypertrophy, and decreased reflexes. The severity is also variable: some patients develop respiratory insufficiency, joint contractures, and scoliosis in the first decades, whereas others are clinically unaffected, but show subtle signs of the disorder on examination. Serum creatine kinase may be normal or elevated. The disease is usually slowly progressive and most patients remain ambulatory. Skeletal muscle biopsy can show different abnormalities, including hyaline bodies, type 1 fiber predominance, congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD), and nonspecific myopathic changes with myofibrillar disarray. Intrafamilial variability is common (Dye et al., 2006; Pegoraro et al., 2007; review by Tajsharghi and Oldfors, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
341339
Concept ID:
C1848934
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Myopathy, proximal, and ophthalmoplegia
MedGen UID:
381340
Concept ID:
C1854106
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-6 with ophthalmoplegia (CMYP6) is a relatively mild muscle disorder characterized by childhood onset of symptoms. The disorder is either slowly progressive or nonprogressive, and affected individuals retain ambulation, although there is variable severity. CMYP6 can show both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance; the phenotype is similar in both forms (summary by Lossos et al., 2005 and Tajsharghi et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E
MedGen UID:
347674
Concept ID:
C1858593
Disease or Syndrome
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies are characterized clinically by predominantly proximal muscle weakness of variable severity and dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy. LGMDR4 is in general a severe form of the disorder, with some patients developing symptoms before 8 years of age and losing the ability to ambulate in their second decade. Some patients have a milder course, with weakness evident in the teenage years and loss of walking ability in their fourth decade (summary by Lim et al., 1995 and Bonnemann et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDR1 (253600).
Myopathy, myofibrillar, 9, with early respiratory failure
MedGen UID:
350930
Concept ID:
C1863599
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) is a slowly progressive myopathy that typically begins in the third to fifth decades of life. The usual presenting findings are gait disturbance relating to distal leg weakness or nocturnal respiratory symptoms due to respiratory muscle weakness. Weakness eventually generalizes and affects both proximal and distal muscles. Most affected individuals require walking aids within a few years of onset; some progress to wheelchair dependence and require nocturnal noninvasive ventilatory support about ten years after onset. The phenotype varies even among individuals within the same family: some remain ambulant until their 70s whereas others may require ventilator support in their 40s.
Pelvic dysplasia-arthrogryposis of lower limbs syndrome
MedGen UID:
400731
Concept ID:
C1865294
Disease or Syndrome
Pelvic dysplasia-arthrogryposis of lower limbs syndrome is a rare, genetic, dysostosis syndrome characterized by intrauterine growth restriction, short stature (with short lower segment), lower limb joint contractures and muscular hypotrophy, narrow, small pelvis, lumbar hyperlordosis with scoliosis, and foot deformity (short, overlapping toes). Imaging reveals ovoid/wedge-shaped vertebral bodies, pelvic and skeletal hypoplasia with metatarsal fusion in the lower limbs, and normal skull and upper limbs.
Vacuolar Neuromyopathy
MedGen UID:
355637
Concept ID:
C1866139
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant myopathy with rimmed ubiquitin-positive autophagic vacuolation (MRUPAV) is characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive skeletal muscle weakness variably affecting the distal or proximal lower limbs. Some patients may also have upper limb involvement or neck muscle weakness, but respiratory and bulbar involvement only rarely occurs. EMG studies show a myopathic process, and myotonia may also be observed. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic features, rimmed vacuoles, and abnormal subsarcolemmal protein aggregation with activation of the autophagy pathway (Ruggieri et al., 2020).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A
MedGen UID:
358391
Concept ID:
C1869123
Disease or Syndrome
Calpainopathy is characterized by symmetric and progressive weakness of proximal limb-girdle muscles. The age at onset of muscle weakness ranges from two to 40 years. The phenotype shows intra- and interfamilial variability ranging from severe to mild. Three autosomal recessive calpainopathy phenotypes have been identified based on the distribution of muscle weakness and age at onset: Pelvifemoral limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) (Leyden-Möbius LGMD) phenotype, the most frequently observed calpainopathy phenotype, in which muscle weakness is first evident in the pelvic girdle and later in the shoulder girdle, with onset that may occur as early as before age 12 years or as late as after age 30 years. Scapulohumeral LGMD (Erb LGMD) phenotype, usually a milder phenotype with infrequent early onset, in which muscle weakness is first evident in the shoulder girdle and later in the pelvic girdle. HyperCKemia, usually observed in children or young individuals, in which individuals are asymptomatic and have high serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations. The autosomal dominant form of calpainopathy shows a variability of clinical phenotype, ranging from almost asymptomatic to wheelchair dependence after age 60 years in few cases with a generally milder phenotype than the recessive form. Clinical findings of calpainopathy include the tendency to walk on tiptoe, difficulty in running, scapular winging, waddling gait, and slight hyperlordosis. Other findings include symmetric weakness of proximal more than distal muscles in the limbs, trunk, and periscapular area; laxity of the abdominal muscles; Achilles tendon shortening; scoliosis; and joint contractures. Affected individuals typically do not have cardiac involvement or intellectual disability.
