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Distance exotropia

MedGen UID:
676683
Concept ID:
C0730505
Disease or Syndrome
SNOMED CT: Distance exotropia (313158009)
 
HPO: HP:0031714

Definition

A type of divergent strabismus (exotropia) in which an eye tends to turn outwards (i.e., the eye squints) mainly when looking at distant objects. The eyes tend to remain straight when they look at near objects. Distance exotropia may be constant or intermittent. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Piano M, O'Connor AR
Am Orthopt J 2011;61:103-16. doi: 10.3368/aoj.61.1.103. PMID: 21856878
Talebnejad MR, Sharifi M, Nowroozzadeh MH
J AAPOS 2008 Oct;12(5):510-3. Epub 2008 Jun 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2008.03.009. PMID: 18558505

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gökgöz Özişik G, Gokgoz G, Caglar C, Cakmak HB
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2022 Jan-Feb;59(1):53-59. Epub 2021 Sep 30 doi: 10.3928/01913913-20210723-01. PMID: 34592868
Hashemi H, Nabovati P, Yekta AA, Agha Mirsalim M, Rafati S, Ostadimoghaddam H, Khabazkhoob M
Clin Exp Optom 2022 Jul;105(5):539-545. Epub 2021 May 20 doi: 10.1080/08164622.2021.1922065. PMID: 34016028
Chen AM, Erzurum SA, Chandler DL, Hercinovic A, Melia BM, Bhatt AR, Suh DW, Vricella M, Erickson JW, Miller AM, Marsh JD, Bodack MI, Martinson SR, Titelbaum JR, Gray ME, Holtorf HL, Kong L, Kraker RT, Rahmani B, Shah BK, Holmes JM, Cotter SA; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group
JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 1;139(4):464-476. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.0082. PMID: 33662112Free PMC Article
Gnanaraj L, Richardson SR
Eye (Lond) 2005 Jun;19(6):617-21. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701617. PMID: 15359253
Richardson S, Gnanaraj L
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD003737. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003737. PMID: 12804487

Diagnosis

Gökgöz Özişik G, Gokgoz G, Caglar C, Cakmak HB
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2022 Jan-Feb;59(1):53-59. Epub 2021 Sep 30 doi: 10.3928/01913913-20210723-01. PMID: 34592868
Hashemi H, Nabovati P, Yekta AA, Agha Mirsalim M, Rafati S, Ostadimoghaddam H, Khabazkhoob M
Clin Exp Optom 2022 Jul;105(5):539-545. Epub 2021 May 20 doi: 10.1080/08164622.2021.1922065. PMID: 34016028
Superstein R, Dean TW, Holmes JM, Chandler DL, Cotter SA, Wallace DK, Melia BM, Kraker RT, Weaver RG, Mohney BG, Donahue SP, Birch EE; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group
J AAPOS 2017 Aug;21(4):268-273. Epub 2017 Jun 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.04.005. PMID: 28666772Free PMC Article
Horwood AM, Riddell PM
Br J Ophthalmol 2012 Apr;96(4):508-13. Epub 2011 Aug 25 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300138. PMID: 21873311Free PMC Article
Rowe FJ, Noonan CP, Freeman G, DeBell J
Eye (Lond) 2009 Feb;23(2):320-5. Epub 2007 Dec 7 doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6703057. PMID: 18064054

Therapy

Hashemi H, Nabovati P, Yekta AA, Agha Mirsalim M, Rafati S, Ostadimoghaddam H, Khabazkhoob M
Clin Exp Optom 2022 Jul;105(5):539-545. Epub 2021 May 20 doi: 10.1080/08164622.2021.1922065. PMID: 34016028
Chen AM, Erzurum SA, Chandler DL, Hercinovic A, Melia BM, Bhatt AR, Suh DW, Vricella M, Erickson JW, Miller AM, Marsh JD, Bodack MI, Martinson SR, Titelbaum JR, Gray ME, Holtorf HL, Kong L, Kraker RT, Rahmani B, Shah BK, Holmes JM, Cotter SA; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group
JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 1;139(4):464-476. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.0082. PMID: 33662112Free PMC Article
Superstein R, Dean TW, Holmes JM, Chandler DL, Cotter SA, Wallace DK, Melia BM, Kraker RT, Weaver RG, Mohney BG, Donahue SP, Birch EE; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group
J AAPOS 2017 Aug;21(4):268-273. Epub 2017 Jun 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.04.005. PMID: 28666772Free PMC Article
Gnanaraj L, Richardson SR
Eye (Lond) 2005 Jun;19(6):617-21. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701617. PMID: 15359253
Richardson S, Gnanaraj L
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD003737. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003737. PMID: 12804487

Prognosis

Gökgöz Özişik G, Gokgoz G, Caglar C, Cakmak HB
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2022 Jan-Feb;59(1):53-59. Epub 2021 Sep 30 doi: 10.3928/01913913-20210723-01. PMID: 34592868
Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group; Writing Committee, Mohney BG, Cotter SA, Chandler DL, Holmes JM, Wallace DK, Yamada T, Petersen DB, Kraker RT, Morse CL, Melia BM, Wu R
Ophthalmology 2019 Sep;126(9):1249-1260. Epub 2019 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.01.015. PMID: 30690128Free PMC Article
Bukhari S, Qidwai U, Kazi GQ
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2014 Apr;24(4):249-51. PMID: 24709237
Horwood AM, Riddell PM
Br J Ophthalmol 2012 Apr;96(4):508-13. Epub 2011 Aug 25 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300138. PMID: 21873311Free PMC Article
Rowe FJ, Noonan CP, Freeman G, DeBell J
Eye (Lond) 2009 Feb;23(2):320-5. Epub 2007 Dec 7 doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6703057. PMID: 18064054

Clinical prediction guides

Gökgöz Özişik G, Gokgoz G, Caglar C, Cakmak HB
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2022 Jan-Feb;59(1):53-59. Epub 2021 Sep 30 doi: 10.3928/01913913-20210723-01. PMID: 34592868
Chen AM, Erzurum SA, Chandler DL, Hercinovic A, Melia BM, Bhatt AR, Suh DW, Vricella M, Erickson JW, Miller AM, Marsh JD, Bodack MI, Martinson SR, Titelbaum JR, Gray ME, Holtorf HL, Kong L, Kraker RT, Rahmani B, Shah BK, Holmes JM, Cotter SA; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group
JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 1;139(4):464-476. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.0082. PMID: 33662112Free PMC Article
Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group; Writing Committee, Mohney BG, Cotter SA, Chandler DL, Holmes JM, Wallace DK, Yamada T, Petersen DB, Kraker RT, Morse CL, Melia BM, Wu R
Ophthalmology 2019 Sep;126(9):1249-1260. Epub 2019 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.01.015. PMID: 30690128Free PMC Article
Buck D, Powell CJ, Rahi J, Cumberland P, Tiffin P, Taylor R, Sloper J, Davis H, Dawson E, Clarke MP
BMC Ophthalmol 2012 Jan 18;12:1. doi: 10.1186/1471-2415-12-1. PMID: 22257496Free PMC Article
Piano M, O'Connor AR
Am Orthopt J 2011;61:103-16. doi: 10.3368/aoj.61.1.103. PMID: 21856878

Recent systematic reviews

Gnanaraj L, Richardson SR
Eye (Lond) 2005 Jun;19(6):617-21. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701617. PMID: 15359253
Richardson S, Gnanaraj L
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD003737. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003737. PMID: 12804487

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