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Retinal coloboma

MedGen UID:
761889
Concept ID:
C3540764
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Bilateral retinal coloboma; Coloboma of the retina
SNOMED CT: Coloboma of retina (204173008)
 
HPO: HP:0000480

Definition

A notch or cleft of the retina. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Retinal coloboma

Conditions with this feature

CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
Kapur-Toriello syndrome
MedGen UID:
208654
Concept ID:
C0796005
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare syndrome with characteristics of facial dysmorphism, severe intellectual deficiency, cardiac and intestinal anomalies, and growth retardation. Only four cases have been reported in the literature, in three unrelated families. Dysmorphic features include bilateral cleft lip and palate, bulbous nasal tip and eye anomalies. The condition seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Orofaciodigital syndrome IX
MedGen UID:
162908
Concept ID:
C0796102
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of highly arched palate with bifid tongue and bilateral supernumerary lower canines, hamartomatous tongue, multiple frenula, hypertelorism, telecanthus, strabismus, broad and/or bifid nasal tip, short stature, bifid hallux, forked metatarsal, poly and syndactyly, mild intellectual deficit and specific retinal abnormalities (bilateral optic disc coloboma and retinal dysplasia with partial detachment). Less than ten cases have been described in the literature. The causative gene has not yet been identified.
Duane-radial ray syndrome
MedGen UID:
301647
Concept ID:
C1623209
Disease or Syndrome
SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS, Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome (AROS), and SALL4-related Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) – three phenotypes previously thought to be distinct entities. DRRS is characterized by uni- or bilateral Duane anomaly and radial ray malformation that can include thenar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia or aplasia of the thumbs, hypoplasia or aplasia of the radii, shortening and radial deviation of the forearms, triphalangeal thumbs, and duplication of the thumb (preaxial polydactyly). AROS is characterized by radial ray malformations, renal abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, vesicoureteral reflux, bladder diverticula), ocular coloboma, and Duane anomaly. Rarely, pathogenic variants in SALL4 may cause clinically typical HOS (i.e., radial ray malformations and cardiac malformations without additional features).
MOMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
371897
Concept ID:
C1834759
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare genetic overgrowth/obesity syndrome with characteristics of macrocephaly, obesity, mental (intellectual) disability and ocular abnormalities. Other frequent clinical signs include macrosomia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, broad nasal root, high and broad forehead and delay in bone maturation, in association with normal thyroid function and karyotype.
CHIME syndrome
MedGen UID:
341214
Concept ID:
C1848392
Disease or Syndrome
CHIME syndrome, also known as Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder clinically characterized by colobomas, congenital heart defects, migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis, mental retardation, and ear anomalies (CHIME). Other clinical features include distinctive facial features, abnormal growth, genitourinary abnormalities, seizures, and feeding difficulties (summary by Ng et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Renal coloboma syndrome
MedGen UID:
339002
Concept ID:
C1852759
Disease or Syndrome
PAX2-related disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with renal and eye abnormalities. The disorder was originally referred to as renal coloboma syndrome and characterized by renal hypodysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve; with improved access to molecular testing, a wider range of phenotypes has been recognized in association with pathogenic variants in PAX2. Abnormal renal structure or function is noted in 92% of affected individuals and ophthalmologic abnormalities in 77% of affected individuals. Renal abnormalities can be clinically silent in rare individuals. In most individuals, clinically significant renal insufficiency / renal failure is reported. End-stage renal disease requiring renal transplant is not uncommon. Uric acid nephrolithiasis has been reported. Ophthalmologic abnormalities are typically described as optic nerve coloboma or dysplasia. Iris colobomas have not been reported in any individual with PAX2–related disorder. Ophthalmologic abnormalities may significantly impair vision in some individuals, while others have subtle changes only noted after detailed ophthalmologic examination. Additional clinical findings include high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, soft skin, and ligamentous laxity. PAX2 pathogenic variants have been identified in multiple sporadic and familial cases of nonsyndromic renal disease including renal hypodysplasia and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Joubert syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
347545
Concept ID:
C1857780
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Aortic arch interruption, facial palsy, and retinal coloboma
MedGen UID:
350733
Concept ID:
C1862681
Disease or Syndrome
Colobomatous microphthalmia - obesity - hypogenitalism - intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
400954
Concept ID:
C1866256
Disease or Syndrome
Colobomatous microphthalmia-obesity-hypogenitalism-intellectual disability syndrome is a rare, genetic, syndromic microphthalmia disorder characterized by bilateral, usually asymmetrical, microphthalmia associated typically with a unilateral coloboma, truncal obesity, borderline to mild intellectual disability, hypogenitalism and, more variably, nystagmus, cataracts and developmental delay.
Holoprosencephaly-radial heart renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
401047
Concept ID:
C1866649
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of holoprosencephaly, predominantly radial limb deficiency (absent thumbs, phocomelia), heart defects, kidney malformations and absence of gallbladder. It has been described in two families (with at least seven affected persons). Variable manifestations include vertebral anomalies, cleft lip/palate, microphthalmia, absent nose, dysplastic ears, hearing loss, colobomas of the iris and retina and/or bifid uvula. Inheritance is likely to be autosomal dominant with variable expressivity.
Oculoauricular syndrome
MedGen UID:
393758
Concept ID:
C2677500
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoauricular syndrome (OCACS) is characterized by complex ocular anomalies, including congenital cataract, anterior segment dysgenesis, iris coloboma, and early-onset retinal dystrophy, and dysplastic ears with abnormal external ear cartilage (summary by Gillespie et al., 2015).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Najm type
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Isolated microphthalmia 8
MedGen UID:
767438
Concept ID:
C3554524
Disease or Syndrome
Any isolated microphthalmia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ALDH1A3 gene.
Coloboma, ocular, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
860411
Concept ID:
C4011974
Disease or Syndrome
Coloboma is an ocular birth defect resulting from abnormal development of the eye during embryogenesis. It is defined as a congenital defect in any ocular tissue, typically presenting as absent tissue or a gap, at a site consistent with aberrant closure of the optic fissure. Failure of fusion can lead to coloboma of 1 or multiple regions of the inferior portion of the eye affecting any part of the globe traversed by the fissure, from the iris to the optic nerve, including the ciliary body, retina, and choroid. Coloboma is also frequently associated with small (microphthalmic) or absent (anophthalmic) eyes as part of an interrelated spectrum of developmental eye anomalies, and can affect either one or both eyes (summary by Kelberman et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ocular coloboma, see 120200.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 14 with polydactyly
MedGen UID:
901479
Concept ID:
C4225286
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
Tall stature-intellectual disability-renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
934682
Concept ID:
C4310715
Disease or Syndrome
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, mainly of height, and mildly delayed psychomotor development with mild or severe learning difficulties. More variable features may include congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and skeletal defects. Patients may have an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Akawi et al., 2016).
Orofaciodigital syndrome type 14
MedGen UID:
1635470
Concept ID:
C4706604
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of orofaciodigital syndrome, with autosomal recessive inheritance and C2CD3 mutations. The disease has characteristics of severe microcephaly, trigonocephaly, severe intellectual disability and micropenis, in addition to oral, facial and digital malformations (gingival frenulum, lingual hamartomas, cleft/lobulated tongue, cleft palate, telecanthus, up-slanting palpebral fissures, microretrognathia, postaxial polydactyly of hands and duplication of hallux). Corpus callosum agenesis and vermis hypoplasia with molar tooth sign on brain imaging are also associated.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cataracts, poor growth, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684661
Concept ID:
C5231414
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 2
MedGen UID:
1809253
Concept ID:
C5676931
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation-2 (CDDG2) is an autosomal recessive disorder with variable associated features such as dysmorphic facies, impaired intellectual development, and brain anomalies, including polymicrogyria, interhemispheric cysts, hypothalamic hamartoma, callosal anomalies, and hypoplasia of brainstem and cerebellar vermis (Maia et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital disorder of deglycosylation, see CDGG1 (615273).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Hanssens S, Coulon C, Avni F, Vaast P, Debarge V, Subtil D
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Jun;201:219-20. Epub 2016 Feb 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.02.019. PMID: 27016092