Distal 10q deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436306
Concept ID:
C2674937
Disease or Syndrome
10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of 10q26 deletion syndrome vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Among the more common features associated with this chromosomal change are distinctive facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth problems, and developmental delay. People with 10q26 deletion syndrome often have delayed development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, crawling, and walking. Some have limited speech throughout life. Affected individuals may experience seizures, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control (impulsivity), or exhibit autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction.\n\nA range of facial features is seen in people with 10q26 deletion syndrome, but not all affected individuals have these features. Facial features of people with 10q26 deletion syndrome may include a prominent or beaked nose, a broad nasal bridge, a small jaw (micrognathia), malformed ears that are low set, a thin upper lip, and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Many affected individuals have widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism) that do not look in the same direction (strabismus). Some people with this condition have a short neck with extra folds of skin (webbed neck).\n\nLess common signs and symptoms can occur in 10q26 deletion syndrome. Skeletal problems include a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis), limited movement in the elbows or other joints, or curved fifth fingers and toes (clinodactyly). Slow growth before and after birth can also occur in affected individuals. Males with this condition may have genital abnormalities, such as a small penis (micropenis), undescended testes (cryptorchidism), or the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). Some people with 10q26 deletion syndrome have kidney abnormalities, heart defects, breathing problems, recurrent infections, or hearing or vision problems.
X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy
MedGen UID:
395525
Concept ID:
C2678055
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is characterized by the clinical triad of: joint contractures that begin in early childhood; slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting initially in a humero-peroneal distribution that later extends to the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles; and cardiac involvement that may manifest as palpitations, presyncope and syncope, poor exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure along with variable cardiac rhythm disturbances. Age of onset, severity, and progression of muscle and cardiac involvement demonstrate both inter- and intrafamilial variability. Clinical variability ranges from early onset with severe presentation in childhood to late onset with slow progression in adulthood. In general, joint contractures appear during the first two decades, followed by muscle weakness and wasting. Cardiac involvement usually occurs after the second decade and respiratory function may be impaired in some individuals.
X-linked scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
395530
Concept ID:
C2678061
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, muscular dystrophy disease characterized by the co-occurrence of late onset scapular and peroneal muscle weakness, principally manifesting with distal lower limb and proximal upper limb weakness and scapular winging.
3M syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
395592
Concept ID:
C2678312
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 5, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
414111
Concept ID:
C2751805
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SYNE2 gene.
Myofibrillar myopathy 6
MedGen UID:
414119
Concept ID:
C2751831
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-6 is an autosomal dominant severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset in the first decade of rapidly progressive generalized and proximal muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal deformities related to muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy shows fiber-type grouping, disruption of the Z lines, and filamentous inclusions, and sural nerve biopsy shows a neuropathy, often with giant axonal neurons. Most patients are severely affected by the second decade and need cardiac transplant, ventilation, and/or a wheelchair (summary by Jaffer et al., 2012). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), see MFM1 (601419).
3M syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
414168
Concept ID:
C2752041
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D
MedGen UID:
424706
Concept ID:
C2936332
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-3 (LGMDR3) affects mainly the proximal muscles and results in difficulty walking. Most individuals have onset in childhood; the disorder is progressive. Other features may include scapular winging, calf pseudohypertrophy, and contractures. Cardiomyopathy has rarely been reported (summary by Babameto-Laku et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDR1 (253600).
Glycogen storage disease XV
MedGen UID:
462104
Concept ID:
C3150754
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type 15 is an extremely rare genetic glycogen storage disease reported in one patient to date. Clinical signs included muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmia associated with accumulation of abnormal storage material in the heart and glycogen depletion in skeletal muscle.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 4
MedGen UID:
482001
Concept ID:
C3280371
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is characterized initially by gait changes followed by progressive spastic paresis, progressive dystonia (which may be limited to the hands and feet or more generalized), neuropsychiatric abnormalities (emotional lability, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, compulsions, hallucinations, perseveration, inattention, and hyperactivity), and cognitive decline. Additional early findings can include dysphagia, dysarthria, optic atrophy, axonal neuropathy, parkinsonism, and bowel/bladder incontinence. Survival is usually well into adulthood. End-stage disease is characterized by severe dementia, spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism.
Otofaciocervical syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
811516
Concept ID:
C3714941
Disease or Syndrome
Otofaciocervical syndrome (OTFCS) is a rare disorder characterized by facial anomalies, cup-shaped low-set ears, preauricular fistulas, hearing loss, branchial defects, skeletal anomalies including vertebral defects, low-set clavicles, winged scapulae, sloping shoulders, and mild intellectual disability (summary by Pohl et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Otofaciocervical Syndrome OTFCS2 (615560) is caused by mutation in the PAX1 gene (167411) on chromosome 20p11.
Rienhoff syndrome
MedGen UID:
816342
Concept ID:
C3810012
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
864034
Concept ID:
C4015597
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-14 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of limb-girdle muscle weakness in early childhood. The disorder is slowly progressive, and some patients may become wheelchair-bound. There is no respiratory or cardiac involvement. Treatment with anticholinesterase medication may be beneficial (summary by Cossins et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Progressive scapulohumeroperoneal distal myopathy
MedGen UID:
905125
Concept ID:
C4225181
Disease or Syndrome
Scapulohumeroperoneal myopathy is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy affecting both proximal and distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. Onset is usually in the first decade and can be as early as infancy, although some patients do not notice symptoms until young adulthood. There is marked variability in severity (summary by Zukosky et al., 2015).
Bethlem myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
907426
Concept ID:
C4225313
Disease or Syndrome
Bethlem myopathy-2 (BTHLM2) is characterized by congenital hypotonia and myopathy. Motor development is delayed, but muscle strength improves with age, and patients are able to achieve ambulation. Proximal joint contractures that improve over time, as well as joint hyperlaxity, are also present. Muscle biopsy shows mild variability in fiber diameter, without degeneration or regeneration (Zou et al., 2014; Hicks et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bethlem myopathy, see BTHLM1 (158810).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
923943
Concept ID:
C4281559
Congenital Abnormality
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Myofibrillar myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
934612
Concept ID:
C4310645
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-8 (MFM8) is an autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the upper and lower limbs, resulting in increased falls, gait problems, difficulty running or climbing stairs, and upper limb weakness or scapular winging. Some patients develop distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The phenotype may also be consistent with a clinical diagnosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Age at symptom onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. Ambulation is generally preserved and cardiac involvement is rare, but respiratory compromise with decreased forced vital capacity often occurs. Muscle biopsy shows a mix of myopathic features, including myofibrillar inclusions and sarcomeric disorganization; some patients have been reported to have dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy (O'Grady et al., 2016; Daimaguler et al., 2021). There is significant phenotypic variation, even in patients with the same mutation, which must be taken into account when counseling affecting individuals (Woods et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2R1
MedGen UID:
934627
Concept ID:
C4310660
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-21 (LGMDR21) is characterized by progressive limb-girdle weakness with age of onset ranging from congenital to adult. Muscle imaging shows a specific and selective pattern of fatty muscle degeneration (summary by Servian-Morilla et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive LGMD, see LGMDR1 (253600).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 3
MedGen UID:
934701
Concept ID:
C4310734
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TK2 gene.