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Fiandrino G, Arossa A, Ghirardello S, Kalantari S, Rossi C, Bonasoni MP, Cesari S, Rizzuti T, Giorgio E, Bassanese F, Scatigno AL, Meroni A, Melito C, Feltri M, Longo S, Figar TA, Andorno A, Gelli MC, Bertozzi M, Spinillo A, Riccipetitoni G, Valente EM, Paulli M, Sirchia F
Placenta 2022 Aug;126:119-124. Epub 2022 Jun 30 doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2022.06.011. PMID: 35796063
Sen AC, Kohli GM, Mitra A, Tripathi S, Shetty SB, Gupta S
Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 Jan;68(1):91-98. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_405_19. PMID: 31856479Free PMC Article
Vivante A, Chacham OS, Shril S, Schreiber R, Mane SM, Pode-Shakked B, Soliman NA, Koneth I, Schiffer M, Anikster Y, Hildebrandt F
Pediatr Nephrol 2019 Sep;34(9):1607-1613. Epub 2019 Apr 17 doi: 10.1007/s00467-019-04256-0. PMID: 31001663Free PMC Article
Verloes A, Di Donato N, Masliah-Planchon J, Jongmans M, Abdul-Raman OA, Albrecht B, Allanson J, Brunner H, Bertola D, Chassaing N, David A, Devriendt K, Eftekhari P, Drouin-Garraud V, Faravelli F, Faivre L, Giuliano F, Guion Almeida L, Juncos J, Kempers M, Eker HK, Lacombe D, Lin A, Mancini G, Melis D, Lourenço CM, Siu VM, Morin G, Nezarati M, Nowaczyk MJ, Ramer JC, Osimani S, Philip N, Pierpont ME, Procaccio V, Roseli ZS, Rossi M, Rusu C, Sznajer Y, Templin L, Uliana V, Klaus M, Van Bon B, Van Ravenswaaij C, Wainer B, Fry AE, Rump A, Hoischen A, Drunat S, Rivière JB, Dobyns WB, Pilz DT
Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Mar;23(3):292-301. Epub 2014 Jul 23 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.95. PMID: 25052316Free PMC Article
Komoike Y, Matsuoka M, Kosaki K
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2013 Jun;98(3):222-9. Epub 2013 Apr 29 doi: 10.1002/bdrb.21057. PMID: 23630110