Micrognathia-recurrent infections-behavioral abnormalities-mild intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
934707
Concept ID:
C4310740
Disease or Syndrome
TRIO-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by delay in acquisition of motor and language skills, mild to borderline intellectual disability, and neurobehavioral problems (including autistic traits or autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or aggression). Neonatal or infantile feeding difficulties including poor suck, impaired bottle feeding, and failure to thrive are common and are often the presenting finding. Other findings can include microcephaly, variable hand and dental abnormalities, and suggestive facial features. Only ten of the 20 individuals with a TRIO pathogenic variant reported to date had sufficient information to make preliminary generalizations about clinical manifestations; it is anticipated that the phenotype of this newly described disorder will continue to evolve.
Progeroid and marfanoid aspect-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934763
Concept ID:
C4310796
Disease or Syndrome
The marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MFLS) is characterized by congenital lipodystrophy, premature birth with an accelerated linear growth disproportionate to weight gain, and progeroid appearance with distinct facial features, including proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, and retrognathia. Other characteristic features include arachnodactyly, digital hyperextensibility, myopia, dural ectasia, and normal psychomotor development (Takenouchi et al., 2013). Takenouchi et al. (2013) noted phenotypic overlap with Marfan syndrome (154700) and Shprintzen-Goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome (182212).
MYPN-related myopathy
MedGen UID:
1384302
Concept ID:
C4479186
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-24 (CMYP24) is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness in the first decade. Affected individuals present with gait difficulties due to proximal muscle weakness and atrophy mainly affecting the lower limbs and neck. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline bodies. Some patients may have mild cardiac or respiratory involvement, but they do not have respiratory failure (summary by Miyatake et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see 117000. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 256030.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 1, neurogenic, with myelin defect
MedGen UID:
1373185
Concept ID:
C4479539
Disease or Syndrome
AMC1 is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder with onset in utero. Most affected individuals die in utero or are subject to pregnancy termination because of lack of fetal movements and prenatal evidence of contractures of virtually all joints. Those who survive have generalized contractures and hypotonia. The disorder is caused by a neurogenic defect and poor or absent myelin formation around peripheral nerves rather than by a muscular defect (summary by Xue et al., 2017). <Genetic Heterogeneity of Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita Also see AMC2 (208100), caused by mutation in the ERGIC1 gene (617946); AMC3 (618484), caused by mutation in the SYNE1 gene (608441); AMC4 (618776), caused by mutation in the SCYL2 gene (616365); AMC5 (618947), caused by mutation in the TOR1A gene (605204), and AMC6 (619334), caused by mutation in the NEB gene (161650)
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 52
MedGen UID:
1615839
Concept ID:
C4540478
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
LEOPARD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia type 1
MedGen UID:
1641069
Concept ID:
C4551951
Disease or Syndrome
Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB) and/or frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is characterized by adult-onset proximal and distal muscle weakness (clinically resembling a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy syndrome), early-onset PDB, and premature frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Muscle weakness progresses to involve other limb and respiratory muscles. PDB involves focal areas of increased bone turnover that typically lead to spine and/or hip pain and localized enlargement and deformity of the long bones; pathologic fractures occur on occasion. Early stages of FTD are characterized by dysnomia, dyscalculia, comprehension deficits, and paraphasic errors, with minimal impairment of episodic memory; later stages are characterized by inability to speak, auditory comprehension deficits for even one-step commands, alexia, and agraphia. Mean age at diagnosis for muscle disease and PDB is 42 years; for FTD, 56 years. Dilated cardiomyopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson disease are now known to be part of the spectrum of findings associated with IBMPFD.
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 1
MedGen UID:
1634824
Concept ID:
C4551958
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is a rare autosomal recessive oxidative phosphorylation disorder specific to skeletal muscle and bone marrow (Bykhovskaya et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Sideroblastic Anemia MLASA2 (613561) is caused by mutation in the YARS2 gene (610957) on chromosome 12p11. MLASA3 (500011) is caused by heteroplasmic mutation in the mitochondrially-encoded MTATP6 gene (516060).
Autosomal dominant childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy with contractures
MedGen UID:
1669929
Concept ID:
C4747715
Disease or Syndrome
SMALED2A is an autosomal dominant form of spinal muscular atrophy characterized by early childhood onset of muscle weakness and atrophy predominantly affecting the proximal and distal muscles of the lower extremity, although some patients may show upper extremity involvement. The disorder results in delayed walking, waddling gait, difficulty walking, and loss of distal reflexes. Some patients may have foot deformities or hyperlordosis, and some show mild upper motor signs, such as spasticity. Sensation, bulbar function, and cognitive function are preserved. The disorder shows very slow progression throughout life (summary by Oates et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy, see SMALED1 (158600).
Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal dominant 4
MedGen UID:
1648316
Concept ID:
C4748295
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-4 (LGMDD4) is characterized by onset of proximal muscle weakness in young adulthood. Affected individuals often have gait difficulties; some may have upper limb involvement. Other features include variably increased serum creatine kinase, myalgia, and back pain. The severity and expressivity of the disorder is highly variable, even within families (summary by Vissing et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see 603511.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2U
MedGen UID:
1683417
Concept ID:
C5190987
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy disorder with characteristics of infantile to childhood-onset of slowly progressive, principally proximal shoulder and/or pelvic-girdle muscular weakness that typically presents with positive Gowers'' sign and is associated with elevated creatine kinase levels, hyporeflexia, joint and achilles tendon contractures and muscle hypertrophy usually of the thighs, calves and/or tongue. Other highly variable features include cerebellar, cardiac and ocular abnormalities.
Myopathy, congenital, with tremor
MedGen UID:
1684886
Concept ID:
C5231401
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-16 (CMYP16) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia and tremor in infancy. Patients have mildly delayed walking, unsteady gait, proximal muscle weakness, and a high-frequency tremor of the limbs. Some may develop secondary mild contractures or spinal deformities. Cognition is normal and the disease course tends to stabilize after adolescence (summary by Stavusis et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Skeletal dysplasia, mild, with joint laxity and advanced bone age
MedGen UID:
1711043
Concept ID:
C5394341
Disease or Syndrome
CSGALNACT1 deficiency is characterized by mild skeletal dysplasia, joint hypermobility, and advanced bone age. Shortness of long bones is evident prenatally, and patients exhibit short stature and relative macrocephaly. Advanced carpotarsal bone age and monkey-wrench appearance of the femur observed in infancy may disappear with age (Mizumoto et al., 2020).
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1
MedGen UID:
1727901
Concept ID:
C5399970
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) typically presents with weakness of the facial muscles, the stabilizers of the scapula, or the dorsiflexors of the foot. Severity is highly variable. Weakness is slowly progressive and approximately 20% of affected individuals eventually require a wheelchair. Life expectancy is not shortened.
Myopathy, distal, with rimmed vacuoles
MedGen UID:
1728314
Concept ID:
C5399975
Disease or Syndrome
Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) is an autosomal dominant myopathic disorder characterized by adult onset of muscle weakness affecting the distal upper and lower limbs, which may result in walking difficulties, as well as proximal weakness of the shoulder girdle muscles. Muscle biopsy shows rimmed vacuoles (summary by Bucelli et al., 2015).
Vertebral hypersegmentation and orofacial anomalies
MedGen UID:
1746640
Concept ID:
C5436851
Disease or Syndrome
Vertebral hypersegmentation and orofacial anomalies (VHO) is characterized by supernumerary cervical, thoracic, and/or lumbar vertebrae, in association with supernumerary ribs. Most patients also exhibit orofacial clefting and ear anomalies (Cox et al., 2019).
Otofaciocervical syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1782278
Concept ID:
C5442121
Disease or Syndrome
Otofaciocervical syndrome-2 with T-cell deficiency (OTFCS2) is a rare disorder characterized by facial anomalies, cup-shaped low-set ears, preauricular fistulas, hearing loss, branchial defects, skeletal anomalies including vertebral defects, low-set clavicles, winged scapulae, sloping shoulders, and mild intellectual disability (summary by Pohl et al., 2013). Patients have been reported who also exhibit altered thymus development with T-cell immunodeficiency and recurrent, sometimes fatal, infections (Paganini et al., 2017; Yamazaki et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of otofaciocervical syndrome, see OTFCS1 (166780).
Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, autosomal recessive 7
MedGen UID:
1786836
Concept ID:
C5543119
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-7 (HMNR7) is characterized by onset of lower leg weakness in the first decade. Affected individuals have difficulty climbing stairs and problems standing on the heels. Some patients have later onset well into the adult years. Most patients have foot deformities, and some may have leg muscle atrophy. The disorder is slowly progressive and often involves the upper limbs. Muscle biopsy and electrophysiologic studies are consistent with both a myopathic process and an axonal motor neuropathy. Sensory abnormalities are not typically present, and patients remain ambulatory. The phenotype shows phenotypic overlap with distal hereditary motor neuropathy, but can distinguished by the presence of myopathic features (summary by Deschauer et al., 2021 and Pagnamenta et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive HMN, see HMNR1 (604320).
Neuroocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
1790414
Concept ID:
C5551362
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroocular syndrome (NOC) encompasses a broad spectrum of overlapping anomalies, with developmental delay or impaired intellectual development as a consistent finding. Eye abnormalities show marked variability in the type and severity of defects, and include anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and coloboma. Other common systemic features include congenital heart and kidney defects, hypotonia, failure to thrive, and microcephaly (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2021).
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 3, digenic
MedGen UID:
1794169
Concept ID:
C5561959
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy-3 (FSHD3) is a digenic muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of proximal muscle weakness affecting the face, neck, scapular muscles, and upper and lower limbs. Muscle involvement is usually asymmetric, and other muscle groups may become involved with progression of the disease (summary by Hamanaka et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FSHD, see FSHD1 (158900).
Myopathy, distal, 7, adult-onset, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1808663
Concept ID:
C5676880
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adult-onset distal myopathy-7 (MPD7) is an X-linked recessive disorder that affects only males. It is characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness predominantly affecting the lower limbs between 20 and 60 years of age. The disorder is slowly progressive, with most affected individuals developing distal upper limb involvement and some developing proximal muscle involvement, although patients remain ambulatory. Muscle biopsy shows variable myopathic changes as well as sarcoplasmic inclusions that may represent abnormally aggregated proteins (summary by Johari et al., 2021).
Inclusion body myopathy and brain white matter abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1812978
Concept ID:
C5676909
Disease or Syndrome
Inclusion body myopathy and brain white matter abnormalities (IBMWMA) is an autosomal dominant adult-onset disorder characterized predominantly by proximal limb girdle muscle weakness affecting the lower and upper limbs and resulting in gait difficulties and scapular winging. Additional features may include dysarthria, dysphagia, low back pain, and hyporeflexia. EMG is consistent with a myopathic process, although neuropathic findings have also been shown. Muscle biopsy shows fiber type variation, internal nuclei, rimmed vacuoles, and cytoplasmic protein aggregates or inclusions. Serum creatine kinase is usually elevated. Cognitive impairment or frontotemporal dementia occurs in some patients. The disorder is slowly progressive; some patients become wheelchair-bound after many years. Rare patients with this mutation develop ALS; some have both myopathy and ALS. Brain imaging shows white matter abnormalities using diffusion tensor imaging. The disorder is classified as multisystem proteinopathy-6 (MSP6) due to the characteristic disease mechanism of protein misfolding and abnormal tissue deposition (summary by Leoni et al., 2021).