Diagnosis

Egloff C, Tassin M, Bault JP, Barjol A, Collin A, Simon I, Sibiude J, Mandelbrot L, Picone O
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2020 Sep;49(7):101746. Epub 2020 May 11 doi: 10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101746. PMID: 32438134
Sen AC, Kohli GM, Mitra A, Tripathi S, Shetty SB, Gupta S
Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 Jan;68(1):91-98. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_405_19. PMID: 31856479Free PMC Article
Schimmenti LA
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Chen RM, Lupski JR, Greenberg F, Lewis RA
Ophthalmology 1996 Jul;103(7):1084-91. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(96)30563-0. PMID: 8684798

Therapy

Vivante A, Chacham OS, Shril S, Schreiber R, Mane SM, Pode-Shakked B, Soliman NA, Koneth I, Schiffer M, Anikster Y, Hildebrandt F
Pediatr Nephrol 2019 Sep;34(9):1607-1613. Epub 2019 Apr 17 doi: 10.1007/s00467-019-04256-0. PMID: 31001663Free PMC Article
Komoike Y, Matsuoka M, Kosaki K
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2013 Jun;98(3):222-9. Epub 2013 Apr 29 doi: 10.1002/bdrb.21057. PMID: 23630110
Hesse L, Chofflet J, Le Mer Y
Ger J Ophthalmol 1993 Apr;2(2):116-8. PMID: 8485437

Prognosis

Fiandrino G, Arossa A, Ghirardello S, Kalantari S, Rossi C, Bonasoni MP, Cesari S, Rizzuti T, Giorgio E, Bassanese F, Scatigno AL, Meroni A, Melito C, Feltri M, Longo S, Figar TA, Andorno A, Gelli MC, Bertozzi M, Spinillo A, Riccipetitoni G, Valente EM, Paulli M, Sirchia F
Placenta 2022 Aug;126:119-124. Epub 2022 Jun 30 doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2022.06.011. PMID: 35796063
Kelberman D, Islam L, Lakowski J, Bacchelli C, Chanudet E, Lescai F, Patel A, Stupka E, Buck A, Wolf S, Beales PL, Jacques TS, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Liasis A, Lehmann OJ, Kohlhase J, Nischal KK, Sowden JC
Hum Mol Genet 2014 May 15;23(10):2511-26. Epub 2014 Jan 9 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt643. PMID: 24412933Free PMC Article
Chao R, Nevin L, Agarwal P, Riemer J, Bai X, Delaney A, Akana M, JimenezLopez N, Bardakjian T, Schneider A, Chassaing N, Schorderet DF, FitzPatrick D, Kwok PY, Ellgaard L, Gould DB, Zhang Y, Malicki J, Baier H, Slavotinek A
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Fahnehjelm KT, Jacobson L, Hellström A, Lewensohn-Fuchs I, Ygge J
Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2003 Aug;81(4):361-72. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0420.2003.00100.x. PMID: 12859263

Clinical prediction guides

Fiandrino G, Arossa A, Ghirardello S, Kalantari S, Rossi C, Bonasoni MP, Cesari S, Rizzuti T, Giorgio E, Bassanese F, Scatigno AL, Meroni A, Melito C, Feltri M, Longo S, Figar TA, Andorno A, Gelli MC, Bertozzi M, Spinillo A, Riccipetitoni G, Valente EM, Paulli M, Sirchia F
Placenta 2022 Aug;126:119-124. Epub 2022 Jun 30 doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2022.06.011. PMID: 35796063
Hay E, Henderson RH, Mansour S, Deshpande C, Jones R, Nutan S, Mankad K, Young RM, Moosajee M, Research Consortium GE, Arno G
Clin Genet 2020 Aug;98(2):191-197. doi: 10.1111/cge.13795. PMID: 32530092
Kelberman D, Islam L, Lakowski J, Bacchelli C, Chanudet E, Lescai F, Patel A, Stupka E, Buck A, Wolf S, Beales PL, Jacques TS, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Liasis A, Lehmann OJ, Kohlhase J, Nischal KK, Sowden JC
Hum Mol Genet 2014 May 15;23(10):2511-26. Epub 2014 Jan 9 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt643. PMID: 24412933Free PMC Article
Chao R, Nevin L, Agarwal P, Riemer J, Bai X, Delaney A, Akana M, JimenezLopez N, Bardakjian T, Schneider A, Chassaing N, Schorderet DF, FitzPatrick D, Kwok PY, Ellgaard L, Gould DB, Zhang Y, Malicki J, Baier H, Slavotinek A
PLoS One 2010 May 11;5(5):e10565. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010565. PMID: 20485507Free PMC Article
Chen RM, Lupski JR, Greenberg F, Lewis RA
Ophthalmology 1996 Jul;103(7):1084-91. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(96)30563-0. PMID: 8684798

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