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, autosomal dominant 10
MedGen UID:
1824007
Concept ID:
C5774234
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-10 (HMND10) is a neurologic disorder of the peripheral nerves characterized clinically by length-dependent motor neuropathy primarily affecting the lower limbs. Affected individuals have onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy in early childhood that results in walking difficulties and gait abnormalities. Some have pyramidal signs, including hyperreflexia, suggesting the involvement of upper motor neurons. Electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a neurogenic process. More variable features may include mild intellectual disability, minor gyration defects on brain imaging, foot deformities, and connective tissue defects (1 family) (Capuano et al., 2016; Iacomino et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant distal HMN, see HMND1 (182960).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 27, juvenile
MedGen UID:
1840995
Concept ID:
C5830359
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-27 (ALS27) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by early childhood-onset lower extremity spasticity manifesting as toe walking and gait abnormalities, followed by progressive lower motor neuron-mediated weakness without sensory signs or symptoms (Mohassel et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Congenital myopathy 20
MedGen UID:
1841029
Concept ID:
C5830393
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-20 (CMYP20) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that shows wide phenotypic variability. Some patients present in early childhood with proximal muscle weakness affecting the lower and upper limbs resulting in difficulties running and climbing, whereas others present soon after birth with congenital limb or distal contractures. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features and global developmental delay. Skeletal muscle biopsy may show nemaline rods (Nilipour et al., 2018; Pehlivan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital myopathy 22A, classic
MedGen UID:
1841089
Concept ID:
C5830453
Disease or Syndrome
Classic congenital myopathy-22A (CMYP22A) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero or soon after birth. Early features may include fetal hypokinesia, breech presentation, and polyhydramnios. Affected individuals are born with severe hypotonia and require respiratory and feeding assistance. Those who survive the neonatal period show a 'classic' phenotype of congenital myopathy with delayed motor development, difficulty walking, proximal muscle weakness of the upper and lower limbs, facial and neck muscle weakness, easy fatigability, and mild limb contractures or foot deformities. Some have persistent respiratory insufficiency; dysmorphic facial features may be present (Zaharieva et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital myopathy 22B, severe fetal
MedGen UID:
1841137
Concept ID:
C5830501
Disease or Syndrome
Severe fetal congenital myopathy-22B (CMYP22B) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by in utero onset of severe muscle weakness manifest as fetal akinesia. The pregnancies are often complicated by polyhydramnios, and affected individuals develop fetal hydrops with pulmonary hypoplasia, severe joint contractures, and generalized muscle hypoplasia. Those who are born have respiratory failure resulting in death. Dysmorphic facial features may be present. The features in these patients overlap with fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS; see 208150) and lethal congenital contractures syndrome (LCCS; see 253310) (Zaharieva et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Nemaline myopathy 5C, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1841185
Concept ID:
C5830549
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy-5C (NEM5C) is a relatively mild skeletal muscle disorder with wide clinical variability, even within families. Affected individuals develop symptoms of muscle weakness in the first or second decades; those with earlier onset tend to have a more severe disease course. Features include difficulty walking on the heels, waddling gait, proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs, and Gowers sign. Additional features may include myopathic facies, high-arched palate, scoliosis or kyphosis, and ankle weakness. Patients remain ambulatory into late adulthood. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows hypotrophy of type 1 fibers, hypertrophy of type 2 fibers, fiber size variation, and myofibrillar disorganization. Nemaline rods in type 1 fibers are often observed, but are not always present (Konersman et al., 2017; Holling et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Lafosse T, D'Utruy A, El Hassan B, Grandjean A, Bouyer M, Masmejean E
Hand Surg Rehabil 2022 Feb;41S:S44-S53. Epub 2021 Jul 8 doi: 10.1016/j.hansur.2020.09.016. PMID: 34246815
Didesch JT, Tang P
J Hand Surg Am 2019 Apr;44(4):321-330. Epub 2018 Oct 3 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2018.08.008. PMID: 30292717
Lee S, Savin DD, Shah NR, Bronsnick D, Goldberg B
J Bone Joint Surg Am 2015 Oct 21;97(20):1708-16. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.O.00727. PMID: 26491136

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Wannaprom N, Jull G, Treleaven J, Warner MB, Kamnardsiri T, Uthaikhup S
Gait Posture 2022 Sep;97:48-55. Epub 2022 Jul 19 doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2022.07.236. PMID: 35872483
Silkjær Bak S, Johnsen B, Fuglsang-Frederiksen A, Døssing K, Qerama E
Clin Neurophysiol 2022 Jan;133:48-57. Epub 2021 Oct 29 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2021.09.021. PMID: 34801963
Ng CY, Wu F
J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Oct;30(10):2336-2343. Epub 2021 Mar 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2021.02.012. PMID: 33675974
Al-Ghamdi F, Ghosh PS
Muscle Nerve 2018 Jun;57(6):932-936. Epub 2018 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/mus.26060. PMID: 29315708
Orrell RW, Copeland S, Rose MR
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Jan 20;2010(1):CD003278. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003278.pub2. PMID: 20091543Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Didesch JT, Tang P
J Hand Surg Am 2019 Apr;44(4):321-330. Epub 2018 Oct 3 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2018.08.008. PMID: 30292717
Krzesniak-Swinarska M, Caress JB, Cartwright MS
Muscle Nerve 2017 Jul;56(1):7-14. Epub 2017 Mar 17 doi: 10.1002/mus.25533. PMID: 28006862
Ghosh PS, Hsich GE
J Pediatr 2012 Jan;160(1):169-70.e1. Epub 2011 Sep 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.08.022. PMID: 21962606
Meininger AK, Figuerres BF, Goldberg BA
J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2011 Aug;19(8):453-62. doi: 10.5435/00124635-201108000-00001. PMID: 21807913
Fitzsimons RB
Curr Opin Neurol 1999 Oct;12(5):501-11. doi: 10.1097/00019052-199910000-00003. PMID: 10590886

Therapy

Geurkink TH, Gacaferi H, Marang-van de Mheen PJ, Schoones JW, de Groot JH, Nagels J, Nelissen RGHH
J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2023 Feb;32(2):e35-e47. Epub 2022 Oct 15 doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2022.09.009. PMID: 36252782
Carbone S, Moroder P, Runer A, Resch H, Gumina S, Hertel R
J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2016 Mar;25(3):422-7. Epub 2015 Oct 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2015.08.001. PMID: 26456431
Roren A, Fayad F, Poiraudeau S, Fermanian J, Revel M, Dumitrache A, Gautheron V, Roby-Brami A, Lefevre-Colau MM
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2013 Oct;28(8):941-7. Epub 2013 Sep 9 doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.09.003. PMID: 24074807
Orrell RW, Copeland S, Rose MR
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Jan 20;2010(1):CD003278. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003278.pub2. PMID: 20091543Free PMC Article
Mummery CJ, Copeland SA, Rose MR
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(3):CD003278. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003278. PMID: 12917959

Prognosis

Ortí-Asencio M, Salinas-Huertas S, Luzardo-González A, Terra-Falótico J, Planas-Balagué R
Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Oct;23(10):2090-2098. Epub 2021 Apr 8 doi: 10.1007/s12094-021-02612-x. PMID: 33829395
Chang KV, Wu WT, Mezian K, Naňka O, Özçakar L
Med Ultrason 2019 Aug 31;21(3):349-352. doi: 10.11152/mu-1952. PMID: 31476216
Vastamäki M, Vastamäki H, Pikkarainen V, Ristolainen L
Scand J Surg 2018 Dec;107(4):356-359. Epub 2018 Apr 9 doi: 10.1177/1457496918766716. PMID: 29628010
Al-Ghamdi F, Ghosh PS
Muscle Nerve 2018 Jun;57(6):932-936. Epub 2018 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/mus.26060. PMID: 29315708
Carbone S, Moroder P, Runer A, Resch H, Gumina S, Hertel R
J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2016 Mar;25(3):422-7. Epub 2015 Oct 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2015.08.001. PMID: 26456431

Clinical prediction guides

Geurkink TH, Gacaferi H, Marang-van de Mheen PJ, Schoones JW, de Groot JH, Nagels J, Nelissen RGHH
J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2023 Feb;32(2):e35-e47. Epub 2022 Oct 15 doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2022.09.009. PMID: 36252782
Wannaprom N, Jull G, Treleaven J, Warner MB, Kamnardsiri T, Uthaikhup S
Gait Posture 2022 Sep;97:48-55. Epub 2022 Jul 19 doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2022.07.236. PMID: 35872483
Larsen CM, Søgaard K, Eshoj H, Ingwersen K, Juul-Kristensen B
Physiother Theory Pract 2020 Dec;36(12):1399-1420. Epub 2019 Mar 29 doi: 10.1080/09593985.2019.1579284. PMID: 30924383
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